Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00157
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: February 1980
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00157
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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February 11, 1980

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D. N. Maynard

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

R. F. Kasmire
Visiting Professor

R. K. Showalter


FROM: James Montelaro, Professor and Extension Vegetable Sp ialist




A. Watermelon Preliminary Report on Intended Acreage for 1980 Season
B. Vegetable Field Day Immokalee


A. Calcium Deficiency In Florida Cauliflower


A. Developing County Extension Vegetable Marketing Programs:
Product Temperature Management


Bird and Animal Pest Control in the Garden
Know Your Minor Vegetables Welsh Onion

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible please give credit to the authors.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide reerch,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.

James Montelaro



A. Watermelon Preliminary Report on Intended Acreage for 1980 Season

The Florida Crop & Livestock Reporting Service estimates that Florida
Growers will plant 47,000 acres of watermelon in 1980. Breakdown of acreage
distribution with comparisons for 1978 and 1979 are as follows:

Florida watermelon acreage intended to be planted, by areas, 1980 with comparison;
1978 1979 1980
Percent of
Areas Planted Harvested Planted Harvested Intended last year

West 9,500 5,000 5,000 3,000 4,800 96

North 34,000 31,000 31,000 27,500 28,000 90

Central 10,700 9,300 8,800 7,400 8,500 97

South 4,800 4,700 5,200 5,100 5,700 110

State 59,000 50,000 50,000 43,000 47,000 94

The acreage projected, even though lower than last year, may still
present problems in marketing, especially if transportation problems develop
again. Growers are advised not to use the projection to increase their own
acreage. It would be best to limit acreage and to use necessary inputs of
adequate fertilizer, lime, irrigation and pesticides to produce watermelons as
efficiently as possible.

B. Vegetable Field Day Immokalee

Dr. Paul Everett and Dr. Dave Dougherty have announced preliminary
plans for a Vegetable Field Day to be held at Immokalee. A program of items
to be discussed will follow at a later date. In the meantime, place the
following information on your calendar and make plans now to attend.

DATE: Wednesday, April 23, 1980
TIME: 1:00 pm to 4:00 pm
PLACE: Agricultural Research Center, Immokalee, Florida


A. Calcium Deficiency In Florida Cauliflower

Calcium deficiency has been identified on a number of Florida vegetable
crops; blossom-end rot in tomatoes, peppers, and watermelons is the most common.


From time to time, however, we see other calcium-related problems including
tipburn in lettuce and cabbage, blackheart of celery and brownheart of escarole.
Two recent additions are cavity spot of carrots and tipburn in cauliflower.
Cavity spot was discussed in the March 1978 issue of this Newsletter.

Tipburn in cauliflower was noted in two locations in Florida in the Fall
of 1979. The name is very descriptive of the symptoms exhibited by cauliflower
under calcium stress. New leaves (usually in the wrapper group) show marginal
necrosis (dead tissue) and a slight inward cupping. The affected leaves are
removed or topped at harvest so that appearance of the curd is not unattractive
in the market, but additional labor may be required for trimming. In severe
cases the curds may be watersoaked and subject to postharvest decay.

Calcium deficiency in cauliflower or other vegetable crops can be
prevented in most cases. If it does develop in a crop, it can be corrected or,
at least, lessened if proper measures are taken early enough. The factors
associated with calcium deficiency are complex and must be understood for tie
management of a good calcium nutrition program.

Calcium deficiency has been attributed by many plant scientists to
water imbalances in the soil. Most commonly, it is a deficiency of water bit
excess and flucuation in levels have been implicated. Exactly how water-related
stresses bring about calcium deficiency in plants has not been completely resolved.
Transport of calcium from plant roots to shoots is via the transpiration stream.
Therefore, calcium accumulates in the older, larger, rapidly transpiring leaves.
Furthermore, calcium is not readily redistributed from old to new tissue as is the
case with certain nutrient elements.

