Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: May 1979
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00148
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


May 8, 1979
Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

C. B. Hall
Acting Chairman


R. D. William
Assistant Professor

R. K. Showalter
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

James Montelaro
Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: R. D. William, Assistant Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 79-5

IN THIS ISSUE:


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


Vegetable Crops Gets A New Department Chairman
Vegetable Field Days Set Final
Vegetable Gardening Demonstration Day


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


Developments in Starting Vegetable Crops Containerized Transplants
Herbicide Persistance and Waiting Periods for Non-Labelled Crops
Liquid Fertilizers Quotes From An Expert


III. HARVESTING & HANDLING

A. Vegetable Nutritive Values

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING


Tips on Digging and Storing Garden Potatoes
Know Your Vegetables Ice Plant


NOTE: Anyone
please


is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible
give credit to the authors.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


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-2-

THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Vegetable Crops Gets A New Department Chairman

The following memo from Vice-President Tefertiller to all IFAS faculty and
staff is self-explanatory.

"I am pleased to announce at this time that the new Chairman
of the IFAS Vegetable Crops Department will be Dr. Donald N. Maynard,
who is now serving as Professor in the Department of Plant and Soil
Science, University of Massachusetts.

Dr. Maynard brings to IFAS an outstanding national reputation
and we are fortunate to have him lead such a vital department.

Dr. Maynard, whom many of you met during his visit with us, is
a native of Connecticut. He did his undergraduate work at the
University of Connecticut and received a doctorate degree in Botany
at the University of Massachusetts.

I know we all look forward to working with Dr. Maynard and wel-
come him to Florida and to the IFAS staff. He, his wife, Charlotte
and their son David, will be arriving in July.

Until Dr. Maynard assumes his duties, Dr. C. B. Hall will
continue serving as Acting Chairman. We are grateful to Dr. Hall
for his willingness to continue in this capacity."

The Vegetable Crops faculty looks forward to working with Dr. Maynard.

(Montelaro)


B. Vegetable Field Days Set Final

Put the following dates on your calendar and make plans to attend these
vegetable field days. Detailed programs for these field days are being mailed.

1. Location: Bradenton, Florida
Date: May 22, 1979, 9:45 AM

2. Location: Gainesville, Florida
Date: June 5, 1979, 9:45 AM

3. Location: Leesburg, Florida
Date: June 6, 1979, 1:15 PM


(Montelaro)





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

C. Vegetable Gardening Demonstration Day

1. Location: FAMU, Tallahassee, Florida
Date: May 25, 1979, 9:00 AM

(Stephens)

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Developments in Starting Vegetable Crops Containerized Transplants

Vegetable growers in Florida have always been progressive in adopting new
production techniques. This is true for increasing overall efficiency in starting
their vegetable crops. One primary goal is to improve rate, time and uniformity
of germination which is a prerequisite for the efficient production of high
yielding, good quality, uniformly maturing vegetable crops.

To a degree, this has been accomplished with many vegetable crops in Florida.
Many growers have adopted such practices as the use of sized seed, pelleted seed,
precision planting, plug-mix seeding, etc. Even these practices have not been
fully exploited by all vegetable growers in the state.

Two developments of the past decade have created considerable interest among
the more progressive growers. They are: 1) use of containerized transplants for
starting vegetable crops and 2) priming or pregermination of seeds together with
specialized seed drilling or placement techniques. Various types of containerized
transplants have been used for many years by market gardeners, primarily. It was
not until full-bed, plastic mulch culture became widespread that containerized
transplants became popular in Florida vegetable production. Transplant production
has progressed from the use of peat pots and paper bands to efficient, streamlined
cell-pack trays and pressed cubes or blocks.

Presently containerized transplants are used on about 60% of the tomatoes,
peppers and eggplants grown in the state. This system of starting vegetable crops
has been tried with success on a number of other vegetables including lettuce,
celery, endive, cantaloupes, squash, watermelons and cucumbers. It offers many
advantages over the conventional methods such as use of bare-rooted transplants
or direct seeding. As expected, there are some negative aspects to the use of
containerized transplants. Among these, primarily, is the lack of knowledge and
experience.

Although transplants in containers can be purchased from commercial producers,
they can be grown by a vegetable grower. Many are doing so now in Florida. Con-
tainerized transplant production adds a new dimension to any vegetable operation.
It generally involves additional capital outlay and production expertise. However,
those that have tried it seemed to feel that it is worthwhile.

