Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: March 1979
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00146
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


March 9, 1979

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

C. B. Hall
Acting Chairman


R. D. William
Assistant Professor

R. K. Showalter
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

James Montelaro
Professor


COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE)
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA


AND


FROM: J. M. Stephens, Associate Professor & E nsion Vegetable Specialist

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 79-3

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


Vegetable Crops Department Moves to New Building
Three Vegetable Field Days
CORRECTION on Marlowe's February Article
Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet 15 Gardening Lots of Okra


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


Sulfur Potential Need in Vegetable Production
Chemical Control of Weeds in Market Vegetable Gardens


III. HARVESTING & HANDLING

A. Improved Exchange of Marketing Information

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING


An Energy Conservation Garden
Know Your Vegetables Saffron


NOTE: Anyone
please


is free to use the information in this newsletter.
give credit to the authors.


Whenever possible


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


II







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Department Moves to New Building

The Vegetable Crops Department has moved to new facilities. The $7,000,000
complex (temporarily referred to as the Horticulture-Plant Pathology Building)
will house the Departments of Ornamental Horticulture, Fruit Crops, Vegetable
Crops and Plant Pathology. Vegetable Crops Extension phone numbers in the new
building will be (904) 392-2134, 2135 and 2136 (revolving).

The building is located adjacent to Hull Road on the old Agronomy Farm just
south of Lake Alice and north of the Archer Road. Stop by on your visits to
Gainesville and get a personal tour of a beautiful facility.

(Montelaro)

B. Three Vegetable Field Days Set

Put these three dates on your calendar and make plans now to attend these
vegetable field days. They are as follows:

1. Location: ARC, Hastings, Florida
Date: April 19, 1979, 1:30 P.M.

2. Location: Belle Glade, Florida
Date: May 10, 1979

3. Location: Bradenton, Florida
Date: May 22, 1979

Detailed programs for these three field days will be mailed out later. Check
the April issue of this newsletter for additional field day notices.

(Montelaro)

C. CORRECTION on Marlowe's February Article

It was called to our attention that some of the information presented in Table
6 of Dr. Marlowe's February article is not correct. Average weight of fruit as shown
in the table is about 50% less than normal. Since Marlowe is gone and his raw data
is not available to us, we are unable to make accurate corrections. In view of this,
we suggest discarding Table 6 of the article or using size-data for relative com-
parisons only. We apologize for the error.


(Montelaro)





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


D. Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet 15 Gardening Lots of Okra

Due to the cartoonistic format of this new fact sheet, some explanation should
be given to its intended usage. It has been developed on a special Federal Urban
Gardening (called "Gardening Lots") appropriation for Duval County to reach a
special audience of low-income, disadvantaged families. However, additional copies
have been made available to all counties for similar or other audiences. It is left
to the judgement of homeowner agents as to the advisability of its use in your
county. We intend to use the more conventional format for a general guide on okra
for homeowners later on. Several other similarly illustrated fact sheets on other
crops are soon to be released in the "Gardening Lots" series.

By the way, a revised edition of Circular 104, "Vegetable Gardening Guide" is
in final stages of printing and is soon to be released.

(Stephens)

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Sulfur Potential Need in Vegetable Production

Over the years sulfur has received far less attention than have the other two
secondary nutrient elements, calcium and magnesium. The reason for this is simple.
Comparatively speaking, relatively few instances of sulfur problems in plant nutri-
tion have been noted. In the majority of cases where sulfur problems have been
noted, they were related to toxicities from gaseous sulfur compounds, primarily
sulfur dioxide and, possibly, hydrogen sulfide. Sulfur dioxide toxicities have
been observed most often near chemical plants, power plants, etc. where gaseous
compounds are exhausted from fuels used to generate power or chemicals used in
manufacturing processes. If anything, this type of problem is less common now than
15 or 20 years ago as a result of rigid environmental regulations against use of
high sulfur fuels and heavy exhaust of noxious gases.

By the same token, elimination of sulfur compounds from industrial exhaust
systems may be leading to sulfur deficiency as a common problem much like calcium,
magnesium, potassium, etc. Though harmful to humans, sulfur in exhaust from in-
dustrial plants supplied adequate sulfur to most soils for purposes of plant nutrition
in past decades. There are indications now that soils in certain areas are becoming
deficient in sulfur. Extension agronomists of the University of Florida even now
are recommending a few pounds of elemental sulfur per acre in some areas of west
Florida for corn.

No incidence of sulfur deficiency has been noted on vegetable crops in Florida
up to the present time. However, extension and research workers in south Georgia
positively identified sulfur deficiency in a turnip crop two years ago.