A second mechanism affecting calcium absorption by plant roots is
cation antagonism. Excessive concentrations of other cation, especially the
monavalent elements like potassium, sodium, and ammonium can retard the absorption
of calcium even in a calcium-saturated medium. For example, calcium deficiency
can develop from excess soluble salts in the limestone soils of Homestead even
though they are composed of 80% calcium carbonate.

Often a calcium deficiency is the result of nothing more than a simple
inadequate supply in the soil. Application of limestone two or three months
before planting can eliminate this problem.

Calcium deficiency can develop at almost any stage of development in plants.
Rapid flushes of growth cr leaching rains can result in a calcium deficiency in
the plant. Soluble calcium applied to the soil after a deficiency is noted may
or may not be absorbed by the crop in time to correct the problem. Foliar application
of soluble calcium compounds, in the chloride or nitrate form, is the surest and
quickest way to get results under these circumstances.

It is easier to avoid calcium deficiency problems than it is to correct
them in a growing crop. Following are some suggestions for management of a good
calcium nutrition program in vegetable crops:

1. Maintain an adequate supply of calcium in the soil. A pH of 6.0 to 6.5
is recommended for most vegetable crops.


2.. Use low saili index fertilizer sources.

3. Do not use excessive and wasteful amounts of fertilizer.

4. Use split applications of fertilizer.

5. Under conditions of poor nitrification, supply part of the nitrogen
in the nitrate form.

6. Avoid indiscriminate use of foliar fertilizers which can bring about
nutrient imbalances (including calcium) in an otherwise normal plant.

Briefly summarizing, calcium deficiency is not an uncommon problem in
vegetable production in Florida. It is a complex subject that requires the
best of skills in management of a good program to prevent or correct the problem
when it develops.



A. Developing County Extension Vegetable Marketing Programs:
Product Temperature Management

Temperature, The Most Important Factor:

Temperature is the single most important factor in the total postharvest
environment affecting quality of harvested produce and ornamentals. It directly
affects the rates of respiration (and the production of vital heat), ripening
(and the production of ethylene and other volatiles), moisture loss, development
and spread of decay-producing organisms and thus, overall produce deterioration.
Within the normal temperature range for produce, rates of many of these processes
increase two to three times with each 18F (100C) increase in product temperature.
Temperature also affects changes in the gas composition of the atmosphere (primarily
oxygen End carbon dioxide levels) because of its influence on respiration rates.
The effectiveness of applied ripening agents, modified atmospheres, packaging
materials, and sanitation practices used are influenced by temperature. In turn,
product temperature is influenced by ambient temperature, packaging materials,
shipping containers, container stacking patterns, and air movement. Temperature
management is thus the most important, most readily available, process for controlling
the postharvest environment. Proper temperature management is vital from harvesting
through consumption. It, therefore, requires the close attention of handlers in
all postharvest operations.

Good product temperature management begins at harvest. Therefore, county
Extension programs can be effective in helping growers and shippers right from
the start to provide effective product temperature management. Recognizing
undesirable temperature management practices is the first step. Some of the
important factors to consider are:

1. Delay From Harvesting To Cooling:

Prolonged delays at high ambient temperatures between harvesting and
cooling are a major cause of product quality loss. How long are "prolonged delays"


and how high are "high temperatures"? They vary with commodities, producing
districts, seasons, and climatic conditions. The effect of a long delay is
greatest at high ambient temperatures, low ambient relative humidity, and on
the more perishable commodities. For example: A two-hour delay after harvest
in cool, humid weather may only slightly reduce the market quality of strawberries,
but a comparable delay in warm, dry weather reduces quality substantially.
A six-hour delay for cool, early-morning harvested lettuce would not be noticeably
harmful, but a comparable delay with afternoon harvested lettuce on a relatively
warm day can cause serious deterioration.

The biological, chemical, and physical process involved in increase
product deterioration rates during prolonged delays from harvesting to cooling
are briefly as follows:

Respiration rates increase with product temperatures. If delays occur
at high temperatures, high respiration rates consume more of the stored products,
speeding up the ultimate death of plant cells. Ripening and softening rates
are increased. Sugars, so important to the flavor quality of many fruits and
sweet corn, are rapidly lost at high temperatures. With some fruits a delay of
two hours at 90F can cause as much deterioration as one day at 40F.

