Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: December 1978
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00143
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
y AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
IF UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


aEYC.... VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER
Vegetable Crops Department 3026 McCarty Hall

December 26, 1978


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

C. B. Hall
Acting Chairman


R. D. William
Assistant Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


M. E. Marvel
Professor


James Montelaro
Professor


TO:


FROM:


VEGETARIAN NEWS


COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA
James Montelaro, Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist

LETTER 78-12


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. CORRECTION Last Month's Freeze Protection Article

B. Symposium Plant Production Structure & Environmental Control

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Bacterial Wilt & Nematodes Interaction in Tomatoes

B. The Importance of the Seed Salesman in Modern Vegetable Production

C. Planting Decisions for Profitable Watermelon Production


III.


HARVEST AND HANDLING


A. Hydraircooling A New Concept for Precooling Pallet Loads
of Vegetables


VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Squash Raw and Naked

B. Know Your Vegetables Jojoba

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible
please give credit to the authors.

skh
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. CORRECTION Last Month's Freeze Protection Article

We appreciate being toldwhenwe make a mistake. This happened shortly after
our November newsletter was mailed out. One of our readers called attention to the
statement under 8(f) at the bottom of page 4. It read "Turn system off when temper-
ature rises above 32 F." We forgot to say "wet bulb temperature". The reader sug-
gested keeping the system on until all ice melts. This is probably the safest
approach.

(Montelaro)

B. Symposium Plant Production Structure & Environment Control

Dr. Richard Henley, Foliage Extension Specialist at ARC, Apopka asked us to
call this symposium to the attention of our vegetable transplant growers and other
interested parties. It will be held on January 17, 1979 at the Howard Johnson Motel
(Florida Center), Orlando, Florida. Together with the symposium featuring nationally
recognized speaker, there will be "trade fair" where equipment and materials will be
available for inspection.

Additional information can be obtained from Dr. Richard Henley, ARC, Route
#3, Box 580, Apopka, Florida 32703 or from this office.

(Montelaro)


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Bacterial Wilt & Nematode Interaction in Tomatoes

Southern bacterial wilt is a common disease of many vegetable crops in
Florida. It can be especially serious on crops of tomato, potato, eggplant and
pepper. Leaves of infected plants show severe wilt symptoms for a short period of
two or three days followed by death of the plant. The organism involved is a soil-
borne bacterium present in most of our Florida soils. Crop loss may range from a
few scattered plants to a significant portion of any planting.

Development of the disease is unpredictable, at best. A tomato crop may not
be seriously affected even though it follows a crop completely devastated on the same
land the previous season. Why this happens has not been explained satisfactorily by
many years of research on this disease. It has been demonstrated that the disease
organism "enters the plant roots through wounds" (Walker, J. C. Diseases of Vegetable
Crops. Page 443. 1952). This point may have been demonstrated in a tomato crop
grown in Florida this fall where as many as 75% of the plants in a part of a 20-acre
field were observed to be infested with bacterial wilt. Close examination of the
roots of severely wilted plants clearly showed that root wounds were abundant as a
result of a heavy root-knot nematode infestation.








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

In the other part of the 20-acre field, little or no nematode injury could
be found. Similarly, very little, if any, bacterial wilt was observed. The dif-
ference in nematode control (and bacterial wilt as well in this case) was due to
differences in effectiveness of the fumigant. The heavily infested portion of the
field was too dry for the fumigant to be effective. A rain provided adequate mois-
ture for the remainder of the field where nematode control was good. Differences
between the two were obvious even to the causal observer.

This discussion does not mean to imply that root-knot nematode is the sole
predisposing factor in bacterial wilt development. We believe it has shed light on
the interaction of one problem with another. These types of interactions are ever
present and are indeed hard to unravel. One lesson to be learned from this experi-
ence is the importance of attention to details not only in fumigation but in every
other cultural operation as well.

