Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: October 1979
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00153
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
IFAS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


October 5, 1979

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D. N. Maynard
Chairman


R. D. William
Assistant Professor

R. K. Showalter
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

James Montelaro
Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: J. M. Stephens, Associate Professor and Extension Veget le Specialist

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 79-10

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Herbicide Combination for Onions Needs Label
B. Yellow Crookneck Squash Hybrid A Changing Picture
C. Weed Management in Tomato Row Middles

II. Harvesting and Handling

A. Postharvest Water Intake and Decay of Tomatoes
B. The Need for County Extension Vegetable Marketing Programs

III. Vegetable Gardening
A. Nematode Control in the Vegetable Garden
B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Collards


NOTE: Anyone
please


is free to use the
give credit to the


information in this newsletter.
authors.


Whenever possible


dnd


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Table I. Early and total yields and curvature of yellow summer squash in a repli-
cated trial at Leesburg, spring 1977

Marketable yield (cwt/acre)

Entryz Early Total Curvaturey Source

Slenderella, F1 77 abcdx 291 a 2 Niagara

Slendergold, F1 91 a 285 a 3 Niagara

Goldzini, F1 90 a 269 ab 1 Peto

Seneca Butterbar, F1 82 abc 262 abc 1 Burpee

Gold Strike, F1 74 abcd 261 abc 2 Ferry Morse

Hyrific, F1 51 efg 255 abc 2 Ferry Morse
Goldbar, F1 61 def 249 abcd 1 Herbst

Dixie, F1 77 abcd 248 abcd 3 Asgrow

Seneca Prolific, F1 86 ab 242 abcde 1 Herbst

Butter Pak, F1 62 def 236 abcdef 2 Ferry Morse
Summer Sun, F1 84 abc 234 abcdef 2 Ferry Morse

Early Prolific, O.P. 34 g 213 bcdefg 2 Burpee
Sundance, F1 69 bcde 209 cdefg 4 Peto

Gourmet, F1 76 abcd 196 defg 1 Keystone

Golden Rebel, F1 44 fg 191 defg 5 Ferry Morse

Golden Swan, F1 58 def 186 efg 3 Peto

Goldneck, F1 51 efg 184 efg 4 Herbst

Moneymaker, F1 67 cde 182 fg 3 Keystone
Golden Summer. O.P. 15 h 168 g 5 Burpee

Ranger, O.P. 7 h 108 h 5 Burpee

ZEntries are designated as hybrid (F1) or open-pollinated (O.P.).

YCurvature rated on a scale of 1, straight, to 5, very curved. (Any cultivar
with a curvature rating of 3 or more can be classified as a crookneck type.)
XMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Herbicide Combination for Onions Needs Label

IFAS scientists have demonstrated that a combination of chlorpropham (1.0 lb
ai/acre) plus DCPA (6.0 lbs ai/acre) will provide excellent control of most annual
weeds found growing in Florida's onion fields. To obtain a label for this combination,
normal research and registration procedures must be followed. The process involves
establishing a tolerance by EPA for the pesticide followed by the granting of a label
registration by EPA or a state agency. Because these rates are "less than labeled rates"
and the chlorpropham label restricts use on sandy soils, a tolerance for the combination
and subsequently a label for use in onions grown on Florida's sandy soils is being
sought by the manufacturer of chloropropham. Due to the severity of weed competition
in onions and the lack of acceptable alternative weed control measures, perhaps a
Section 18 emergency label could be sought by interested parties based on established
tolerances at higher rates for each herbicide than are required for weed control on
Florida's sandy soils.
(William)






B. Yellow Crookneck Squash Hybrid A Changing Picture
There has been much confusion in the yellow crookneck squash cultivar (variety)
picture among growers over the past few years. The old standard, open-pollinated
(OP) Early Summer Crookneck strains, never overly productive, are being replaced
by hybrids. The problem, however, is that many of the "so-called" crookneck hybrids
have one or more undesirable characteristics and may be discounted on the market.