Decay causing organisms also develop faster at high ambient temperatures
often prevailing during delays prior to cooling. Longer delays enhance development
and increase loss.

Water loss from products can be substantial during long delays, especially
at high ambient temperatures. There is always a greater concentration of water
vapor in healthy plant tisses than in the ambient atmosphere, unless, of course,
the atmosphere is saturated. When this difference between the water vapor in plant
tissues and the surrounding atmosphere is great, a substantial amount of water
will be lost by the products, resulting in wilting and shriveling. At the same
relative humidity water loss is much greater at high temperatures.

A few commodities, such as head lettuce and cut flowers, are damaged by
relatively brief exposures to ethylene gas, a product of internal combustion
engines (e.g. trucks, forklifts) that are commonly used around holding areas where
prolonged delays may occur. Ethylene is also produced by many fruits and melons
in sufficient quantities to damage lettuce and flowers in the same room, truck, or
home refrigerator.

In summary prolonged delays can be damaging 10 most commodities, especially
when they occur at high temperatures and low ambient relative humidities. Shippers
and other handlers must be knowledgeable about the relative perishability of
each of their products during such delays. Much of this knowledge is gained
only from experience, because quantitative information is lacking for many
commodities. This suggests an area of needed research.

2. Time of day harvest:

Fruits and vegetables are coolest just before sunrise, and cooler in the
morning than in the afternoon. When possible, harvesting should be done in the
coolest part of the day or night. Cooling times should be adjusted to initial
product temperatures (before cooling). This results in shorter cooling cycles
for early harvested products and longer cooling of afternoon harvested products.
Better cooling and considerable savings can be realized from adjusting cooling


cycles to initial product temperatures. Another, little recognized, fact is
that early harvested fruits and vegetables are more turgid, firmer, and actually
larger than afternoon harvested products.

3. Coolingn methods used for different commodities:

Effective product temperature management starts with effective, thorough,
and uniform cooling to near desired transit or storage temperatures. When planning
for cooling facilities probably the most common question asked is "Which cooling
method should be used?" Methods used for precooling (cooling products before
loading in transit vehicles or before storage) are room cooling and modifications
(ceiling-jet cooling, bay-cooling) forced-air cooling, hydrocooling (cooling with
cold water) package-or-body-icing (putting ice inside shipping containers with
packed produce) vacuum-cooling and its modification called Hydro-Vac cooling.

The best cooling method for a given commodity depends upon the following
factors including; the relative perishability of the specific commodity to be
cooled and its ability to be safely cooled by any given cooling method. The
most perishable products require fast cooling methods like hydrocooling, package-icing,
vacuum cooling, or forced-air cooling. However, many highly perishable commodities
such as strawberries, grapes, some tree-fruits, vine-ripe tomatoes, summer squashes,
and cut flowers could be badly damaged by hydro-cooling or by contact with
package-ice. Therefore, these commodities are best cooled by forced-air cooling,
as are all fruit-type vegetables (peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, squashes, melons,
okra) roots, tubers, and bulbs cooled and stored in bulk, and for bulk cabbage
and celo-wrapped cauliflower.

a. Hydro-cooling rapidly cools commodities not damaged by the force of
the water showering down on them. It is effectively used for cooling sweet corn,
celery, carrots, asparagus, cantaloupes, and some tree fruits. Hydrocooling causes
physical damage to leafy vegetables and some tree fruits unless the height that
the water Falls onto the product is 6 inches or less.

b. Package-icing (and liquid-icing) are limited to those commodities
requiring fast cooling and that can tolerate direct contact with ice. They are
commonly used for cooling sweet corn, carrots, broccoli, brussels sprouts,
and to some extent, cantaloupes. Important problems with package-icing are
the higher cost of water-tolerant shipping containers (wood crates or wax-treated
cartons) and the reduced net product weight that can be hauled (because of the
weight cf the package-ice) in truck shipments.