(Montelaro, Dunn*, Simone*)

Note: Dr. R. A. Dunn and Dr. G. W. Simone are Extension Nematologist, Extension
Plant Pathologist, respectively, IFAS, Gainesville, Florida.


B. The Importance of the Seed Salesman in Modern Vegetable Production

Vegetable growers realize how important the seed salesman is in keeping
them informed of the performance, and quality characteristics of the newest varieties.
Seed salesmen gain information from plant breeders, variety trials, and the seed pro-
ducer. Most of the seed sales personnel maintain a close working relationship with
IFAS plant breeders and workers evaluating new cultivars.

In Florida, the role of the seed salesman is made more challenging by the
large number of vegetables grown and the wide range of planting and harvest dates.
For major crops such as tomato, beans, peppers, and cabbage, the seed salesman may
need to keep track of several dozen varieties for each crop.

Seed production and distribution has become a highly sophisticated system.
For example, snap bean seed should be grown in dry climates to reduce the potential
of anthracnose, and bacterial blights. Pepper, although related to tomato, must be
given greater care in handling and storage than tomato. Sweet corn seed must be dried
and stored very carefully after harvest to maintain vigor, whereas the seed of the
cabbage and squash family achieve a fairly stable seed moisture as they mature in the
fruit. Each vegetable seed has specific storage and handling characteristics.

Some typical factors the modern seed salesman is concerned with are presented
in the following table. Relationships within crop families are important in under-
standing the possible disease similarities. Seed yield per acre may help us to
appreciate why some seed is more expensive than others. The type of flower may be
important in determining the crossability of cultivars within the crop during seed
production.

Seed salesmen are largely responsible for the fast adoption rate of new vari-
eties. Extension workers appreciate the vital role seed salesmen play in helping
Florida vegetable growers remaining competitive.


(Marlowe)







Some factors related to seed production and performance (Adapted from Hawthorn and Pollard, 1954. Blakiston).

Seed yield Planting Seeds Yrs. to Flower Opt. Germ Days to Opt. Growing Temp. Storage
Crop Relatives Ibs/A Amt./A* ounce produce type** Temp. OF Germ. Min. F Max. F life, y


Beans, snap


Cabbage


Carrot


Peas,
Soybeans
Kale, tur-
nip, cauli-
flower


Celery
parsnip


1300


700


500


70 lbs 100


D 1 lb
T 3 oz


8,500


3 Ibs 23,000


1 Perfect 80


2 Perfect 85


2 Perfect 80


Corn, sweet


Cucumber



Lettuce


Okra


Onion


Pepper


Radish
Small
Large


Bamboo,
field corn,
pop corn

Pumpkin,
squash,
watermelon

Dandelion,
Endive,
Chicory

Hibiscus,
Cotton


Garlic, leek,
Amaryllis

Tomato,
Eggplant,
Tobacco


Turnip
Cabbage,
Kale


2000


500



200


12 lbs


150


D 2 Lbs 1,000
T 2 lbs


D 3 Ibs 25,000
T 6 oz


700


500


50


7 lbs


500


D 2 lbs 9,000
T 2 lbs

D 3 lbs 4,500
T 4 oz


10 lbs 3,000


700


1 Monoec.


1 Monoec. 95



1 Perfect 75


1 Perfect 95


2 Perfect 75


1 Perfect 85


Perfect 85









Squash
Summer
Winter


Tomato


Watermelon


Cucumber,
Watermelon,
Gourd

Eggplant,
Pepper,
Tobacco

Cucumber,
Squash,
Pumpkin


400
300


300



150


D 4 Ibs 300
T 2 Ibs 100


D 4 lbs
T 4 oz


D 2 Ibs
T 1 lb.


300



300


Monoec.
Monoec.


1 Perfect 95



1 Monoec. 95


*Planting rate, D = direct seed, T = transplant, amt. needed to produce plants for 1 acre.

**Flower types = Perfect: male and female in same flower. Monoec. = monoecious male and female flower are separate
but on same plant.