Desirable characteristics of crookneck squash are: 1) a thin, sharply curved
neck, 2) smooth (non-warty) skin and 3) bright yellow to orange skin. Most of the
hybrid cultivars fail to come up to standards in one or more of the above character-
istics. Even Dixie, the leading hybrid crookneck cultivar, fails to meet all standards
consistently. In addition to variations in growing conditions, this somewhat erratic
performance can be attributed to problems associated with hybrid seed production.
NOTE: Green mottling is not a problem carried in the seed or associated with seed
quality, but is caused by a virus transmitted by insect vectors from host plants
located nearby.

Dr. Gary Elmstrom, Center Director, ARC, Leesburg recently has conducted several
summer squash variety trials. Data for yellow squashes (straightneck included) is
summarized in Tables I and II.




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Dr. Elmstrom was asked to rate the yellow squash cultivars for smoothness and
degree of curvature. His ratings are presented in Tables III and IV.


Table III. Ratings of
at ARC, Leesburg


skin smoothness, yellow squash cultivars (1977)


Smooth

Slendergold

Goldbar

Dixie


Goldneck

Golden Swan

Goldzini


Moderate

Summer Squash

Butter Pak

Hyrific


Gold Strike

Slenderella

Early Prolific
Straightneck


Rough

Golden Rebel

Ranger

Golden Summer
Crookneck


Sundance

Moneymaker

Gourmet

Seneca Butterbar


Table IV. Ratings of curvature in fruits of
(1979) at ARC, Leesburg


yellow squash cultivars


Straight

Gold Slice

Gold Strike


Lemondrop

Castlegold

Seneca Butterbar


Moderate

Golden Eagle

Golden Girl


Slenderella

Slendergold


Crooked

Dixie

Crookette
(NCX 7000)


----







Table II. Early and
Leesburg, spring


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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER
total yields and curvature of yellow summer squash at
1978


Marketable yield (cwt/acre)

Entryz Early Total Curvaturey Source


Gold Slice, F1

Goldzini, F

Golden Girl, F1

Goldbar, Fl

Castlegold, Fl

Scottsdale, O.P.

Dixie, Fl

Ingot, Fl

Early Prolific, O.P.

Daytona, F

Slenderella, Fl

Golden Summer, O.P.


NCX 7002, F1

NCX 7000, F1

77-2228-9, F1

PS 1976, F

Castlex 4004, F1


ab 298 a

a 292 ab

abc 261 abc
cd 259 abc

bcu 250 abc

d 244 abc

abcd 226 bc

abcd 224 c

cd 222 cd

cd 205 cd

cd 199 cd

e 153 cd

Observational

222

127

115

99

85


Peto

Peto

Harris

Peto

Castle

Herbst

Asgrow

Keystone

Northrup King

Northrup King

Niagara

Northrup King


Niagara

Niagara

Charter

Peto

Castle


ZEntries are designated as hybrids (Fl) or open-pollinated (O.P.).

YCurvature rated on a scale of 1, straight, to 5, very curved. (Any cultivar
with a curvature rating of 3 or more can be classified as a crookneck type.)

XMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Table 2. Weed counts of preemergence herbicides and combinations or pre- and

postemergence contact type herbicides 6 weeks after application in row middles

between full-bed mulched tomatoes, Gadsden County, 19791
Weed counts at 6 wks.

Herbicide and Farmer 1 Farmer 2
rate (Ibs. ai/acre) Preemergence 2/ Preemergence/ Preemergence / Preemergence /3
alone + paraquat alone + paraquat
(% weed control)

Control or check 0 0 0 0
Paraquat (0.5) 57 72
Napropamide (1.0) 14 62 71 73
(2.0) 14 71 68 64
Diphenamid (4.0) 33 55 71 76
Metribuzin (0.5) 22 52 86 89
Chloramben (3.0) 95 94


I/Same farms were evaluated in Table 1.
2/Applied at 0 weeks and counted at 6 weeks.
/Preemergence herbicides applied at 0 weeks
3 weeks and counted at 6 weeks.


