Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: November 1978
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00142
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
/ ^ AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
IFS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER
11A.M AIS....


November 10, 1978

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

C. B. Hall
Acting Chairman


R. D. William
Assistant Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


M. E. Marvel
Professor


James Montelaro
Professor


TO:


FROM:


COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

James Montelaro, Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 78-11

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. EPA Regulations Modified by Congress
B. Fact Sheets Available for Commercial Vegetable Production

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Frost and Freeze Protection for Vegetable Crops in Florida
B. Labor Used to Produce Staked Tomatoes on Full Bed Mulch in the
Manatee-Ruskin Area
C. Sweet Potato Slide/Tape Set Available

III. HARVEST AND HANDLING

A. Post Harvest Handling of Strawberries


VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Acidity of Tomatoes
B. Know Your Vegetables -- Broccoli Raab

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible,
please give credit to the authors.
skh

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. EPA Regulations Modified by Congress

The President signed the Federal Pesticide Law of 1978 on September 30 which
went into effect the same day. A number of changes were made which will affect pesti-
cide regulations significantly. The fourteen major points covered in the law are sum-
marized by Dr. R. L. Lipsey in the October, 1978 issue of "Chemically Speaking".
A copy can be obtained from this office or from Dr. Lipsey.

One point of the law is of major importance to vegetable growers. The bill
provides four new exceptions to use inconsistent with the label:

1) You may apply a pesticide at any dosage, concentration or frequency
less than specified on the label.

2) You may apply a pesticide against any pest not specified on the label
if used on a crop, animal or site that is specified.

3) You may use any application method not prohibited on the label.

4) You may mix the pesticide with a fertilizer if the mixing is not prohi-
bited by the label.

(Montelaro)

B. Fact Sheets Available for Commercial Vegetable Production

Many agents have suggested that additional information summarized in Extension
Fact Sheets and pertaining to specific topics of commercial vegetable production
would be useful in county programs. Agents, therefore, may wish to reorder supplies
of the following VC Fact Sheets pertaining to commercial vegetable production. These
Fact Sheets may be ordered from Chick Hinton, Bldg. 60.

Available VC Fact Sheets

1. VC-1, Water Chlorination for Vegetable Packinghouses.

2. VC-12, Nutsedge Suppression in Commercial Vegetables.

3. VC-13, Perennial Grass Control in Commercial Vegetables.

4. VC-14, Weed Control for Full-Bed Mulched Vegetables.

Future VC Fact Sheets (Being Prepared).

1. VC-15, Nursery Production of Strawberry Plants.

2. VC-16, Herbicidal Control of Florida Weed Species.

3. VC-17, Weed Control in Market Vegetable Gardens.

4. VC-18, Ethylene and Vegetable Crops.
(William)







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Frost and Freeze Protection for Vegetable Crops in Florida

Cold injury of one sort or another is a common occurrence in Florida
vegetable production in late Fall, Winter and Spring. Last month, the topic "Cold-
Stress Related Problems" was discussed. The article deals with frost and freeze
protection for vegetable crops.

A freeze is described as a period of cold weather with temperatures 32 F or
below. In Florida, freezes occur where cold air masses move in with cold fronts.
Frost (often referred to as white frost) is a term used in agriculture to identify
a specific type of freeze. It occurs on cold, clear, calm nights where conditions
are right for temperature inversion. These conditions lead to rapid radiation cooling
where upper leaf surface temperatures can drop to 32 F or below with formation of ice
crystals. This can happen even though surrounding air temperatures may be as high as
38 to 40 F. Leaf and fruit tissue freezes at temperatures slightly lower than water.
It is possible, therefore to have ice crystals form on leaf surfaces but none internally
under light, frosty conditions. The amount of damage to crop plants is determined by
species, age and condition of plant, amount of leaf surface moisture, minimum tem-
perature, rate of thaw, etc.

Whereas frost damage may be quite spotty and light in a given area, freeze (also
referred to as black frost) damage is more complete and often more serious. From
a control standpoint, it can be said that those practices which will protect against
freeze damage will also protect against frost injury. However, the reverse is not
necessarily true as some protective measures work against frost but not against freeze
hazards.