-6-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER



C. Planting Decisions for Profitable Watermelon Production

Many watermelon growers complain about low prices received for their product.
According to a recent market analysis, watermelon growers in several parts of Florida
received the lowest average prices for their melons in the Southeast. However, let's
examine some production decisions that effect market prices and determine how we can
improve the competitive advantage of Florida's watermelon growers.

During the past 5 years, watermelon acreages have ranged from 47,000 to
65,000 acres with 60% of the acreage planted in North and West Florida. However, only
43,600 to 55,000 acres were harvested during this 5-year period. Prices ranged from
4.36/1lb. when fewer acres were planted in 1974-75 to 2.614/lb. when 65,000 acres were
planted in 1975-76. Therefore, growers must recognize the relationship between planted
acreage and the price paid to the grower. In economic terms, this relationship is
called the law of supply and demand. Because consumers will eat only so many melons
depending on weather conditions at the terminal market and relative competition with
other crops such as peaches, Florida growers should not expect to plant infinite acreages.
Although speculation will always occur, watermelon growers can follow a general rule-
of-thumb of about 43,000 acres of melons at current yield levels are needed to generate
an average farm level price of 4c/lb. throughout the state.

Progressive growers often wonder what they can do to improve their share of the
watermelon market. Although continued market development for a region is important, it
depends on many forces that the individual grower has little or no control over. There-
fore, growers may wish to concentrate their immediate attention on improving production
efficiencies and economic yields. For example, growers who produce high watermelon
yields on a specified acreage tend to maximize profits because fixed costs are spread
over a larger volume of fruit. Growers should carefully assess their direct competi-
tion from other production regions that supply melons to the national markets during
the same period of time. In addition, growers are encouraged to complete the question-
aire involving "intentions to plant" provided by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service and to consider the report when making final decisions regarding individual
plantings. Remember, successful growers recognize the fact that it is far more efficient
to produce high yields of quality melons on a few acres than a few, poor quality melons
on a lot of acres.

Extension agents are encouraged to develop educational programs and request more
detailed information about watermelon planting and marketing decisions from Dr. Bryan
Wall, Extension Marketing Specialist (Vegetables), Food and Resource Economics Depart-
ment, Gainesville.

(William & Wall)


III. HARVEST AND HANDLING

A. Hydraircooling A New Concept for Precooling Pallet Loads of Vegetables

The research was done here in Florida on this new concept of combining cold
water and cold air to speed up cooling and decrease both time and energy required.








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


This work has also shown that the cooling of the centers of pallet loads is much
more effective than with either air or water alone. The equipment is adaptable to
cooling of vegetables in any type of container by varying the air-water ratio to fit
the type of container and the commodity. Early research was limited to sweet corn
in bulk bins, celery in fiberboard containers and the measurement of water quality.

Research is continuing with other vegetables such as cabbage, pepper, and
cucumbers that are not normally hydrocooled and on water quality and chlorine stability.

Copies of this and subsequent research published on this subject may be secured
from the authors at the following addresses; F. E. Henry, U.S.D.A. Agricultural
Engineering Department IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 or
A. H. Bennett, U.S.D.A., ARS, Athens, Georgia.

(Marvel)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Squash Raw and Naked

Don't be surprised to find raw squash among the dips and vegetable sticks at
your next party. Although it is news to many that squash can be eaten raw, the con-
sumption of uncooked squash may be centuries old. In fact, the word squash is de-
rived from the Indian word "askutasquash", meaning "eaten raw or uncooked". But the
Indians also cooked squash by boiling or broiling, and charred remains of squash thou-
sands of years old have been found in Mexico.

Maybe the Indian word for squash is derived from the use of raw seeds. The
flesh of wild cucurbita species is so bitter that it is inedible, so seeds were likely
to have been the first parts eaten.