The increasing cost and shortage of good vegetable land, energy, fertilizer,
pesticides, etc. as well as ever-tightening government regulation may serve to make
the use of containerized transplants more attractive to vegetable growers with each
passing year. A crop can be started in a restricted area (usually a greenhouse)
and kept there for a period of 4 to 6 weeks. In this way, cost for pesticides,
fertilizer, tractor use, etc. can be considerably less than starting the same crop
in the field. Containerized transplants generally take off fast and produce good






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


yielding, uniform crops in a relatively short period of time.

New techniques in the production of containerized transplants have given new
impetus to the use of this method for starting vegetable crops in Florida. It is
a highly specialized operation employing many of the new and time-tested techniques
which apply to vegetable production in general. This even includes recent develop-
ment in priming and pregermination, together with improved seed drilling. This
subject will be discussed in a subsequent article.

Summarizing briefly, technology for use by growers in starting vegetable crops
more efficiently has progressed tremendously. We fully expect to see breakthroughs
which should further benefit vegetable growers. It is an area which should be given
careful consideration continuously by all vegetable growers in Florida as it promises
even greater dividends than ever before.

(Montelaro & Cantliffe*)

*Dr. Daniel J. Cantliffe is Associate Professor and Associate Horticulturist,
Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS. His primary responsibility is teaching and
research in the area of seed physiology.


B. Herbicide Persistance and Waiting Periods For Non-Labelled Crops

Vegetable growers sometimes wish to rotate their crops, but wonder whether the
herbicide used in the previous crop will persist and injure the second crop. Many
herbicide labels specify the time interval required before a crop not listed on the
herbicide label can be planted with little or no risk of injury. A list of these
time intervals follow:


Herbicide name


Trade


Common


Vegetable crops not listed on label


Alanap

Amiben


(Several brands)
Balan
Basagran
Caparol
Dacthal
Devrinol
Dowpon, Basfapon
Dual


Naptalam

Chloramben

Atrazine
Benefin
Bentazon
Prometryne
DCPA
Napropamide
Dalapon
Metolachlor


(usually does not persist past duration of labelled
crop)
(usually does not persist past harvest of labelled
crop)
12 to 24 months
4 to 5 months
--
5 months for 7 crops only (read label carefully)
8 months
12 months


A few weeks
18 months


Enide Diphenamid


6 months





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Herbicide
Trade


name
Common Vegetable crops not listed on label


Eptam


EPTC


Evik
Furloe CIPC

Kerb
Lasso
Lorox
Paraquat
Prefar
Premerge

(Several brands)
Ramrod

Randox
Roundup
Sencor, Lexone
Sinbar
Sutan


Treflan
Tillam


Tok


Tolban
Vegadex

Vernam


Ametryne
Chlorpropham

Pronamide
Alachlor
Linuron
Paraquat
Bensulide
Dinoseb

Simazine


CDAA
Glyphosate
Metribuzin
Terbacil
Butylate

Trifluralin
Pebulate

Nitrofen

Profluralin
CDEC

Vernolate


(usually does not persist past harvest of labelled
crop)
12 months
(usually does not persist past harvest of labelled
crop)
up to 12 months
(does not persist past harvest of labelled crop)
4 months
(no detectable soil residue)
18 months
(usually does not persist past harvest of labelled
crop)
12-24 months
(usually does not persist past duration of labelled
crop)


12 months
18 months
24 months
(usually does
crop)
5 months
(usually does
crop)
(usually does
crop)
6-8 months
(usually does
crop)
(usually does
crop)


not persist past harvest of labelled



not persist past harvest of labelled

not persist past harvest of labelled



not persist past harvest of labelled

not persist past harvest of labelled


Read the herbicide label carefully for specific references to particular crops or
other agricultural situations that may vary from these general label restrictions.


(William)




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


C. Liquid Fertilizers Quotes From An Expert

Dr. Robert E. Lucas retired recently after many years as an Extension Soils
Specialist at Michigan State University. Much of his time was spent working with
vegetable crops. Presently, he is located at the Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Belle Glade, Florida as a visiting professor. The quotes, presented here
with his permission, are taken from his leaflet entitled "Liquid Fertilizers",
Extension Bulletin E-933, January, 1976.

"Liquid fertilizers have been marketed for several decades. Still,
many users do not know the difference between liquid and dry fertilizers
and many costly mistakes have been made."

"Any liquid that contains one or more available plant nutrients is
a liquid fertilizer. The plant nutrients may either be in complete solution
or part in solution and part in suspension."

"The main advantage of liquid fertilizer is greater ease of handling
and applying. Liquids permit more uniform application. The product is
more uniform in analysis. Certain pesticides are compatible."

"Liquid fertilizers require special storage tanks, pumps and hoppers
which can greatly add to costs."