1. Site Selection Air drains downward much like water. Avoid areas known
to be cold on frosty nights or conversely select the warmer of southerly slopes,
near bodies of water, etc.
2. Crop Selection Grow cold tolerant crops during the danger period, when-
ever possible.
3. Timing Delay seeding in the Spring or advance in the Fall to lessen chances
of Spring or Fall freezes. Containerized transplants, by reducing time of exposure in
the field, may serve to lessen the chances of freeze damage.
4. Plant Covers A number of covering devices are used to protect plants from
frost and freezes. These include individual plant covers of paper, plastic etc.,
plastic row covers, and soil. Each of these has its limitations as well as being
costly and time consuming. Full-bed plastic mulch has proven to be somewhat effective
in frost and freeze protection.
5. Moist, Surface-compact Soil These two work hand in hand. As moisture
evaporates from the soil surface, it gives off heat and is enhanced by compact surface
soil. When freeze conditions threatens, increasing soil moisture (.25 to .50 inches)
by overhead sub-surface or drip irrigation together with a clean, compacted soil sur-
face combine to lessen freeze damage.
6. Oil Heat Burning of tires, trash, etc. is now prevented by law, but,
certain types of fuel burners are still on the approved list. This method of frost
protection is costly and used sparingly in Florida.







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

7. Air Mixing On clear, cold, calm nights cold air settles near the soil
surface as the warm air moves upwards. Any device which mixes the warm air above
with the cold air near the soil surface increases air temperatures near the plants.
Properly spaced and operated wind machines with certain limitations, are efficient
for this purpose.
8. Overhead Sprinklers Properly designed and operated, overhead sprinkler
systems offer considerable protection against frost and freeze damage. Some are de-
signed for regular overhead irrigation as well. One-tenth (0.10) inch of water
properly applied will give protection against light frost only. To obtain a good
degree of protection against freezes, the volume of water must be increased to about
0.25 inch hourly per acre, depending on temperatures and wind speed as shown in table
below.

Table 1. Application Rate Recommended for Cold Protection Under Different Wind and
Temperature Conditions.


Minimum
Temperature WIND SPEED IN M.P.H.
Expected 0 to 1 2 to 4 5 to 8

Application Rate (inches/hour)
27F 0.10 0.10 0.10
26F 0.10 0.10 0.14
240F 0.10 0.16 0.3
220F 0.12 0.24 0.5
20 F 0.16 0.3 0.6
180F 0.20 0.4 0.7
150F 0.26 0.5 0.9



The principles involved in freeze protection from sprinkled water is very
complex. For complete details the reader is referred to Florida Ext. Circular
348 (technical), "Sprinkler Irrigation for Cold Protection" by D. S. Harrison,
J. F. Gerber and R. E. Choate, May, 1974. The authors of this publication point
out that improper design and operation may be more harmful than beneficial. General
requirements of this system are:

(a) System designed to give at least 40 to 50% overlap between sprinklers.
(b) Sprinkler heads (made of brass) designed to rotate once per minute.
(c) Start sprinkler system when temperatures approach 32 F.
(d) Apply 0.10 inch hourly per acre for light radiation frost. (see chart).
(e) Apply about 0.25 inch hourly per acre for freeze protection
(See table for wind and minimum temperature effects)
(f) Turn system off when temperature rises above 32 F.

Anyone interested in overhead sprinkler systems for frost and freeze should
consult an expert in the field.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

9. Other means From time to time, products or methods reportedly good
for frost protection appear on the market. A foam product has been available for
years. It works well on low growing crops. It is expensive and requires special
equipment and techniques.

Fog generators and fuel bricks have been tested also. They do not op-
erate efficiently at wind velocities above 3 M.P.H.

Summary

Frost and freeze protection for some vegetable crops in Florida can be a
worthwhile undertaking. Growers have a number of alternatives available to them.
Some can be used inexpensively; others are quite costly. Before investing large
sums of money in frost and freeze protection, growers should make a thorough study
of the complete subject.

(Montelaro)

B. Labor Used to Produce Staked Tomatoes On Full Bed Mulch in the Manatee-
Ruskin Area

Observations of a number of staked tomato operations and packinghouses have
provided a comprehensive listing of the major labor inputs being used to grow,
harvest and handle tomatoes in Southwest Florida. This information could be useful
for growers who wish to improve labor efficiency and reduce labor related costs.

Most of the tomatoes in Southwest Florida are grown on full bed mulch and
are staked and seep irrigated. The distance between beds varies between 7 to 12.5
feet. Most of these crops are produced from transplants. Plant populations vary
from 1300 to 6700 per net acre. Fumigation is generally practiced, except on newly
cleared land. The fertilizer applications ranged from 250 to 392 lbs. of N, 160
to 324 lbs. of P 20, and 406 to 608 lbs. of K20 per acre. The average size farm
was approximately 80 acres.

