Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: June 1979
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00149
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER
1955 Horticultural Sciences and Plant Pathology Bldg. #717


June 6, 1979

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

C. B. Hall
Acting Chairman


R. D. William
Assistant Professor


R. K. Showalter
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


James '1ontelaro
Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: R. D. William, Assistant Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 79-6 ^ )


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Updated List of 24(c) Labels Granted for Vegetables in Florida

II. CONmERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Weed Shifts and Time of Plowing
B. Double Cropping in Full-Bed Plastic Mulch Culture

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


Uncommon Edible Parts of Vegetables
Know Your Vegetables Romaine


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
please give credit to the authors.


Whenever possible


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


I --- _


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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Updated List of 24(c) Labels Granted for Vegetables in Florida

In the May 1979 issue of the newsletter "Chemically Speaking", Dr. Lipsey
presented an updated list of all 24(c) labels granted for all uses in Florida.
Those included here are for vegetables only. A full copy of the report is avail-
able from Dr. Lipsey or this office.


24(c) Labels Granted in Florida
Pesticide Coordinator's Office


CROP/SITE PEST CHEMICAL COMPANY

Carrots Weeds Lorox DuPont
Celery Leafminer Vydate L DuPont
Celery Weeds and grasses Vegadex A. Duda & Dons
Celery Cabbage loopers Dipel 150 Asgrow
Eggplant Pinworm, green peach aphid Lannate L DuPont
Lettuce Weeds Paraquat Chevron
Peppers Weeds (row middles) Ami ben Amchemi
Peppers Weeds Devrinol Stauffer Chemical
Peppers Nematodes Furadan FMC Corp.
Peppers Virus disease JMS Stylet Oil JMS Flower Farms
Potatoes Weeds Lexone DuPont
Potatoes Nematodes & corky ring spot Furadan FMC
Snap beans Weeds Vegadex Del Monte
Spinach Cabbage looper, beet armyworm Lannate (methomyl) DuPont
Squash Virus disease JMS Stylet Oil JMS Flower Farms
Sweet corn Leaf blight Bravo 5F Diamond Shamrock
Sweet corn Armyworm, corn earworm Lorsban 4E Dow
Sweet corn Diseases & seed rot Difolatan Chevron
Tomatoes Induce maturity Alar Uniroyal
Tomatoes Weeds (row middles) Amiben Amchem
Tomatoes Leafspot, blight Bravo 6F Diamond Shamrock
Tomatoes Weeds Devrinol Stauffer
Tomatoes Pinworm, fruitworm, loopers, Lannate Dupont
armyworm
Tomatoes Various insects Monitor Chemagro
Tomatoes Virus disease JMS Stylet Oil JMS Flower Farms
Tomatoes Nematodes Vydate L DuPont
Various vegetables Leafminer, aphid control Pyrellin AZ Webb Wright
Vegetables and Rats and mice Ramik Velsicol
Nurseries
Watermelons Blight, anthracnose, mildew Difolatan Chevron

(Montelaro)





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Weed Shifts and Time of Plowing

Weed populations shift as a result of many climatic, physical and biological
factors that affect growth and reproduction of weedy plants in agricultural fields.
Factors such as cultural practices, crop rotations, irrigation or rainfall, weedy
fallows, and many other conditions affect both the population and diversity of
weeds. Certain weeds such as purple nutsedge, perennial grasses, or other weeds
predominate because conditions are conducive for the growth of that speciess,
although total growth and reproduction may be limited due to competition between
crops and weeds. Perhaps you've noticed differences between grower's fields even
though crops, cultural practices, and growing conditions appeared similar. A series
of articles will present information pertaining to managing weed shifts.

Farmers often plow, plant and produce their crops on a routine basis through-
out the year. Fields, therefore, are plowed during the same season each year.
Results from a recent study conducted at the Tall Timbers Research Station near
Tallahassee indicate that different plant species colonize fields depending on the
season when plowing occurred or the soil was disturbed. For example, Florida pusley
(Richardia scabra L.) predominated when fields were plowed in February, whereas pur-
ple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) dominated several fields for 2 months when dis-
turbed in February and April. Several winter annuals including paleseed plantain
(Plantago virginica L.), heartwing sorrel (Rumex hastatalus Baldw.), and Carolina
geranium (Geranium carolinianum L.) became dominant species when fields were plowed
during April, June, or August. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) domi-
nated when soils were plowed in October, December, or February. In addition, these
weedy plants often hosted specific herbivore insects that, in turn, supported com-
munities of predaceous insects. Studies in North and South Carolina, Tennessee and
other locations reported trends toward certain predominant species in abandoned
fields or following soil disturbance and normal crop production.