c. Vacuum-cooling and Hydro-Vac cooling are used primarily for cooling
commodities with a large surface-to-weight ratio (e.g. lettuce, celery, cabbage,
spinach and cauliflower) and for cooling some sweet corn. Some water loss occurs
during vacuum cooling (about 1% of the product's weight for every 10 to 110F
cooled). Vacuum cooling is also used to partially cool bell (sweet) peppers,
but primarily to dry the cut stems which prevents, or reduces, stem-end decay.
Hydro-Vac cooling prevents water loss during vacuum cooling, but requires use of
more costly water-tolerant shipping containers.

d. Room-cooling and modifications of it are older, conventional cooling
methods that are still used. Cooling rates are slow and cooling is quite variable.
Too often product temperatures measured in top layer or exposed stacks (to the room's


cold air) containers are interpreted as being average temperatures for loads in
rooms. Such is rarely true. When first introduced, room cooling was considered
the "ultimate cooling method", and it probably was. However, with the development
of faster, more effective cooling methods now commonly used commercially, room cooling
is obsolete for many, if not most, commodities. Many room coolers can be
modified for forced-air cooling.

e. Forced-air cooling involves cooling with air forced or pulled through
packed shipping containers by creating a difference in air pressure across the
containers. Conventional cold rooms can be modified readily for forced-air cooling.
This method is adaptable to cooling all commodities but less so for leafy vegetables.

Cold storage rooms are an essential part of any cooling facility with
every cooling method used. They aid in product temperature management by permitting
products to be cooled shortly after harvest and then stored at optimum temperatures
while awaiting shipment to markets. Recognition of the importance of cold
storage rooms as part of cooling facilities is demonstrated by the construction
of cold rooms adjacent to, or in conjunction with, hydrocoolers, vacuum coolers,
and package-icing facilities.

Check the cooling methods used for various commodities. Are they the
best methods to use? Is product damage occurring? Are the products being adequately

4. Thoroughness and uniformity of cooling:

This is often a major problem in precooling operations. Too often
operators take for granted that cooling is standard, i.e. that products are
always cooled to the same post-cooling temperature range. This doesn't happen
unless cooling operations are closely monitored and coolers are carefully maintained
and operated. During the past two months I have visited numerous produce cooling
operations in Florida vegetable growing areas. Here are shortcomings that I

Vacuum cooling: Product temperatures were measured after cooling at only
two coolers. (How do the operators know how effectively they are cooling products
if they don't measure after-cooling temperatures?) Absolute pressure gauges
were used at only three coolers. These gauges provide the best measure of the
air temperature inside a vacuum tube. At most coolers product temperature during
cooling was determined with an electrical resistance thermometer inserted into a
product unit. This method can be misleading if the probe is roughly inserted
into the product, causing wetting of the problem and resulting in rapid evaporation
of moisture from the probe (wet-bulb effect) during evacuation of the vacuum tube.
This results in a lower than actual reading of the product temperature.

Hydrocooling: Considerable product temperature variability was observed
at the outlet end of tunnel-type hydrocoolers. The variability was caused by
plugging of holes in the overhead shower pan, or plugged nozzles. Cold water
must shower down uniformly over all the product for hydrocooling to be effective.
This problem can be corrected with daily cleaning of all debris in shower pans
and nozzles. Most hydrocoolers only were cleaned every 7 to 10 days. This is
courting a decay problem and exposes shippers to marketing losses during transit
and distribution.


2A few hydrocoolers had inadequate water circulation rates (less than 15
gpm/ft of cooler shower pan area). The water temperature of several coolers
was above the final product temperature desired. It is impossible to hydrocool
products to temperatures lower than than of the cooling water.

Room-cooling: Air temperatures in most rooms were too high, and in some
were unknown because thermometers were not present. In-and-out traffic, especially
with gas-powered lift trucks, adds a lot of heat to cold rooms. Room air temperatures
need to be low enough to compensate for this additional heat. Product stacking
in some rooms was so tight that any additional cooling sought in the cold room
was virtually precluded.