Labor used to clear new land was recorded and will be presented in a more
complete report. The increased cost of land improvement such as wells, irrigation
lay-out, and clearing have encouraged growers to use the same land longer. Our
survey did not attempt to determine costs as that is the task of the economist.
The labor reported is for person hours per acre, which includes time spent on a
tractor, pruning plants, or picking fruit. It also includes the time used in getting
equipment and materials ready for the operation.

The operation, from field preparation to placing the sized, graded fruit in
the ripening rooms was reported into the following five categories:

1. OLD FIELD PREPARATION: LABOR REQUIRED, HRS/ACRE
Operation Hrs. Operation Hrs.
Destroy previous crop 0.5 Sample soil 0.2
Burn-off plastic 0.5 Apply lime 0.3
Remove plastic 8.0 Rotovate 1.0
Remove stakes 5.0 Disk (3X) 2.2
Stack, tie stakes 3.0 Level land 0.8
Supervision 2.5 Total 24.0






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


2. BED PREPARATION:
Operation
Mark-off field
Apply Phosp. Minors
Form Pre-beds
Make ditches
Press beds
Apply Starter fert.
Apply fumigant

3. CROP GROWING:
Operation
Setting Plants
Re-setting
Set stakes
Drive stakes
Apply herb. (2X)
Tie plants (4X)


LABOR REQUIRED, HRS/ACRE


Hrs.
0.3
0.2
0.5
1.2
0.7
0.2
1.4



Hrs.
2.0
1.0
2.5
2.5
1.0
2.8


Operation
Re-press beds
Apply insect bait
Apply herbicide
Apply fert. bands
Apply plastic
Supervision
Total


LABOR REQUIRED, HRS/ACRE


Operation
Pruning plants
Clean ditches (4X)
Irrigation
Spray plants (20X)
Supervision
Total


The harvesting and handling data was taken from the Manatee-Ruskin area only.
Most fields are harvested three times and pickers carry their filled buckets to
receiving trucks which hold an average of 22 pallet bins. The bins hold about
1000 lbs. of fruit. The average yield per acre for the M-R district is 29 bins
(28,950 lbs.) with an average pack-out of 85% or 820-30 lb. cartons. An average
picker picks, carries, passes up the loaded bucket to the loader, gets a ticket,
and returns to his picking row at the rate of 85 buckets per 6 hour day (or 425
lbs. per hour). Exceptional pickers harvest 200 buckets per day.
4. Harvesting: Labor Required, Hrs/Acre


Lbs/Acre
Harvested
28,950


Bins/Acre
Harvested
28.9


Hrs/Acre
Avg. Picker
68.1


5. Hauling Labor Required, Hrs/Acre


Average Hrs.
Field to PH
0.80


Avg. Lbs.
per truck
22,000


Avg. Hauling Time
per 29 bin acre
1.3


6. Packinghouse Operations
In high capacity, modern tomato packinghouses, 180-200 bins may be
received, sized, graded, and packed per hour. This rate of handling requires from
190-210 persons. The average yield, 28.9 bins/acre, may pass through the packing-
house in 0.16 hours, requiring approximately 32 hours of combined labor for the
acre run. The usual sequence of operations in the Manatee-Ruskin area is as follows:


Receive pallet boxes
Dump into water
Eliminate trash
Pre-sizer (elim. ES,S)
Washer, chlor. water


Sizer Medium 1,2,3
Sizer Large 1,2,3
Sizer Ex. Large 1,2,3
Resizer (elim. ES, S)
Packing (30 lb. cartons)


Hrs.
0.8
0.1
0.1
0.2
1.3
4.0
11.0


Hrs.
4.0
2.0
7.0
9.0
10.0
43.8


Bins per
Truck
22







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Pre-grader (by color) Lidding Place lid on
Drier, sponge rollers Weighing (Fruit 30.5, Box 1.5 Ibs)
Waxer Stacking onto pallets
Grader 1,2,3 Transfer pallets to ripening room
Pre-sizer (elim. ES, S) Ripen (gas treatment)
Transfer (from ripening rooms)

The treated boxes may be held in a shipping area for a short period of time,
or go right into waiting shipping vehicles, usually trucks.