Although specific results pertaining to managing weed shifts in Florida's
production regions are lacking, biological evidence suggests that weed populations
may be disrupted and possibly shifted by plowing or distrubing the soil at different
times throughout the year. Specific cultural practices and year-round crop manage-
ment designed to upset the growth and development of obnoxious weedy plants will
undoubtedly favor crop production and decrease costs of producing quality vegetables.
In the next article, weed shifts and herbicides will be discussed.
(William & Altieri*)

*(M. Altieri is a graduate student in Entomology who provided the research
leadership to collect and summarize the proceeding information under the direction
of Dr. W. H. Whitcomb and the Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee).




-4-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

B. Double Cropping in Full-Bed Plastic Mulch Culture

Almost anyone involved in full-bed plastic mulch culture in vegetable pro-
duction feels that being able to produce an additional crop on the same mulch
would be worthwhile to the grower. Why then is not more of the more than 50,000
acres of vegetable land that is mulched annually double-cropped? The answer is
not simple. The main reason, probably, is that we lack the technical and prac-
tical expertise needed to produce good second crops consistently and economically.
However, some growers have double-cropped mulched fields with a good degree of
success. Research, too, is continuing and proving to be very promising.

There is some problems that must be solved to the grower's satisfaction be-
fore double-cropping of mulched fields is accepted. Foremost among these, is the
possibility of reinfestations with nematodes, diseases, insects and weed seeds.
To this end, Mr. Hayslip and Dr. Mishoe working at ARC, Ft. Pierce have been ex-
perimenting with a square-bar mechanism for injecting materials into the soil
without overly disturbing the plastic. The unit can inject fumigants, fertilizers,
etc. simultaneously. Preliminary tests with several crops have looked extremely
promising. In addition, they are testing thicker plastic materials to see if it
might not be used for three, four or more crops. Their research in the develop-
ment of the machine and needed adaptions has progressed to the point where innova-
tive growers might want to test this system on a limited basis in their operations.

Dr. Everett, working at ARC, Immokalee, tested cukes and tomatoes following
tomatoes. In these tests 0, 363, 726 or 1452 pounds of 18-0-25 fertilizer were
placed manually in holes punched between, to one side and on both sides of the
plants. Results were very promising. "In one test, tomato yields were 299, 537,
529, and 595 30 lb boxes/acre and cucumber yields were 310, 650, 715, and 685
bu/acre for the check, low, medium, and high fertilizer treatments, respectively.
In a second test, tomato yields were 420, 610, 651, and 622 30 lb boxes/acre and
cucumber yields were 402, 683, 734, and 674 bu/acre for the "same fertilizer
treatments". Fertilizer placements had no effect on yield of tomatoes or cucumbers."

Similar research at AREC, Homestead by Dr. Bryan showed that a second crop
can be productive on full-bed plastic mulch. The results of research studies at
Ft. Pierce, Immokalee and Homestead as well as the success obtained by some vege-
table growers under field conditions should certainly encourage more growers who
use plastic mulch to consider double-cropping seriously. Certainly, there are
obstacles to overcome, but they do not appear to be beyond solution. It will take
time, effort and ingenuity on the part of vegetable growers. To the successful,
it can mean increased efficiency in their operation.
(Montelaro)




5

THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Uncommon Edible Parts of Vegetables

The culinary reputation of most vegetables is based primarily on the edible
qualities of one or sometimes two primary parts of the plant. For example, the
tomato is the leading garden vegetable due to the popular appeal of its fruit,
while the turnip contributes both its root and its leaves as tablefare. For
home gardeners who grow and have the entire vegetable plant at their disposal,
other plant parts may be edible, although perhaps not so tasty as the main pro-
duct. For non-gardeners, however, there is little option for eating parts other
than those offered for sale.

The following is a list of ordinary garden vegetables with both commonly
eaten parts and less frequently eaten parts. Obviously, in a list such as this,
there may be quite a few omissions.