followed by paraquat application at


Paraquat applied at 3 weeks controlled existing weed growth and chloramben
also applied at 3 weeks provided residual control of most weeds for several weeks.
Although another application of paraquat was required to manage weed growth
in these plots, one grower waited and applied the two herbicides about 9 to 10 weeks
after planting to control buffalograss or Texas panicum (Panicum texanum) and a
variety of other weeds that infested the tomato row middles. Another cooperator
cultivated the row middles prior to staking and applied paraquat as a directed,
shielded spray once at about 9 weeks. Most other tomato growers applied napropamide
(2.0) and paraquat between 4 to 6 weeks after planting followed by 1 or 2 applications
of paraquat as required to manage weed growth. Cost of the herbicides used in
these plots is presented in Table 3.




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


It is interesting to note that maxima
crookneck types was 4 in 1978 (Table II) a
1977 (Table I). Similarly, Slenderella F1
lowest in 1979. This type of information
simple task. Growers are best advised to
an unproven cultivar. It is best to test
more is known about it.


im curvature of even the best yellow
is compared with 5 for three cultivars in
1, the leading producer in 1977 was second
indicates that squash testing is not a
be especially cautious about switching to
any new hybrid on a limited scale until


(Montelaro)


C. Weed Management in Tomato Row Middles
Added expenses and repeated applications of herbicides are often required to
manage weed growth in row middles between tomatoes grown of full-bed plastic mulch.
In Quincy, for example, growers have used a wide variety of weed control methods
that include:
1) Cultivation prior to staking followed by one or two paraquat appli-
cations.

2) Repeated application of paraquat as a directed, shielded spray or
combinations of a single preemergence herbicide followed by one or
more applications of paraquat.

3) Mowing weeds with a portable, hand lawn mower.

Because weed infestations often differ among farms within a production region
depending on cultural practices, irrigation practices and individual cropping patterns,
we organized a series of demonstration plots in Gadsden County to evaluate both pre-
and postemergence herbicide treatments. Results from two plots are reported in the
following tables:
Table 1. Weed control ratings of preemergence herbicides 3 weeks after

application in row middles between full-bed mulched tomatoes, Gadsden

County, 19791-

Herbicide and Weed ratings at 3 wks.
rate (Ibs. ai/acre) Farmer 1 Farmer
(% weed control)

Control or check 0 0
Napropamide (Devrinol) (1.0) 29 40
(2.0) 30 43
Diphenamid (Enide) (4.0) 36 48
Metribuzin (Sencor) (0.5) 34 60

YBoth farms were located in Greensboro, but the soils were sandy with
drip irrigation and sandy loam with overhead irrigation, respectively.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. HARVESTING AND HANDLING


A. Postharvest Water Intake and Decay of Tomatoes

Market diseases of tomatoes are usually caused by bacteria or fungi which are
present on the fruit when harvested. More serious disease losses occur during warm,
wet harvest seasons and with poor handling practices. The use of large tanks of
water for dumping pallet bins at a packinghouse can increase decay by spreading
decay organisms to uncontaminated tomatoes. Opportunities for fruit contamination
will be much greater with machine harvesting of infected and healthy fruit into the
same gondola that is later unloaded with a water flume at the packinghouse. However,
organisms must enter the tomatoes through natural openings or skin injuries in order
to cause decay.

Practices currently used by most tomato packinghouses in Florida to reduce
decay include:

1. Chlorination of water in dump-tanks and washers.

2. Heating of dump-tank water.

Tomato fruit and water temperatures, water intake by tomatoes, and chlorination
all affect the incidence of decay, but their interrelationships may not be under-
stood. Chlorination of packinghouse water does not disinfect contaminated tomatoes,
but does limit the spread of decay producing organisms in the dump-tank. The
purpose of chlorination is to reduce the number of organisms in the water and thus
prevent inoculation of healthy tomatoes.