These two examples are indicative of potential problems in Florida vegetable
crops at some time in the future. The likelihood of sulfur deficiency in vegetable
crops becomes more probable by the day with the increase of the use of: 1) sulfur-
free fuels, 2) adequate scrubbing of exhaust fumes and 3) more highly-refined
fertilizer materials.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Until the problem develops and is identified correctly, vegetable growers
have nothing to worry about. They should be aware of the possibility of sulfur
deficiency in vegetable crops. If the problem is encountered or suspected, please
inform your County Extension Agent. The symptoms of sulfur deficiency are quite
similar to those of nitrogen. The major difference is that new growth in sulfur
deficient plants may be somewhat more chlorotic as this element, unlike nitrogen,
is not translocated from old to new tissue in most plants.
(Montelaro)


B. Chemical Control of Weeds in Market Vegetable Gardens

(This article concludes a two-part series which is being published as an
Extension Fact Sheet for use in county educational programs).

Herbicides Chemical herbicides often provide dramatic results by selectively
controlling many types of weeds when applied to vegetable listed on the label.
However, their use in market vegetable gardens requires careful study and planning.
Herbicides must be applied at the right time for both weed and crop, and at
exactly the proper rate. Only a very small amount of error can be tolerated before
either your crop is injured or poor weed control is achieved. Special equipment
including flat-fan type nozzles and a properly calibrated herbicide sprayer are
essential for uniform application of herbicides. After application, some volatile
herbicides will require immediate and thorough soil incorporation preplantt incor-
poration). Most other soil-applied herbicides (preemergence) require brief rainfall
or irrigation to activate the chemical before the weed seeds germinate and emerge.
A few herbicides are registered for postemergence use in vegetables, but often require
special shielded application equipment.

Because several kinds of vegetables are often planted in market gardens, your
choice of herbicides and their use will be somewhat limited. Several herbicides
commonly used in vegetable production are listed in the following table. Note
and compare the advantages and limitations of each herbicide.

With careful planning, you can group your vegetables according to their tolerance
to two or three herbicides by listing the crops stated on each herbicide label. But
before purchasing an herbicide, read the label information carefully and note the
detailed instructions and precautions for the safe use of these chemicals. For more
information about chemical weed control in vegetables, read Extension Circular 196,
"Chemical Weed Control for Florida Vegetable Crops".

In summary, market vegetable gardeners should consider and develop a year-round
weed management program. The program should minimize competition and enhance vegetable
yields and quality. To achieve these goals, every crop and weed management factor
that either influences the growth and reproduction of weeds or shifts the competitive
balance in favor of the crop must be combined and implemented in the entire crop
management system.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

able 1. Comparison of possible herbicides for market vegetable gardens. Read the label
carefully to determine the proper amount and application method for your vegetable
crops and field conditions.

Herbicide Available Vegetables Weeds
common and formulations listed on controlled Requirements and remarks
(trade) name (package size) label and duration

Chloramben Liquid (5 gal.) Few Seedling grasses & Requires slight moisture for z
(Amiben) and broadleaf weeds for tivation.
granular several weeks.

DCPA Wettable Many Seedling grasses & Requires moisture or slight ir
(Dacthal) powder (4 lb) broadleaf weeds for corporation. Note label preca
and several months. tions about replanting crops
granular within 8 months after applicat

Diphenamid Wettable Some Seedling grasses & Requires moisture or slight in
(Enide) powder broadleaf weeds for portion. Note label precauti
(4 lb) several months. about replanting crops within
months after application.
TC Liquid (5 gal.) Few Seedling grasses & Requires immediate and uniform
(Eptam) and some broadleaf or soil incorporation to prevent
granular perennial weeds for loss of herbicide.
(50 Ib bag) several weeks.

Trifluralin Liquid (1 qt) Some Seedling grasses & Requires immediate and uniform
(Treflan) and some broadleaf weeds soil incorporation to prevent
granular for several months. loss of herbicide. Note label
precautions about replanting
crops within 5 months after
application in Florida.

(William)

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Improved Exchange of Marketing Information

Improving the handling and marketing of vegetables is an objective of the
Vegetable Crops Department Extension program that is often difficult to achieve.
Handling vegetables for maximum consumer quality involves horticultural properties
often not understood or perceived by untrained laborers employed by industry in
harvesting, packing, transporting and merchandising. Available quality maintenance
information from previous research greatly exceeds the level of technology used in
commercial marketing channels. Poor grading, rough handling, lack of decay control
treatments, and poor temperature and humidity management are very common, and they re-
sult in unnecessary losses as high as 25 to 30 percent from diseases, mechanical
injuries, dehydration and changes in composition. Thus, a large percentage of the
resources put into production and marketing of horticultural crops may be lost through





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


improper handling at any step enroute to the consumer.