7. Summary

Operations vary in the total amount of labor used. As would be expected,
labor requirements varied a gread deal from farm to farm. Average figures are
useful only as a guide post. Because most of the harvesting and handling data
was gathered in the Manatee-Ruskin area, this summary will apply to operations
in that area.

Operations Hrs/Acre
1. Field preparation 24.0
2. Bed preparation 11.0
3. Crop growing 43.8
4. Harvesting 68.1
5. Hauling, Handling 1.3
6. Grading, Packing 32.0
Total 180.2

In summary, this region produces and markets about 25,000 lbs of high quality
tomatoes per acre from 180 hours of labor, or 139 lbs from each hour of labor.

(Marlowe & R. T. Montgomery)


C. Sweet Potato Slide/Tape Set Available

As a part of our extension rural development programs, we are developing a
series of 3 or 4 slide/tape sets and extension circulars designed to communicate
production information to vegetable growers with varying educations. Extension
agents and program assistants from Florida may request copies of the circular
entitled, "Growing Sweet Potatoes for Profit" from C. M. Hinton, Bldg. 60 and
borrow the slide/tape set from the IFAS Film Library. Otherwise, anyone interested
in purchasing the entire series consisting of 4 parts may write to me by December
1, 1978, and specify the number of copies desired. The cost of slide duplication
and cassette tapes will be approximately $45.00. A description of the project and
results of an evaluation follow:

METHODS: Specific learning objectives based on fundamental crop production
practices and a logical learning sequence were listed. Sweet potatoes were planted
to demonstrate various cultural practices and each step was photographed. Abstract
concepts were illustrated with art work. Readability and comprehension levels were
maintained between the 4th and 6th grade levels according to the Fry Readability








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Graph / and the Dale-Chall Readability Formula / for both the slide-tape set and
printed circular. Both the slide/tape set and circular were split into 4 parts,
each lasting from 9 to 12 minutes as follows:

Part I: Planning and Liming
Part II Field Preparation and Planting
Part III Field Production and Pest Management
Part IV: Harvesting and Marketing

Nineteen residents of Liberty and adjacent counties who were interested in
sweet potato production helped evaluate our success in communicating the learning
objectives in a 9-minute slide-tape presentation. A multiple choice test format
was used to measure pre-test knowledge and information learned during the presen-
tation. We presented the three remaining slide-tape sets at subsequent meetings
and initiated a demonstration plot with the county during the production season.

Results: A socio-economic survey indicated that the participant's ages ranged
from 25 to 77 years with a mean of 51 years. Fifteen of the 19 participants had
completed a 9th grade education or better including 7 who had completed college or
trade school. Reported annual income of 15 participants were distributed equally
among three income groups of $3000 to 6000/year; $6000 to 10,000/year; and more
than $10,000/year. Forty percent of the participants reported that they had pre-
viously grown sweet potatoes.

The number of correct answers and incorrect responses on both the pre- and
post-test were counted for each participant. By subtracting the incorrect responses
from the correct answers in the pre- and post-test, participants improved their
correct answers by 2.8 questions or by 21%. When the participants who scored per-
fectly in both the pre- and post-test were excluded from the sample, we measured
a possible improvement of 32%. In another evaluation with college students we
measured a 20% improvement in correct responses.

In addition to measuring the participant's improved knowledge, we evaluated
the pre- and post-test results of each question. Difficult concepts and misunder-
standings were identified and corrected before the final duplication and distri-
bution of the educational materials. Based on the results of these evaluations,
we are currently developing a general vegetable planning and field preparation
slide/tape set followed by specific crop production sections. By early spring,
1979, we expected to have a slide/tape set and circular entitled, "Growing
Southern Peas for Profit" ready for preliminary use in county programs. We suggest
that these educational materials may be used in county-wide education programs.





1/ Fry Readability Graph based on number of syllables and sentences per 100
word sample.

2/ Dale-Chall Readability Formula based on number of sentences per 100 word
sample and number of words not appearing on a Dale list of familiar words
per 100 word sample.





-9-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

III HARVEST AND HANDLING

A. Post Harvest Handling of Strawberries

Strawberries are very delicate fruits that need to be kept as cool as
possible and moved to market as quickly as possible.

Today you have every conceivable form of technology at your disposal to
make it possible to produce and ship the very finest strawberries in the world,
yet you still experience losses in the market channels. Why? Let's point out
some of the things that may reduce losses then you see if they may fit into your
way of handling strawberries.