Tomatoes are one of several large fleshy fruits which have extensive inter-
cellular air spaces that are interconnected among the loosely bound cells. In
apples, pears and citrus, the air spaces are connected with stomata in the epidermis
for exchange of water vapor and gases. However, mature tomato fruits are characterized
by a relatively thick external wall with a heavily cutinized epidermis that has no
stomatal openings. The exchange of water and gases in tomatoes occurs almost
entirely at the stem and corky ring around the stem. The impermeability of non-
injured tomato skins can be demonstrated by submerging a tomato in water of a higher
temperature or in a partial vacuum and observing the expanded internal air bubbling
exclusively from the small area near the stem. In pears with stomata, air bubbles
emerge over the entire surface.

When tomatoes are dipped in water of lower temperatures, the internal air
contracts, and water is drawn into the fruit through the stem end area not covered
by cuticle. Research by the authors has shown that both water and decay organisms
are taken into tomatoes when the water in which they are submerged is cooler than the
fruit, and the amount increases with the temperature difference. Thus, tomatoes
at 110OF in 50 water took up 4% water by weight, whereas 700 tomatoes in 500 water
gained only 1%. With 700 fruit in 900 water, there was no water intake.

Intake of 1 or 2% of uncontaminated water produced no visible change in the
tomatoes whereas 3 to 4% intake resulted in watersoaked areas near vascular tissues
and slight skin cracking. When the intake water was contaminated with soft-rotting
bacteria, the resulting decay followed the same pathway as the water beneath the
stem scar. Most tomatoes inoculated in this manner show no initial external symptoms,
but the interior rapidly decays.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Table 3. Estimated per acre prices of herbicides used in
demonstration plots, Gadsden County, 1979.

Herbicide Cost/acre

($)

Paraquat (0.5) 9.00
Napropamide (1.0) 8.00
(2.0) 16.00
Diphenamid (4.0) 12.00
Metribuzin (0.5) 8.00
Napropamide + paraquat (1.0 + 0.5) 17.00
(2.0 + 0.5) 25.00
Diphenamid + paraquat (4.0 + 0.5) 21.00
Metribuzin + paraquat (0.5 + 0.5) 17.00
Chloramben + paraquat (3.0 + 0.5) 30.00


Effective weed management depends on timing, i.e., implementing control measures
at the proper stage of weed growth. Preemergence herbicides control weeds prior
to emergence, but their effectiveness is influenced by rainfall or overhead irri-
gation and the rate that new weed seedlings germinate and infest the field. Only
small (about 3 to 4 inches depending on species) weeds are effectively controlled by
postemergence herbicide or cultivation treatments. In contrast, metribuzin (Sencor)
has both pre- and postemergence activity and is useful in extending the duration of
control and reducing the number of herbicide applications. Many growers in the
Bradenton area obtain effective early season weed control from one application of
metribuzin (Sencor) when weeds are in the seedling stage (Burgis, Bradenton AREC).
However, application of metribuzin should be avoided during cloudy weather to reduce
the chances of crop injury.

In summary, growers must become acquainted with the major weeds that infest
their fields and then develop effective management practices that restrict weed growth
at timely intervals during the production cycle. Effective and timely weed control
and crop management practices can reduce production costs, and thus increase poten-
tial profits.

(Both K. A. Conlin, a graduate student in Vegetable Crops and J. C. Russell,
County Extension Director in Gadsden County helped provide leadership in conducting
these demonstration plots. We acknowledge Chevron Chemical Company, Stauffer
Chemical Company, and the Upjohn Company for their partial support of this program.)
(Conlin, William & Russell)




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


2. Maturity or ripeness of products packed: Common causes of marketing
losses are immaturity, overmaturity, extremely variable maturity, and
overripe products in packs. For many commodities these causes can be
readily detected but, for others some study may be needed.

3. Rough handling: In harvesting and subsequent postharvest operations, rough
handling is easy to detect. Growers and shippers can help reduce
marketing losses substantially by reducing or eliminating rough handling
in their operations. County Agents can help by studying and demonstrating
the need for such changes. Rough handling by carriers (e.g. truckers and
railways) and market handlers is more difficult, but possible to correct.