"Nearly all the active ingredients in liquid or dry fertilizers common-
ly sold are water- or citrate-soluble. Thus, they are equally available
for plants. Although the fertilizer salt may be 100% water soluble, there
may be a rapid change to compounds of low water solubility after application
to the soil. For example, a liquid fertilizer containing 100,000 ppm of
phosphorus will likely test no more than 0.3 ppm in the soil solution after
application."

"Liquid fertilizers seldom show any residues in the soil when band-
placed as do many dry fertilizers. This residue should never be cited as
an example of poor recovery for dry fertilizers. These residues are
usually conditioners, inert materials, by-products such as gypsum and
impurities. Some of these residues may be calcium, magnesium or sulfur which
are essential plant nutrients for which no claim has been made. If such
materials were added to liquid fertilizers they would normally cause sedi-
mentation."

"All mineral fertilizers can cause injury to plants when applied in
excess. Unless diluted with water, most liquids of comparable formulation
are as toxic as dry fertilizers. Fertilizers can show differences in burn
which are measured by a "salt index"."

"Most liquid fertilizer concentrates weigh 10 to 11 pounds per gallon.
Thus it takes about 9 gallons of liquid to compare to 100 pounds of dry
fertilizer. If the dry fertilizer costs $9.00 per hundred ($180.00 per
ton), then you should be on guard if the liquid fertilizer of the same
formulation costs more than $1.00 per gallon. Fertilizers of the same
grade, formulation, placement and rates give nearly identical response
whether liquid or dry!"




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

A complete copy of this leaflet can be obtained from this office.

(Montelaro)


III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Vegetable Nutritive Values

The nutritional needs of vegetable plants for maximum yields and quality have
been intensively studied and impressive sources of published information are avail-
able. Human nutrition is presently a topic of growing interest and one of vital
importance to the vegetable industry. People using media such as newspapers, radio,
television, books and meetings are discussing nutritive values of food. The February
convention of the United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association featured a consumer
affairs workshop that identified needs for nutritional merchandising for the public.
Panel members cited opportunities for retailers, the media, cooperative extension
services and others, to better acquaint consumers with food values of fresh produce.
We have a nutrition-conscious public, but not a public well-educated in nutrition.

What is good nutrition? There is no simple answer, but about half the U.S.
households are now modifying their diet for health reasons. These are about equally
divided between those that have a health problem and those trying to avoid one.
Vegetables are recognized as important sources of the many vitamins, minerals and
trace elements that have a vital role in human nutrition.

The first USDA Handbook No. 8 published in 1950, presented data on 11 nutrients
in 751 foods. The 1963 revision included 13 nutrients in 2,483 foods. The 1979
revision that is now in preparation will include more detailed information than
previous editions with data on 9 vitamins, 9 mineral elements, fatty acids,
cholesterol, phytosterols, and 18 amino acids. This increase from 4 nutrients
identified in 1892, to 65 at present is indicative of the expanding knowledge on
nutrient composition of foods.

The thousands of chemicals in the body include water, protein, fats, carbohy-
drates, minerals and vitamins. Food supplies energy, measured as calories, to carry
out body activities. The only nutrients that provide calories are fats, proteins
and carbohydrates. Protein can be used to build tissues or provide energy, but
carbohydrates such as those in vegetables can supply the same amount of calories
at a much lower cost than meats. Carbohydrates and proteins both provide 4 calories
per gram of food, whereas fats provide 9 calories per gram. Vegetables are good
sources of sugars and starches used as major energy sources for the body. Other
vegetable nutrients function in releasing energy and tissue growth, assist in muscle,
nerve and blood activities, and form components of bones and teeth. The fiber
provided by many vegetables has only recently been considered important as undigest-
ible matter that aids in waste elimination.

Dr. R. Gaurth Hansen, Professor of Nutrition and Biochemistry at Utah State
University, has reported in the Food Processing Magazine on a method describing
the value of particular foods for providing specific nutrients by an index based
on the relationship of calories and nutrients. He found that vegetables provide
more nutrients per calorie than any other food group.




-8-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


With the increased consumer awareness of vegetable nutritive values, consump-
tion is increasing. In this decade, total vegetable use has increased from 213 to
227 pounds per person with potatoes and home garden vegetables excluded. There has
been a significant break in the long-time decline in use of fresh vegetables. The
advent of nutritional labeling on many food products focused more attention on the
need for current information about the composition of fresh vegetables. If typical
or average nutrient values can be established for certain vegetables from a region
or season, the information may be used as major product features and enable industry
groups to do a better job of merchandising.
(Showalter)


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Tips on Digging and Storing Garden Potatoes

Digging of Irish potatoes, a popular garden vegetable found in most Florida
spring gardens, usually takes place in most areas of the state in late April and
May. Unless there has been a setback due to abnormal growing conditions, potato
tubers are ready to dig from 80 to 90 days after planting. If left undisturbed,
the tops of the potato plants generally die down naturally and the tubers stop
growing in about 120 days after planting.

