Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: January 1980
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00156
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIlDA


January 8, 1980

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D. N. Maynard
Chairman


R. F. Kasmire
Visiting Professor

R. K. Showalter
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

James Montelaro
Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: James Montelaro, Professor and Extension Vegetable Specialist./

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 80-1

IN THIS ISSUE

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


New Slide set on Vegetable Gardening
New Publication on Vegetable Gardening
A Cucumber Variety Trial


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Micronutrient Use in Vegetable Production

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Developing County Extension Vegetable Marketing Programs:
Rough Handling as a Cause of Product Market Quality Loss

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING


Fluid Drilling of Pre-Germinated Seeds
Know Your Minor Vegetables Water Celery


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
possible please give credit to the authors.


1,,enever


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T n I nsti'u J" of Food anld Agricultu;al S n;p ces is an Eq ual Emplyri/n),/n- Opro nitn v Affirrnal iv ActioW Employtr a:u horii' r t In tO, tu1 i:: i ich,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions thait nationn without regard to rac:, color, sex,or nioninal oriiin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECOKiMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UMVEH;ITY r OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPEHIA ii; !


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


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THE VEGETARIAN IJEWLET'I LER


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New slide set on Vegetable Gardening

By now all counties should have received the slide set and cassette
tape entitled "You can Grow Vegetables. Part 1. "Soil Preparation and Liming".
This is the first of a five-part series on Florida vegetable gardening. It is
the result of a cooperative effort between the Editorial and Vegetable Crops
Departments, and goes to you courtesy of the Rhom and Haas Company. Hopefully,
you will find the set useful in your county educational programs.

(Stephens)

B. New Publication on Vegetable Gardening

Also by now you have received the new Circular 463, "Grow a Row of
Vegetables in Florida". This is an informational jacket containing eleven
individual crop leaflets. The circular was developed for use with limited
resource families that might exist in your county. However, feel free to use
it whole or in part wherever there is a need. Copies of the leaflets without
the jacket are available from the IFAS Publications Distribution Center,
Bldg. 644, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

(Stephens)

C. A Cucumber Variety Trial

Growers interested in a Fall cucumber variety trial can get a copy
of the results by requesting Research Report CF-80-2 from the author, Dr.
J. M. White, AREC Sanford, Florida or from this office. Among the top were
four named varieties. 1) Raider, 2) Sprint 440S, 3) Sprint S, and 4) Poinsett
76 with yields of 420, 370, 313, and 311 bushels of fancy cukes per acre
respectively.

(Montelaro)


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Micronutrient Use in Vegetable Production

One of the most mismanaged practices in vegetable crop production in
Florida is in the use of micronutrients. Not only is cost increased in many
cases, but yield and quality are reduced as well. A thorough understanding of
the behavior of the micronutrients in both the soil and plant is necessary in
order to avoid costly mistakes. Following is a brief summary of factors affecting
availability, crop requirements, diagnosis of deficiencies, and application of
micronutrients to vegetable crops.

I. Micronutrients (minor elements) the group includes iron, manganese,
zinc, copper, boron and molybdenum.


II. Factors Affecting Availability of Micronutrients




Il. VL.UJ2i.LL%. i iL MN nIA.waLL.Lc J V


A. Total Supply Many virgin soils in Florida are deficient or almost
completely lacking in one or more of the micronutrients. Boron is quite often
deficient in sandy soils. New mucks need a rather heavy application of copper
before they can be made to produce economically and the marls require manganese
and zinc even after years of cultivation.
B. Soil pH Iron, manganese, zinc, copper and boron are more available
at low pH and become less available as the pH increases. The reverse is true of
molybdenum. This may be presented graphically as follows:


pH and Availability G A
Group A Group B
Iron Molybdenum
5 Manganese
Zinc
- 4 Copper
\Boron
S3 A B