4. Poor product temperature management: The most common and glaring examples
are long delays at ambient temperatures between harvesting and precooling
(if practiced); lack of, or inadequate, precooling before loading for ship-
ment; poorly vented shipping containers; and tight load patterns in trucks
that prevent proper transit temperature management. Chilling injury can be
a problem on chilling sensitive commodities. The overall cause of tempera-
ture related problems is the lack of understanding by producers, packers,
shippers, buyers, brokers, and yes, County Agents of the great importance
of proper product temperature management in delivering high quality fresh
produce to consumers.

5. Product decay: This cause of marketing losses is often associated with
severe weather conditions (rains, chilling, freezing, or hot periods)
during harvest. But decay is also directly caused by rough handling that
provides the wounds necessary for the entrance of certain decay causing
organisms; lack of product handling sanitation in harvesting and packing-
house operations; and improper product temperature management.

In subsequent Vegetarian issues I will describe each of these market quality
problems in detail and note techniques that County Agents can use to help their
growers and shippers to reduce marketing losses and to market higher quality pro-
ducts. Also, as time permits during the next 9 months, I will be willing to help
County Agents plan and conduct studies, show them the basic equipment needed (not
much, nor is it expensive) and to present the information to their audiences. You
can contact me c/o Vegetable Crops Department, University of Florida, Gainesville.
My office is in room #1217, phone 904-392-2134(HSPP Bldg.).
(Kasmire)

*Robert F. Kasmire is Visiting Adjunct Professor and Extension Vegetable Specialist,
Davis, California.

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Nematode Control in the Vegetable Garden
Plant parasitic nematodes are present to some degree in almost every Florida
garden soil. Fall is the worst season for nematodes since populations buildup
over the long hot, wet summers. As a general rule, gardeners do not treat the soil
for control until severe symptoms are observed. Most never relate the symptoms to
nematodes, so never fumigate.




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Tomatoes arriving at packinghouse dump tanks vary widely in temperature with
the season and exposure to sun or shade. Tomatoes held in shade ranged from 800 to
950, whereas those in the sun ranged from 1000 to 1260 after an exposure of an hour
or longer. These high temperatures are not only detrimental to fruit quality,
but the hot fruit require unnecessary heating of the dump-tank water in order to
exceed the warmest tomato temperatures.

Severe postharvest decay losses occurred in tomatoes from the Quincy area
during the warm, midsummer harvests of 1977 and 1978 when dump tank water was chlorinate
but not heated. When it was shown that the fruit rotted on the inside without
surface injury, it was concluded that chlorine did not have time to inactivate all
of the organisms before they entered the tomatoes. Installation of dump tank heaters
to restrict water intake has been successful in limiting this disease problem.

Postharvest water intake in tomatoes can be prevented by maintaining 20F
higher water temperatures in tanks and washers than the temperature of the tomatoes
passing through them, and by minimizing time in the water. Adequate and continuous
chlorination (100-150 ppm) of the water should also be used for reduction of tomato
market diseases.
(Showalter & Bartz*)

*J. A. Bartz Postharvest Plant Pathologist, IFAS, who cooperated in the research
reported here.

B. The Need for County Extension Vegetable Marketing Programs

About 80% of Florida's fresh market vegetable production is shipped to out-of-
state markets, with some shipped all the way to the West coast and Canadian markets.
The northeast and north central markets are our major outlets. This means that pro-
ducts have ample time to deteriorate during transit, especially if they have not
been handled properly during harvesting and in subsequent postharvest handling
operations in production and shipping areas. Improper handling causes extensive
marketing losses through uneven or over-ripening, water loss and shrivel, softening,
decay, and mechanical damage. The initial causes of such losses generally can be
readily seen in postharvest handling operations. County horticultural agents can
help growers and shippers to market higher quality vegetables, that command greater
market demand, and to reduce their marketing losses through simple techniques that
can be convincing. These can be expanded with a little imagination and initiative
to determine and demonstrate the causes of most market qualtiy loss problems.