Cucurbita seeds are an excellent source of protein and oil. The hardness of
the seedcoats limits their use in this country. But that is changing. Now, there are
available varieties of Cucurbita pepo such as 'Lady Godiva', 'Eat All'. 'Sweetnut',
and 'Hull-less' which do not have the tough seed coats. Such seeds are delicious un-
cooked or roasted.

Gardeners growing 'Lady Godiva' or other naked seeded varieties do not need to
worry about isolating these plants from the other squash to prevent cross-pollination.
Honeybees will probably cross-pollinate 'Lady Godiva' with summer squash, pumpkin, or
other varieties of C. pepo, but the seed in the 'Lady Godiva' fruit will still not
have a tough seed coat. The seed coat is entirely maternal tissue and is not affected
by cross pollination. But home gardeners should not try to save seed from 'Lady Godiva'
for planting, because such seed will not produce fruit with naked seed if cross pol-
linated.


(Stephens)








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Know Your Vegetables Jojoba

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) S.) is not a vegetable, but has been
confused for such a crop because its soft-skinned nuts have long been eaten by Indians
as food. It is a wild, desert shrub which produces oil rich nuts. It is for this oil
that the plant is most prized.

Jojoba is native to the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Mexico and to neigh-
boring regions in Arizona and Southern California. Nowhere else in the world does it
grow as a native plant, but within this region it exists, often in dense stands, scat-
tered over 100,000 square miles of arid lands. Due to this climatic adaptation it is
unlikely that jojoba would grow well in Florida's humid, subtropical conditions. In
fact, so far there is only speculation as to whether or not the crop could be domesti-
caged even in arid or semi-arid climates.

It is an unspectacular looking shrub that may reach 15 feet in height. Its
flat gray-green, leathery leaves and its deep root system make it well adapted to with-
stand desert heat and dryness.

These shrubs are either male staminatee) which produce pollen, or female which
produce flowers. When pollinated, usually in late summer, these pistillate flowers
develop into fruit. The following spring, the fruit swells and grows. In the summer's
heat the green fruit dries, its outer skin shrivels and peels back, exposing a wrinkled
brown soft-skinned nut the size of a small olive.

The nuts contain a vegetable oil that is yellowish and odorless but feels less
oily than traditional, edible oils. Half the weight of the nut is oil. The oil is
important because its chemical structure is unique among all known vegetable oils.
Jojoba oil is a polyunsaturated liquid wax of a type not easily synthesized commercially.
The only other source has been the sperm whale which has been killed in great numbers
to supply the demand for sperm oil.

Jojoba flowers have no odors or petals to attract pollinating insects. Thus,
Jojoba depends almost entirely on the wind for pollination.

The nut does not go through a period of dormancy and it can be germinated soon
after harvesting. At about 77 F, germination occurs in less than a week. Stem cuttings
have produced roots within 8 weeks in mist propagation at 720F.

Jojoba shows its best growth in areas with 10 to 18 inches of annual rainfall
and where temperatures seldom fall below 250F. for more than a few hours at night. It
grows on a diversity of soil, from porous rocks to clays, in slightly acid to alkaline
soils, on mountain slopes and in valleys. But it is always found on well aerated soils.

Some of the potential uses for jojoba nuts and plants have been outlined as
follows: lubrication, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food cooking oils, salad oil, vege-
table oil, shortening, waxes, animal feed supplement (if toxin is denatured) due to
20-30% protein content of oilless meal, animal browse food, and ornamental plant. The
roasted nuts smell and taste like roasted coffee beans.








-9-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Since this is a wild plant native to
gardeners are not encouraged to grow jojoba.
scrub oak lands might offer some opportunity.
reliable seed source.


arid regions of the west, Florida
However, the dry, well-drained, sandy
A major drawback is the lack of a


Anyone interested in further reading on jojoba should obtain a copy of
"Jojoba Feasibility for Cultivation on Indian Reservations in the Sonoran Desert
Region", from the National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington,
D.C. Most of this report was taken from that book.


(Stephens)


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $174-i1 or o .
per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and educational material
to extension, research and industry personnel."


--




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