The Extension program in vegetables at the University of Florida is directed
primarily to the citizens of Florida through county Extension staffs with some efforts
expended directly with youth, homeowners, commercial growers and industry groups.
Production technology has been Extension's main objective and the major kind of in-
formation provided to growers. Marketing technology is very complex and the emphasis
changes from biological factors during production to economic factors after harvest.
Before harvest, growers are usually familiar with factors they can use to control
growth of their crops, their relative cost and their local Extension staff who can
assist them in case of problems.

In a recent national study of Cooperative Extension Service programs for large
commercial family farms, it was reported that most of the interviewed farmers looked
to Extension as a reliable source of information on production technology and they
were well satisfied. When these farmers were asked to list obstacles preventing
them from accomplishing their goals, marketing information was most frequently
mentioned (30%) and only 2% listed production technology. Few farmers expected
comparable assistance in marketing from Extension and a surprising number did not
even think of Extension as a source of marketing information. The nature of Extension
programs with local grass roots development added credibility with farm people that
were dissatisfied with other government programs.

From harvesting operations to consumption, many people influence subsequent
quality and profitability. Costs of labor or machines for harvesting, preparation,
packaging, transporting and merchandising vegetables amounted to 75% of the retail
price in 1977. Many decisions are made by buyers, truckers, businessmen and others
who do not consult with Extension. Problems are accentuated in marketing over long
distances, and industry has not used many postharvest research findings because the
people involved do not know or choose not to pay for optimum conditions. Only with
road-side or other local marketing can customers communicate with growers about size,
maturity, variety, quality, price or other factors.

In the 1978 report of the national Extension study committee, marketing infor-
mation was considered critical and present sources inadequate. This committee had
difficulty in defining specific needs and recommended a follow-up study to provide
more specific program direction.

If program planners had attended the American Society for Horticultural Science
meeting in New Orleans in February, they could have listened to professional Extension
workers discuss their methods and goals in one hotel while industry members of the
United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association discussed their marketing problems and
needs in another hotel of the same city. In the industry meeting, one group interested
in improved tomato quality proposed that a merchandiser travel around the country
to instruct retail personnel how to handle tomatoes and prevent chilling injury.
If the professional and industry groups had shared their meetings with each other,
both could have gained some needed coordination of activities. Similarity in
some objectives of the two groups was indicated when the report by Robert Reinecke,
President, Produce Marketing Association was read in both meetings.




-7-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Quotations from this important message are as follows:

"I am constantly amazed at the different levels of marketing knowledge found
throughout the growing and shipping segment of the produce industry. At one end of
the spectrum we find several marketing oriented firms and the commodity marketing
boards (or commissions) with their well thought-out marketing plans. These companies
put no limit on the funds spent to provide accurate and complete market information
on all of the commodities they handle.

Because of it, buyers and merchandisers are properly informed about fluctuations
in price and production factors such as weather which affect quantity, size and quality.
These produce industry companies are staffed with people who really understand mar-
keting and the importance of good supplier/customer relationships. Unfortunately,
too few belong to this category.

At the other end of the spectrum we find those who operate with a "buyer beware"
philosophy and believe that marketing is simply selling their products at the best
price. This is the group that does not "think retail" and does not try to understand
what is necessary to advertise and merchandise their products effectively. They fail
to understand that the buying trade today is best able to sell properly and adequately
when serviced by high quality informative connections.

Also, the next time you attend a growers meeting and someone starts condemning
supermarket produce prices, stand up and defend your customer's policies. Make sure
you know the facts about gross margins. Usually, growers look at two figures: the
prices they receive and the prices charged at retail. Everything in between is
thought to be gross profit. This narrow view of gross profits is a false concept
and should be refuted whenever possible.

Remember that cost to a retailer includes not only what is paid to the grower-
shipper, but also precooling charges, brokerage fees, other service fees such as
wrapping, packaging, palletization and freight charges. All of the store produce
department expenses have to be allocated to each item sold. Labor, shrinkage,
store operating expenses, taxes, administrative overhead all must be considered.

They reduce store gross profit down to a net profit figure far below the spread
between what the grower-shipper receives and the figure rung up at the check-out
register."

Many reasons can be cited for improving the exchange of handling and marketing
information. Since many individuals in the produce industry are not reached by
traditional Extension programs, more educational effort should be directed through
industry meetings and publications. Organizations such as Produce Marketing Associa-
tion, Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable
Association, Food Marketing Institute and individual crop organizations have meetings
where reports on industry related subjects are often welcome.


(Showalter)




-8-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. An Energy Conservation Garden

As the world's energy crisis worsens due to the gradual depletion of oil and
natural gas supplies, all areas of endeavor which utilize products and practices
based on these scarce energy sources must be examined for any possible changes that
might be made to conserve energy. Gardening is one such endeavor that is done by a
sufficiently large segment of society to make any conservation moves consequential.
Perhaps as insignificant as turning off a light switch when light is not needed,
any step a gardener might take to reduce petroleum based energy utilization would
contribute to the nation's overall effort to conserve energy.