Most product market quality losses are caused by one or more of the following
factors:

1. Quality packed: Many growers, especially small scale farmers, do not
realize the importance of packing uniformly high quality produce in order
to compete successfully in the markets with comparable products from other
producers. It is necessary to use two, or more, quality grades, identify
(label) the grades packed, and to pack uniformly graded products within
packs (e.g. all No. 1, or all No. 2, etc.). It is relatively easy to see
if a grower needs help in improving the uniformity of his pack.




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Acknowledgement Most of the information for this article was provided by
R. A. Dunn, Extension Nematologist, IFAS, University of Florida.

(Stephens)

B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Collards

The collard (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group) is a green, leafy vegetable
whose nutritious cabbage-like leaves are cooked as greens often called "soul food".
It has been a mainstay in home gardens all over Florida and other southern states
for many years. As a commercial crop, the collard has provided fair net returns
for small-acreage farmers selling locally and for processing companies.

The edible portions of the collard plant are the dark green leaves which are
borne in a rosette fashion around an upright, stocky main stem. These long-stemmed
leaves resemble cabbage leaves, except they are oval instead of round.

The collard is similar to kale in many respects, differing in little more than
leaf. These leafy nonheading cabbages bear the same Latin name. The name acephala
means "without a head". Collard is a corruption of "coleworts" or "colewyrts",
Anglo-Saxon terms meaning "cabbage plants". The collard plant has changed little
in form for at least 2,000 years.

Climatic Response

The collard is a biennial, which means it sends up a flower stalk in the second
season of its growth. In Florida, the collard thrives over a wide range of growing
conditions and is grown throughout most of the year. However, the quality and taste
are better and the plant grows best during the cooler months of the year. Probably
the best quality collards are those planted in the fall and matured during light
frost periods of early winter. Best yields would result from early spring plantings.
The plant can withstand exposure to temperatures as low as 150F, unless such a freeze
abruptly follows a warm period of growth. Continued exposure to relatively low
temperatures for extended periods of time may cause collards to produce seedstalks.
This tendency to bolt varies with size of the plant, temperature, and length of
exposure. For example, it usually requires less cold exposure for older plants to
go to seed (bolt) than for younger plants. The variety 'Vates' is more resistant to
bolting and leaf damages during cold weather than 'Georgia'.

Varieties

The standard and old-time favorite collard variety is 'Georgia' (also known as
'Southern'). There are several strains of this variety, so collectively they
are called the 'Georgia strains'. 'Georgia' is characterized by its smooth leaves
and whitish stems. The main stem of the plant averages around three feet tall.
The other standard variety is 'Vates', which has wavy leaves. Two other varieties
recommended for Florida are 'Morris Heading' and 'Louisiana Sweet'.

Planting Information

Collards may be seeded directly in the garden row, but best results are
obtained by setting transplants. Rows should be spaced 24 to 36 inches apart, and
plants 10 to 18 inches apart. For direct seeding, use about 1/4 ounce seed per 100
feet of row plant in a wide-band method. Thin out and use entire young plants,




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Basic above-ground symptoms on most vegetables are premature wilting, stunt-
ing, yellowing of leaves, loss of leaves, and low productivity.

Below-ground, the roots show galling, darkening, stunting, abnormal modification,
decay due to follow-up disease invasion, or a combination of these symptoms.

There are two main ways gardeners may test their soil to determine if nematode
problems are likely to occur. They can treat a small sample of soil, plant a sen-
sitive crop like cucumber, and compare with a cucumber plant in the untreated soil.
Or, they can have the soil tested as a fee-service by the University of Florida
($5.00 per sample).

A preventive program includes several good gardening practices. A combination
of crop and site rotation, sanitation, fallowing, resistant cover cropping, early
tillage, use of clean transplants, resistant varieties, and mulching will help. A
few of the root-knot resistant plants which might precede the vegetable and offer
some control are pangola grass, french marigold, hairy indigo, and Crotalaria spectabilis,

When nematodes are detected in the soil at problem-causing levels, chemical
control at least 14 days prior to planting is necessary. Little can be done after
the crop is planted.