H< 2

1

4 5 6 7 8


Soil pH



C. Leaching Heavy rains may leach the "available form" of some of
the micronutrients. Boron is "quite soluble" and may be depleted from the soil
reserve. With most of the micronutrients, as the available forms are used up
or leached, more becomes available in time from the reserve supply of insoluble
forms.
D. Balance with Other Elements Balance (ratio of one element to
another) between the various elements in the soil is also important. Heavy
applications of one element, including the majors and secondaries, may cause a
deficiency of another element. On the old celery soils of Sanford, Florida,
fungicide applications over many years resulted in an excess of copper. This,
in turn, causes an imbalance that shows up as an iron deficiency in some vegetable
crops.
E. Aeration The supply of air (degree of aeration) in the soil may,
under certain conditions, affect the supply of available forms of the essential
elements. Plant roots require oxygen to carry on their life processes, including
absorption of plant nutrients. Generally speaking, a soil well-supplied with
air is best for nutrient availability and root growth.
F. Soil IIoisture Availability of micronutrients may be affected at
both, low and high extremes of soil moisture. Dry soil supplies considerable
less boron than a similar soil at good moisture levels. Under water-lcgeL
conditions, microorganism activity is curtailed, aeration is reduced and conditions
are set up to cause some elements to revert to toxic forms. Soil moisture levels
which are judged best for plant growth are, also, best for nutrient availability.




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G. Soil Temperature Temperatuie of a soil affects availability of
micronutrients in a roundabout way by influencing microorganism activity and
root growth.

III. Requirements for Micronutrients

Crops and even varieties and strains within a crop vary considerably
in their requirements for individual micronutrients. The following table shows
that green beans have a low requirement for iron but a high requirement for
manganese. The reverse is true for spinach. Relative requirements for three of
the micronutrients for several crops are as follows:

Micronutrient Requirements

Low Medium High
BORON Green Beans Tomatoes Cabbage
IRON Green Beans Tomatoes Spinach
MANGANESE Spinach Tomatoes Green Beans

IV. Disorders and Symptoms Caused by Micronutrient Deficiencies in Plants

All plants do not show the same symptoms to a deficiency of any one of
the micronutrients. Micronutrient deficiencies may be confused with virus
diseases, cold, heat, or wind injury and many other plant disorders.
In many cases, a deficiency of one micronutrient would be Qsomewhat
similar to toxic ty from another micronutrient. With experience, a grower can
learn to identifyy a developing d~ificincy condition in time to correct the
conditic: The following are some symptoms and diseases cau:;cd by deficiencies
of the mi::ronutrients:
Iron -- yellowing of the new growth. In some cases, only a branch or
few branches of a plant may show symptoms.
Zinc -- new leaves abnormally small, mottled or uniformly yellow, dead
areas common. Example--white bud in corn.
Boron-- new bud light in color, brittle and deformed. Internodes short
showing rosetting. Roots retarded, dark. Example--hollow stem in cabbage.
Copper -- symptoms not so pronounced. Leaves yellow and entire plant
greatly retarded.
Manganese -- yellowing appears first between veins of leaves. Veins
remain green. Tissue may die.
Molybdenum -- affects growing points. Example--whiptail of cauliflower.

V. Diagnosis of Micronutrient Deficiencies

Being able to anticipate problems in micronutrient nutrition, and also
being able to diagnose a micronutrient imbalance in growing crops are extremely
important. There are a number of factors, which if considered carefully, will
help a grower with those two aspects in a micronutrient fertilization progra;ii.

A. Visual Symptoms When a crop shows visual symptoms of a micronutrient
deficiency, the potential yield of that crop has already been reduced. Nevertheless,
if the condition is diagnosed and corrected in time, such a crop may still produce
economical yields. A grower, with careful observation and experience, can learn
to recognize many micronutrient imbalances on the crops he grows.