Packaging material barriers: Not enough extra cooling time was used to
adequately cool prepackaged products at some coolers. Packaging materials are
barriers around products that interfere with all methods of cooling. The amount
of interference increases directly with the amount, tightness, and thickness of
the packaging materials used. It is easier to cool naked, unwrapped or non-packaged
product than wrapped or packaged produce. You can see the difference by measuring
after-cooling temperatures of comparable products that are naked vs. wrapped or
packaged. Here are some examples of the effects of packaging materials on
cooling rates obtained in tests in commercial cooling facilities: Forced-air
cooled sleeve-wrapped celery required 7 times longer to cool than naked celery.
The cooling time for Honey Dew melons was 5.5 times longer with non-slotted
dividers in cartons than with slotted dividers. Iceberg lettuce wrapped in
non-perforated film had 20F higher temperatures than naked lettuce after vacuum

County Agents can help improve product temperature management operations
by knowing cooling requirements and recognizing potential problems. To do so,
you will need an accurate pulp thermometer to measure temperatures and you will
need to use it correctly. A good bimetalic probe thermometer with an easy-to-read
dial that can be calibrated costs from $10 to $20. Rapid reading, electronic
thermometers are needed if you plan to conduct extensive product temperature
studies but they are more expensive (present price is about $100 to $300). There
are many makes and models. Shop around before you buy one.

In summary, County Agents can help their vegetable industries by knowing product
temperature management needs and problems, studying them, and demonstrating the
value of better management.


A. Bird and Animal Pest Control in the Garden

Insect and disease pests are not the only unwelcome visitors in many
home vegetable gardens around the state. Birds, field mice, moles, rabbits,
racoons, deer and other animals can be a problem in the garden from time to time.

There are several techniques and devices that offer some degree of
relief from the ravages of these large pest forms. The particular method of
control selected will depend on the size and location of the garden plot, and the
kinds of animal pests to be controlled. Here are a number of control devices that
gardeners might consider for their own use:


a. Poultry-wire fence When placed around the garden, such a fence
becomes an effective barrier against rabbits, chickens, dogs and larger animals.
Make sure the wire-holes are sufficiently small to keep out small rabbits.

b. Hog-wire fence (also chain link) This type fencing is an excellent
barrier to children, chickens, dogs, horses, cattle and other large animals.

c. Electric fence These single or double wire fences are easy to
install. A single strand of wire is connected to a 12-volt rechargeable battery
and passed through insulators mounted at every support post. A single wire strung
about six inches above the ground will keep out racoons. For larger animals,
an additional wire placed another eighteen inches above this will suffice. Electric
fencing kits are available at many farm and garden supply stores. The electric
fence is safe to use around children due to the relatively low electrical charge
of the system.

d. Bird netting Cheesecloth and netting is manufactured and sold
specifically for keeping birds away from such crops as strawberries. Such
netting is perhaps the best bird control method available, but is difficult to
use over the entire garden. Rabbits and other pests may also be deterred by
such netting.

e. Scarecrows and similar devices Scarecrows are constructed by
gardeners in any number of conceivable shapes and styles. Most are man-like,
but others utilize flashy, clattering handing ornaments to scare birds. Some
gardeners claim them to be quite effective, while others say scarecrows are
merely symbolic. Mock owls and inflatable snakes are championed by some as
certain ways to keep birds scared away.

f. Repellents A variety of repellents are marketed through gardening
magazines, catalogs and supply stores. Each usually specific for an individual
pest. Also, there are many home-made repellents advocated by gardeners. In
general, most repellents are questionable in effectiveness, except for those which
are applied directly to seeds to repel birds and mice. However, a horticultural
researcher in Alabama has just reported an effective repellent for keeping deer
and rabbits out of the garden or away from fruit trees. He suggests hanging a
nylon or dacron bag containing about 6 ounces of human hair at intervals around
the garden. For deer, hang a bag every 20 feet, or even as close as one bag in
each fruit tree. For rabbits, closer spacing is suggested. Hang a bag 6 inches
off the ground at 5 to 10 feet intervals. The hair repellents have been shown to
work under heavy deer and rabbit infestations for over one year.