The first step in designing an energy conservation garden is to identify all of
the gardening inputs which depend upon oil or natural gas in any way for their
utilization in gardening.

The second step is to outline the various ways energy is involved with the par-
ticular input so that priorities can be placed on changes needed.

The third step is to determine what possible substitutions are available which
would be equally effective in producing the vegetables while also minimizing
utilization of scarce energy sources.

The final step is to organize all of the energy conscious steps into a practical
procedure for a successful vegetable garden.

This article will briefly outline the first three steps. However, considerable
more space is needed to fully explore these steps and to effectively deal with step
four.

An energy conservation garden, in its simplest form, resembles an old fashioned
hand powered, organic garden. Perhaps somewhere in between this most austere approach
and today's present energy wasteful approach of giving the plants in the garden every-
thing available on the market and doing things the easy way, the energy conscious
gardener might find the most practical contribution to the conservation of energy.







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


.Step 2


Step 1


Energy Using Properties


Energy Inputs


Substitute Practices Minimizing Energy Utilizatior


a. Chemical Fertilizers a. Production, Containerization, a. Use locally available natural organic, or mal
Merchandising, and Transpor- more efficient use of inorganics.
station of products.

b. Chemical Pesticides b. Same as for "fertilizers" b. Use resistant varieties, cultural practices,
and the non-chemical ways to control pests
where feasible. Spray or dust only as ne-
cessary.

c. Seeds c. Same as for "fertilizers" c. Save one's own seeds where feasible. Reduce
container inputs thru bulk vending. Grow one
own transplants using energy conserving prac-
tices.

d. Mulch d. Same as for "fertilizers" d. Eliminate use of plastic mulches, use only
locally available materials, or re-use plastic

e. Water e. Same as for "fertilizers"; e. Conserve water by mulching. Use more efficiei
additionally, application of application methods such as drip (although
water requires further utili- drip requires use of plastics), and better
zation of energy, timing of applications.

f. Tools f. Same as for "fertilizers"; f. Use simple hand operated tools. Eliminate
also, various items of gardening gasoline powered equipment. Avoid plastics.
equipment also requires
energy to operate.


Step 3




-IU-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Know Your Vegetables Saffron

Saffron (Crocus sativus L) essentially is not a vegetable, although in some
areas of the world the corms of various crocus spp. are eaten by local peasants.
Saffron is one of the world's most expensive spices. The slender dried flower
stigmas of the saffron plant constitute the true saffron of commerce. Some reports
place the wholesale price of saffron at around $100 per pound and the retail price
at 80t a gram, or $365 a pound. Each blossom yields only three stigmas, which must
be picked by hand. Supposedly it takes 210,000 stigmas to make one pound of saffron.
At one time saffron was popular as a yellowish-orange natural dye stuff. Today
synthetic dyes have replaced it.

Crocus sativus native to southern Europe and Asia is a small showy, bulbous
perennial, 6 to 10 inches high, with violet to bluish, lily shaped flowers.

It is questionable whether or not saffron plants will grow well here in Florida,
for reportedly low annual rainfall of 15 to 18 inches is desirable. Obviously,
Florida's annual rainfall exceeds this amount greatly. Heavy rains at flowering time
do considerable damage to the blossoms producing the saffron.

In areas of the world where saffron is grown, such as Spain, Portugal, France,
and India, an annual yield of 8 to 10 pounds of dried saffron is obtained in an
established planting. Usually the maximum yield occurs in the third year after
planting.

Plants are propagated vegetatively by planting at 6 by 6-inch intervals the
young cormlets that form annually at the base of the bulblike mother corm. While
the plants may live and bloom for ten to fifteen years, few plants are kept longer
than five years commercially. In Italy saffron is cultivated as an annual, mature
corms being set every fall; in France they are uprooted and replanted every three
years, in Spain after four years, and in India after 10 to 15 years.

When the plants begin to bloom, harvesting should commence quickly, for the
flowering period may last only fifteen days. The triple stigmas are picked by hand
daily just as the flower opens. It is estimated that about 210,000 dried stigmas
taken from 70,000 flowers are required to make one pound of true saffron. On drying,
either in the sun or by artificial heat, the stigmas lose 80 per cent of their weight.

After harvest and when fully dried, the saffron must be stored immediately,
preferably in tightly covered or sealed tin containers, and protected from light to
avoid bleaching. The final product is a compressed, highly aromatic, matted mass of
narrow, threadlike dark orange to reddish brown strands about an inch long.

True saffron has a pleasantly spicy, pungent, bitter taste and a tenacious odor.
Fortunately, a little saffron goes a long way. Besides being steeped in tea, it is
used for seasoning many foods such as fancy rolls and biscuits, rice, fish, and
others.
(Stephens)


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 139.28 or 19
per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and educational material
to extension, research and industry personnel.




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