THE VEGETARIAN II:WSLETTER

-5-
B. Soil and pH By learning the characteristics of their soil and
knowing the relationship of pH to miicronutrient availability, a grower can
often prevent the development of micronuLrient problems.
C. Crops and Variety Many crops, and even varieties within crops,
vary in their requirement for micronutrients. A micronutrient fertilization
program should be adjusted to the crop grown.
D. Fungicide Program Many present-day organic fungicides contain a
micronutrient which may serve, not only to help control diseases, but in nutrition
as well. The anticipated disease control program for a specific crop should be
taken into consideration when planning a micronutrient fertilization program for
that crop. Fungicides supplying micronutrients are:
Zineb--zine
Maneb--manganese (plus zinc)
Basic Coppers--copper
Ferbam--iron
A potato or cabbage grower planning to use maneb may supply all of
the manganese needed by those crops through the use of this fungicide.
E. Fertilizer Program The amount and kind of fertilizers affect
availability of micronutrients as well as need for micronutrients by plants.
High rates of phosphorus tend to depress the uptake of iron. An acid forming
fertilizer tends to increase availability of zinc, manganese, and other micro-
nutrients. The reverse should be true for base-forming fertilizer.
F. Weather Environmental factors, especially temperatures affect
micronutrient availability. Soil moisture and temperature affect the speed
of chemical reaction in soil, speed of organic matter breakdown and even absorption
rates by plants. Plants may not be able to absorb sufficient boron from a dry
soil even though this would not be true if the soil moisture was adequate.
G. Use of Chemical Tests A chemical analysis of a soil to determine
the capacity of that soil to supply micronutrients is time consuming, expensive,
and almost worthless without sufficient experience and testing with the crop,
the soil, and the area involved. However, periodic testing (once every 3 or 4
years) to note change in amount and ratio of the micronutrients can be valuable.
Leaf tissue analysis offers considerable promise, but require experience,
good lab facilities, and know-how and experience with the specific crop in an area.
H. Grower Trials in the Field A grower has an opportunity to teach
himself on many occasions. When spraying micronutrients, leave one or two rows
out to see whether or not obvious results are obtained.

VI. Supplying Micronutrients to Crops

A. Soil Management By properly managing a soil, a grower can produce
high yields and quality without excessive cost or trouble.
1. Test soils and apply the right kind and right amount of lime.
2. Use fertilizers with common sense. Avoid over-fertilization with
any elements.
3. Keep a good cover crop on the land when not in use.
4. Use good irrigation and drainage practices.
5. Maintain good soil tilth and avoid compaction.
B. Soil Applications When needed, apply micronutrients in fertilizer
or lime. They may be supplied as inorganic chemical salts, chelates and glass
frits. Do not use excessive amounts.
C. Foliar Feeding The micronutrients, when needed, can be supplied
very economically to plants through the use of foliar sprays or dusts. However,
the use of foliar sprays to supply the major elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium)
is gener lly not a practice t:o be recomm;nnded.
Micronmutrients can be supplied to the leaves of plants in the ol-rm oi
inorganic chemical salts, chelates, and fuui_.icides.
(Montelaro)




THE VEGETARIAN 1I1-]JS'LI'L'TER

-6-
III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Developing County Extension Vegetable Marketing Programs:
Rough Ilandling as a Cause of Product Market Quality Loss

Rough handling is probably the most common cause of damage to fresh
market fruits and vegetables, and the easiest to correct. Most damage causing
marketing losses occurs in harvesting and packing house operations in producing
areas. Therefore, elimination of rough handling caused losses is adaptable to
county Extension programs.
Rough handling causes mechanical damage, e.g. bruises, crushing, cuts,
scratches, punctures, and abrasions that provides entrance for decay-causing
pathogens which ordinarily do not infect fruits and vegetables. Huchanical
damage, caused by rough handling, also causes increased water loss, shrivel,
product respiration and ethylene production rates, which enhance senescence.

Types of rough handling include throwing, dropping, tumbling, rubbing,
(against rough or sharp fixed surfaces, or other product units), crushing, and
crowding (e.g. in overpacking). Cracking and splitting are more extensive in
early morning harvested vegetables that are more turgid than those harvested
later in the day. Water loss through abraded surface areas is greater in the
afternoon when there is a greater difference between the vapor pressure in the
ambient atmosphere and that inside the products.

Most rough handling probably occurs because producers, packers, and
shippers do not understand the deteriorating effects of such handling on the
products. Obvious damage such as cracked, split, severely punctured, or
crushed products can be detected and culled during grading. However, the
effects of bruising, abrasion, and crowding (in overpacking) require additional
time for the resulting damage to become apparent; this occurs during transit
and market distribution. Thus, the discrepancy between damage observed by
wholesalers and retailers vs. that observed by growers and shippers is a common
factor in many perishables claims involving marketing losses.