Vegetable


Beans, snap
Beans, lima
Beets
Broccoli
Carrot
Cauliflower
Celery
Corn, sweet

CLc number
Eggplant

Kohlrabi
Okra
Onions
Peas, English
Peas, Southern
Pepper

Potatoes, Sweet
Radish
Squash

Toma to
Turnip
Watermelon


Common Edible Part

pod with seeds
seeds
root
flower
root
immature flower
leaf stems
seeds

fruit with seeds
fruit with seeds

swollen stem
pods with seeds
root
seeds
seeds, pods
pods

roots
roots
fruit with seeds

fruits with seeds
roots, leaves
fruits-interior pulp
and seeds


Other Edible Parts


leaves
pods, leaves
leaves
leaves, flower stem
leaves
flower stem, leaves
leaves, seeds
young ears, unfurled
tassel, young leaves
stem tips and young leaves
leaves edible but not
flavorful
leaves
leaves
young leaves
pods, leaves
young leaves
leaves after cooking,
immature seeds
leaves and stem shoots
leaves
seeds, flowers, young
leaves
leaves contain alkaloids

rind of fruit


Although many of the secondary plant parts are edible, their popularity as
food items is diminished by lack of proper flavor or unfavorable texture. For
example, the leaves of practically all the cabbage family are edible, but the
strong flavors of some species are disagreeable or too strong for most people's
taste.







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

The edible leaves and stem tips of sweet potato vines are well known in
many parts of the world. Often considered a poor man's food, sweet potato
foliage has a rich protein content that helps supplement the nutritional value of
the roots.

As for all vegetable parts, there is a great deal of variation within varie-
ties in flavor and culinary characteristics of these secondary parts. For example,
some sweet potato stem tips in certain varieties are bitter with a resinous flavor
that is too strong.

Quite often, cooking is necessary to make the parts edible. Raw leaves eaten
fresh may even be slightly poisonous in some cases.

(J. M. Stephens)


B. Know Your Vegetables Romaine

Romaine (Lactuca sativa) is the most upright growing of the four major types
of lettuce. This cylindrical-hearted lettuce known to the Romans as Cappadocian
lettuce is now called Roman lettuce or more commonly, romaine. According to vege-
table history, this dates from the time when the Popes moved from Rome to Avignon
in the fourteenth century, bringing this type with them and having it grown in the
palace gardens. It was therefore known as Avignon lettuce. In England, however,
it is called Cos lettuce after the Greek island which was the birthplace of Hip-
pocrates. It was also grown and eaten raw or cooked in China in early history.
Paintings in Egyptian tombs dating from about 4500 BC reveal a type of lettuce with
long pointed leaves, not much different from Romaine lettuce.

Cos lettuce (romaine) has long, upright, crisp leaves with a distinctive mid-
rib almost to the tip. The tip of the leaf is blunt. Leaves are somewhat folded
(cupped) and grouped into loose heads. The interior leaves are more delicate and
blanched than those toward the outside.

In Florida, romaine is both a commercial crop of importance and a popularly
grown garden vegetable. As are all lettuce types, it is a cool season vegetable.
Therefore, it grows best in this state planted September through March. On occas-
sion, romaine suffers freeze damage when temperatures hover in the low twenties
for brief periods. Otherwise, it produces quite well in most areas in the winter-
time. Although its quality and size diminish by the heat of Florida summers,
romaine is grown in well-mulched gardens even in the summer in north Florida.

Two varieties of romaine that do well here are 'Paris Island Cos' and 'Dark
Green Cos. There are 'lany other varieties of cos lettuce, some white-seeded
and others black-seeded.

Romaine may be started directly in the garden by using seeds or transplants.
Seeds are small so should be sown shallow and lightly covered with a sprinkling







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


of soil. A burlap bag and other materials are often used over the planted seeds
as moisture-holding devices until the seeds germinate.

After sowing seeds in the row or within a given space, thin out the seedlings
when they are about three inches tall to prevent crowding. Allow enough space be-
tween plants for the size of plant desired. Small plants will develop at 4 inch
spacings, while 8 to 12 inches are required for large romaine plants. When trans-
planting into the garden, keep these same spacing guidelines in mind. Rows should
be 12 inches apart.

Soil preparation, liming, fertilization, and most other cultural practices
are about the same as for other types of lettuce. The soil should be well pre-
pared, fertilized lightly but adequately, and kept moistened. Mulching for weed
control and the many other benefits works particularly well for romaine.

Romaine is susceptible to most of the pest problems that affect lettuce.
However, most gardeners are able to grow romaine successfully with little or no
spraying required.

Harvest romaine from the garden as needed. Pick only a few leaves from a
plant, leaving the remainder for another time, or cut the entire plant just above
the soil line.

Tender crisp leaves are used fresh and uncooked in tossed salads and many
other salad dishes.

Store romaine in the crisper, keeping it moist and cool. Long storage for
more than just a few days is not satisfactory, due to the very fragile nature of
this lettuce.
(J. M. Stephens)


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $98.40 or 18
per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and educational material
to extension, research and industry personnel.




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