Effective chemicals gardeners may use are (1) SMDC (sold as Vapam or Fume-V),
(2) D-D, and (3) EDB (sold as Soilbrom), and (4) Vorlex. SMDC is the most widely
merchandised fumigant in Florida at the present time for vegetable gardens.

D-D and EDB kill only nematodes, while SMDC and Vorlex kill a broader range
of pests including disease organisms, weeds, and soil insects, in addition to nematodes.

Before applying any of these nematicides, the soil should be worked into a
good seed-bed condition. Roots and other plant parts, which might shield nematodes
from the lethal effects of the chemical treatment, should be removed or allowed to
decay prior to treatment.

Application of Chemicals. The soil fumigants should be applied to the soil
in either a furrow or drench treatment.

A. The furrow technique. This method is also called "in-the-row" fumigation.
For each row, a 6-inch deep furrow is opened on both sides five inches from
row center. Liquid chemical, at rates recommended on the label, is placed in each
furrow using a jar with holes in the lid as the application. After covering the
furrows, the soil should be sprinkled to seal in the vapors. Better results are
obtained by sealing with a covering of plastic or newspapers.

B. The Drench Method. A hose-on applicator is best for this method, although
a regular sprinkling can may be used. Wide beds, narrow beds, or even the entire
surface of the garden plot are easily treated by the drench method. Properly done,
drenching is just as effective as the furrow fumigation.

Sprinkle (drench) the surface of the garden plot in a uniform fashion with
rates recommended on the label. Where row centers are known, a 12 inch swath along
each row center will suffice to give satisfactory control.

As with furrow treatment, the vapors should be sealed in the soil by sprinkling,
or better yet, covering with newspaper or plastic.




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


seasoning until tender


(Stephens)


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 189.99 or .34 .
per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and educational material
to extension, research and industry personnel."




I -


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


leaving properly spaced plants for leaf-cropping at harvest.

Fertilization

Collards respond very well to fertile soil conditions, especially nitrogen.
Liberal amounts of composted plant or animal manure worked into each row or hill
2 or 3 weeks before planting will greatly benefit collards. Where inorganics
are the sole source of fertilizer, use 5 pounds of 6-6-6 or 4 pounds of 8-8-8
per 100 square feet. To apply, broadcast one half of this amount, then band the
rest in furrows 3 to 4 inches away from the plants.

Two or three side-dressings with a nitrogenous fertilizer during the growing
season are beneficial. Use the common analysis garden fertilizer at about 1
pound per 100 sq. ft., or a side-dressing fertilizer like ammonium nitrate at the
rate of 1/4 lb. per 100 sq. ft.

Pest Control

The most troublesome problem pest on collards is the cabbage looper which
chews large and small holes in the leaves. Spray weekly using Bacillus
thuringiensis (BT) for looper control. Other caterpillars, such as the imported
cabbage worm, are bothersome also and are usually controlled by BT.

Foliar diseases of collard (such as downy mildew and alternaria leaf spot)
may be controlled by using zineb or maneb spray.

Damp-off disease and nematode problems are best controlled by soil fumigation
prior to planting.

Harvesting

Usually, it will be six to eight weeks after planting before collard greens
will be ready for harvest. There are at least three ways to harvest collards.

(1) One method is to cut and remove entire plants as needed when three to
six plants make a 2-pound bunch.

(2) Another way is to cut 2/3 or 3/4 of the plant. After 10 days of
renewed growth, the cutting can be repeated as many as six or more
times.

(3) A third and most popular gardening way is to pull the lower leaves as
they reach a desirable size for eating. The young top leaves are left
for subsequent harvests.

Handling

Freshly harvested leaves should be washed, cooled immediately to 34-40F, and
stored in the refrigerator crisper until used.

Uses

Collards are generally called collard greens, for they are used as a cooking
green. Like other cooking greens such as turnips and mustards, collard leaves
are cut into thin, chewable pieces, then pot-boiled along with meat or other




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