Excessive haste in operations causes lots of damage to products.
Reducing the cost of operations is the most common reason (excuse) offered for
hurried operations. This is understandable but the value of the faster handling
is lost when the marketing losses exceed the amount of the reduced handling
costs. Speed in handling is essential in many operations if they are to be
completed on time, but excessive speed tends to result in careless handling
and damages products. I believe that one reason much hurried, careless handling
continues to occur is the lack of communication between destination market
handlers, who see the damaged products resulting from such handling, and the
supervisors responsible for the operation causing the damage.

Eliminating rough h.andling provides a greater packout of marketable
product. Higher quality products at the market place command higher prices,
return greater profits, and provide a better reputation in markets (i.e. products
with which minimum marketing losses are experienced generally enjoy a favorable
reputation in markets they sell when others won't).

County agents can help reduce rough handling damage, and losses, through
the following steps:

1. ,elrn to recognize rough handling. No fruit or vegetable can be
uconsider>id as a "hardware" item, although some are treated as such by the: fr..,l t
produce tr'dde. All fruits and v',-,_,tables are susceptible to mechanical damage
caused by rough handling.




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


2. Study operations or handling steps that you believe are
damaging. Compare products (from same lot, of course) that are subjected
to the particular operation (treated) with those not subjected to it (control),
a control is essential for the comparison. Replicate the comparisons with
comparable products from the same lot i.e. compare products of equal size,
shape, maturity, and time of harvest. After collecting your treated and control
samples store them at a simulated transit temperature (e.g. 50F) for a few
days, followed by two days storage at room temperature. This will allow the
necessary time for the damage to manifest itself, and appear as destination
market handlers might see it.

3. Examine and rate the products for damage. You can use a simple
rating by separating product units into those that are undamaged or only slightly
damaged, moderately damaged (these would still be acceptable to some consumers
but not to others) and severely damaged (unmarketable only because of the damage).

The following rating scale requires more judgment but can provide
more meaningful information from a study: 1 = no damage; 3 = slight but not
objectionable damage; 5 = moderate damage, requiring trimming (e.g. of lettuce
or celery) or price reduction to sell; 7 = severe damage, (unsaleable, but
undamaged parts of a fruit or vegetable would still be edible); 9 = extreme
damage (completely unusable). Assigning a numerical value to each damage
category helps you to statistically analyze the results and make them more
valuable to your cooperators. Take pictures of representable samples of each
type and degree of damage.

4. Show the results to your cooperators. Give them a written progress
report of your study and its results.

5. If the damage problem is a common one in your county, conduct a
demonstration of its effects. It is best if you can suggest an alternative,
better way to handle the product. But even if you don't, the growers or shippers
will be made more aware of the problem and may develop their own solutions.

6. Prepare a newsletter article on the study.

Rough handling damage is one of the most common causes of marketing
losses. It is also a cause that we can help to eliminate through effective county
Extension programs.

(Kasmire)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Fluid Drilling of Pre-Germinated Seeds

Gardeners who are looking for new ways to improve their gardening
success should be interested in a new concept for sowing vegetable seeds called
Fluid Drilling of Pre-Germinated Seeds.

The idea was first conceived in England and is based on the old
grower practice of first soaking seeds to start them sprouting before planting.
However, Fluid Drilling goes further than pre-soaking (sprouting) seeds. Fluid
Drilling involves (1) germinating seeds under controlled, optimum conditions,
(2) sel.ectiing the best sproitited ; -Is anLd mnixin- themI wEth c protect V V :;i ,
and (3) dispersing the gel containing the gerii-nated seeds into the see, furrow.




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


While the procedure does require more steps than simply sowing dry
ungerminated seeds, the extra effort pays off in many instances due to the
many advantages which have been demonstrated for the procedure. Researchers
in Florida have shown that fluid drilling of pre-germinated seeds results in
earlier emergence, a better stand and more uniform production.

Dr. H. IH. Bryan, et al., F.S.H.S. Proc. 91:88-90. 1978, reported the
following steps for pre-germinatLirn several kinds of vegetable seeds tomato,
lettuce, cucumber, cabbage, okra, corn, squash, broccoli, and turnips.