g. Poisonous baits Poison peanuts and other food items laced with
poisons give only fair to poor results with such rodents as moles and rats.
They are somewhat dangerous to use as larger animals, pets and children sometimes
get to them by mistake. For this reason, extreme caution should go along with
any use made of them.

h. Insecticides Although not a direct method for controlling animal
pests, insecticides may be used to control the insects that some animals feed
upon. For example, moles make tunnels below the roots of vegetables in search
of insects like wireworms and white grubs which feed on the vegetable roots.
Controlling these soil-inhabitating insects reduces the activity of the moles in
the garden.



i. Noise devices Primarily used for bird control, these devices
produce a loudinoise boom) at timed intervals. Most of these work by electronic
or compressed air means. Typically, these devices are used by commercial growers
since home gardeners run the risk of violating local noise ordinances or
irritating neighbors.

j. Distress calls These are the taped cries of animals or birds in
distress or trouble. Gardeners may purchase such tapes and play them continuously
to discourage similar birds or animals from entering the garden. Such devices
are of doubtful value.

k. Shooting When animals become a special nuisance, particularly in
larger rural gardens, owners may have to resort to shooting or trapping. A
BB gun or other small caliber rodent gun is effective but gardeners should be
familiar with all the local rules and ordinances governing this approach before
using a firearm for this purpose.

1. Trapping Traps offer the best means of control for moles, and
have some usefulness for other animals, such as racoons. The mole traps with
the wire loop snares are particularly effective when used as directed. The
steel spiking devices are also useful. The steel trap with spring-loaded jaws
has caught many a-coon in past years, and still is one of the most effective
ways to catching these corn-stealers. However, this method is dangerous and
should be used only by the most experienced, cautious gardeners who can control
conditions sufficiently to prevent children, pets, and others from being injured.

B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Welsh Onion

The Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum) is also known as spring onion,
ciboule (French), Zwiebel (German), Negi, Chibol, sybie, sybow, and stone leek.
The word "Welsh" is a corruption of the German "Walsch" meaning "foreign" and
has no reference to Wales. The onion originated in Siberia, and is very popular
in the East where it is known as Japanese leek. A variety of this is referred
to as Japanese bunching onion or Nebuka. There is also a Perennial Welsh onion
(A. lusitanicum).. The ordinary type may be propagated from seeds as well as
root divisions, while the perennial produces no seeds.

The leaves of Welsh onion are almost circular in cross section (round)
and are hollow and inflated the entire length of 6-20 inches. The flower stalk
(scape) is also hollow. The plant has only slightly enlarged bulbs which are
very long and are covered with dry membraneous, onion-like scales for some
distance above ground. The color ranges from white to pink. The black, angular
seeds are similar to regular onion seeds.

Welsh onion is hardy to frost, but will not withstand a severe freeze.
Varieties that are adapted to northern areas lose their leaves during the winter
months. The crop may be grown under a broad range of soil moisture conditions.
While the Welsh onion is not a popular Florida vegetable garden item, it appears
likely that it would grow and produce well in all areas of the state.

When to plant Plant in the fall, winter, or spring.



How to Plant Plant by seeds, or division (transplants). Plants
multiply by producing side shoots which can be divided and reset.

Spacing Set the divisions or sow the seeds in rows one foot apart.
Space plants six inches apart in the row (by thinning or initial setting).
Use a mulch for weed control.

Harvesting The thick leaves and leaf bases may be harvested as an
entire plant (pulled like a green onion as early as when three to four inches
high), or leaf portions may be snipped off as needed for flavoring. If pulled
as a green onion, 4 to 5 months are required from seeding to harvesting.

Uses Welsh onions may be used as a green onion. The whole plant can
be eaten as a leek. Parts of the leaves and leaf bases may be used in a
variety of ways. The protein content of the leaf is 1.2-1.9%.

Seed availability Seeds are listed in some major catalogs as Evergreen
bunching (Nebuka) or Japanese bunching.

Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $182,35 or 4
per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and'educational material
to extension, research and industry personnel.

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