Many gardeners wish to dig a few early potatoes before the tubers have reached
full size and maturity. Some prefer to dig tubers as needed, from the time most
tubers are ready until the plants die. However, most wait until the tubers are
mature, then dig the entire crop.

This once-over harvest requires care in digging and proper storage techniques
to prevent loss of the stored tubers. Many problems arise after harvest, such as
tuber decay, shriveling, sprouting, greening, and injury from insects and rodents.

Part of the decay and shriveling problems encountered later on are due to skinning
of the tubers at digging time. To minimize the loss due to or enhanced by skinning,
the gardener may take some precautionary steps.

First, the potatoes should be left undug as long as possible until the plant
tops have died back naturally. With the additional maturation period, the outside
surface skin of the tubers becomes tougher and more resistant to scratching and
skinning at digging. Of course, the dilemma here is that tubers left in the ground
in Florida in June are subject to increased chances of rotting due to heavy rainfall.

Second, the tops of the plants should be removed 10 to 14 days prior to digging.
Merely cut the vines at ground level with shears, a sharp knife, or a lawn mower
and remove from the garden. This top cutting causes the skin on the tubers to set
and become tough. Obviously, one would not want to cut tops too early, or loss of
yield would result.

Thirdly, the gardener should exercise great care in removing the tubers from
the soil. Rough handling while digging results in skinned, bruised and cut tubers.
All of these are more prone to decay and other problems in storage.

After potatoes have been dug, they should be cleaned before storing in order to




-9-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

remove dirt and soil that may contain decay organisms. The best way to clean is
to brush off the dirt by hand using a burlap bag or soft brush. Brushing is
particularly easy where only a small amount (bushel or two) of potatoes are involved.
Washing is o.k., except that dumping and washing in a tub or container of water
should be avoided. Decay organisms are spread by the water from one tuber to
another. It is best to spread the tubers out and hose them down with a spray of
water. Or, one might rinse each tuber by hand under a tap. Then, it is important
that they be dried thoroughly in the shade or for 3 or 4 hours in the sun before
storing.

Potatoes should be stored in a dark, cool, dry, well-ventilated place. Since
it is not practical for most gardeners to store quantities of potatoes at the
desirable temperature of 500 to 600F, room temperatures and outdoor shed temperatures
have to be tolerated. Under these warmer conditions it is advisable to keep the
tubers spread out rather than stacked or heaped. Store in a dark area to avoid
greening due to light. Sprouting is not a problem at these higher temperatures
for the first two months, since the potatoes are usually in a no-growth "resting"
stage. Potatoes do not keep well much longer than two to three months anyway.

The final storage precaution is to grade out rotting tubers periodically so
that the entire batch is not contaminated.

(Stephens)


B. Know Your Vegetables Ice Plant

The ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) is a little known vegetable of
the southern hemisphere, now introduced to warm areas in the north. It is seldom
if ever grown in Florida gardens, as a vegetable anyway, and it is unlikely to
become more than just a curiosity plant.

Ice plant is named after the shimmering silvery dots that cover the leaves.
Other names used for it are "fig marigold", (after the edible fruits) "frost plant",
"diamond plant", "mid-day flowers", and "dew plant". This is not to be confused with
New Zealand spinach which is sometimes referred to in gardening booklets as New
Zealand ice plant.

The plant is a perennial, but is grown in gardens as an annual. It is a small
(about the size of bibb lettuce) peculiar looking plant with spreading, round stems.
Blades of the leaves widen towards the outer ends, and become narrow near the stalk.
All green parts of the plant are covered with small, very transparent, membraneous
bladders, which give the plant the appearance of being covered with frozen dew.
Each tiny, white flower has a swollen calyx covered with the bladders. Seeds are
very small, black and shiny. Seed longevity is about five years.

The culture of ice plant appears to be quite easy. The very small seeds are
sown shallow like spinach seeds. Space rows one foot apart, and thin plants to
stand six inches in the row.

Most favorable climatic conditions seem to be hot and dry. Since Florida's
climate is hot and even rather dry at times, it seems possible that the plant would
do well here planted in the spring. The biggest problem is probably lack of a source
of seeds.





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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Pick the leaves as wanted once the plant has several leaves well established.
The slightly acid flavored fleshy parts of the leaves are boiled and served like
spinach.

(Stephens)


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 173.33 or _29
per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and educational material
to extension, research and industry personnel.




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