First, obtain the equipment needed, which are: (1) clear plastic box
with sides 2 to 3 inches high or about the size of a shoe box; (2) absorbent
paper tissues; (3) wet-strength paper towels; (4) clean low pressure water source;
(5) mist sprinkler; (6) clear cover for the box (may be plastic bag); (7) nylon
strainer; (8) gel powder; (9) measuring spoon; (10) stirring spoon; (11) gel
dispensing device such as cake-icing syringe or plastic bag with corner clipped
off; and (12) scissors.

Then proceed as follows:

1. Line the bottom of the plastic box with several layers of unmedicated
absorbent paper, then cover with a single layer of wet-strength paper towel.

2. Add water slowly to the paper until it is wet through. Hold paper
in place while pouring off excess.

3. Distribute seeds (one kind) evenly in a single layer on the paper
and sprinkle water over the seeds.

4. Place the lid on the box or cover the box with plastic film. Put
the box in a warm place (65-72 F) but not in direct sunlight. Most seeds can
be germinated in the dark.

5. Look at the seeds every day to see if they have germinated. Some
kinds of seeds germinate quickly while other take longer. Do not allow roots
on small seeds to grow more than 3/16 inch or more than 3/8 inch on large seeds
before planting.

6. When most of the seeds have germinated, they may be mixed in gel
and planted. If it is not convenient to plant right away, the box of sprouted
seeds may be placed in the refrigerator for a few days, but not frozen.

7. Now prepare to mix the seeds with gel by first discarding the
ungerminated seeds and carefully washing the geminated seeds off the paper
into the strainer. Do not handle the delicate germinated seeds with the finger.

8. Sprinkle a level teaspoonful of gel powder into a cup of tap water
while stirring rapidly. Continue to stir for I 2 minutes then let stand for
10-15 minutes. Mix about half the seeds in 1/2 of the gel with a finger or
stirrer, then add the rest of the seeds to the gel and stir in carefully until
all are well distributed throughout the gel. If seeds sink, the gel needs to
be thicker. Do not store the seed-gel mixture overnight.


9. Transfer the mixture to the dispenser (syringe or plastic bag).




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


10. Extrude the seed gel into the seed furrow in a continuous bead
just thick enough to provide the desired amount of seeds per foot of row. Cover
with soil and water as usual for freshly sown seeds.

11. Since this is a new technique, proceed with caution. Experiment
with less expensive seeds rather than more expensive hybrid seed.

*Note: Several gels are suitable for fluid drilling. Cellulose wallpaper
paste (without fungicide) mixed at 1/2 strength has been suggested.

(Stephens)
B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Water Celery

A report on water celery, (Oenanthe javanica D.C.) or (0. stolonifera Wall.),
was made by Morton and Snyder in F.S.H.S. Proc. 91:301-305. 1978. This is a
shortened version of that report.

Water celery is also known as water dropwort; in Japanese as "seri",
in Chinese as "sui-kan"; in Thai as "pak chi lawm"; in Malay as "shelum"; and
New Guinea as "damoe".

It is a perennial herb with creeping stolons and long, threadlike, white
rootlets. The erect, slender, hollow green stems range from 4 inches to 5
feet high. The deep green leaves, having an odor like carrot tops, are celery-
like in shape and size. Tiny white fragrant flowers form in compound umbels of
10 to 25 blooms.

Where Grown


pools,
India,
places


The plant grows wild in freshwater marshes, swampy fields, along ditches,
canals, and streams in many oriental areas of the world such as Malay,
Thailand, China, Japan, and New Guinea. It is cultivated in many of these
and in Hawaii.


In Florida


It has been grown in Florida only experimentally. In a test planting at
Belle Glade in December 1977, sprigs were set out 9 inches apart in a concrete
tank of flooded muck soil. It withstood temperatures as low as 310F and by
March had spread over a large area of the tank. Several cuttings of leafy stalks
were made periodically every 2 or 3 weeks. The flavor and tenderness were
acceptable to Oriental customers trying the water celery. There was a tendency
for the planting to become densely matted after several cuttings indicating a need
to remove shoot roots along with the tops. Almost no pests were observed on
the test plantings.

Use

The tops are eaten raw in salads or as a garnish like parsley. The
young stems and leaves are also eaten raw or steamed with rice, or boiled and
chopped as greens. Obviously, there are many oriental recipes which include this
vegetable.


(St v:phens)




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