1. Poor quality coming from the field either from heavy rains, high temper-
atures, low temperatures, over-ripes, under-ripes, field diseases,
insects, etc. Quality is made in the field neither pickers, packers,
broker, trucker, warehousemen nor the retailer can put any more quality
in than was there when you harvested them.

2. Removal of field heat This should start the moment they are picked -
don't ever allow them to sit out in the sun or in the back of a truck
or on the platform any longer than absolutely necessary. I know when
you get into heavy picking you do get behind and this usually occurs
in the middle of the day when it is the hottest.

This summer I visited the Salinas Watsonville, Calif. strawberry areas
during their harvest season. Their weather is much cooler than ours yet
they were busy as bees getting the berries out of the field and to the
precoolers. The coolers I saw were all forced air of two types. (a)
Palletized flats of berries were stacked solid along a slotted wall and
320F air was being drawn through the stacks. (b) The other which I
preferred the palletized flats were set against the wall and out into
the rooms in rows with an isle between each row. This isle was covered
with an air tight tarp so that all air that was pulled through had to
come either down through the berries or between the layers of flats.
Also I saw a new USDA trailer reverse flow through load type. Cold
air was delivered to back of load and returned through slotted floor up
through load.

3. Relative humidity should be kept as high as possible (above 95%) at all
stages of cooling and storage. A study was done in California with
shippers and retailers in the East, and here is what they found following
5 days at 330F + 1 day at room temperature:

Approx. R. H. Moisture Loss Total Defects Non Salable
70% 4% 27% 10%
90% 1% 18% 2%
As a result, a chain store put all strawberries in a 95% RH display re-
frigerator at 34 F. They reported that improved appearance and condition
increased sales 93% over the previous year.

They found that 90 to 95% RH at 340to 320F did not increase or exaggerate
decay.






-10-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

4. Type of container Florida growers are using the lattice extruded
plastic cup. This is a change from veneer or paper pulp etc. the
newest I saw was the solid sided molded clear or tinted cup being
tried in California. There are four main advantages over the open-
mesh one (a) less fruit bruising; (b) holds leaking juice; (c) see
through gives better appearance and visibility of fruit; (d) more
durable. Only disadvantage is slightly slower cooling fruit because
of restricted movement of air between fruit. There is probably some
cost difference.

5. Modified atmosphere or controlled atmosphere: The use of dry ice in
trucks has long been a common practice 100 lbs dry ice to each 500
flats in trucks. The strawberries I saw being prepared for shipment
from California were being treated by the Techtrol method. The pal-
leted stacks of flats were inserted in a clear polyethylene tube and
sealed around the bottom after forced air cooling. First the pallet
had a piece of poly laid on it before stacking flats and this was
sealed to the piece pulled over from the top. Carbon dioxide CO2 and
nitrogen were pumped in from the bottom. A small hole was left to
purge air out of top then sealed so that a 20% C02 and 2% oxygen level
of gases was established. This is supposed to reduce respiration,
ripening and softening, and decay. Disadvantages include off flavors
after long exposure, injury from CO2 at high temperature and cost.

6. Decay Treatments DHAS was initially tried here in Florida by Dr.
Dale Thompson and I took his results to growers back in 1960. The
chemical is still labeled for postharvest dip on strawberries with a
6 ppm residue and is still very effective for postharvest fruit rot
control at .05 to .75 percent solution dip. Some growers used it for
a while with good results. I would still recommend it for use during
periods of high decay incidence. There are some disadvantages in its
use: (a) not commercially available through regular suppliers; (b)
requires a dip treatment rather than spray-on, which does not fit into
present harvesting and handling practices; (c) cost of additional hand-
ling and chemical probably could not be directly recovered from buyers.

In summary -

The best practices are to produce the very best quality berries of the best
varieties, harvest them regularly, precool them to 34 F at 90-95 Relative humidity
as quickly as possible, and keep them as near that temperature and humidity all
the way through the marketing process.


(Marvel)





-11-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

IV VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Acidity of Tomatoes

Quite often home gardeners, home canners, and consumers ask about acidity
in tomatoes. They wish to know which varieties are low acid and which are high.
Since much misinformation has been spread concerning the acid content of tomatoes,
perhaps this article will help to clarify the situation.

First, all tomato varieties so far tested and available to the public have
a low pH, primarily due to the presence of citric acid. It is true that some vari-
eties are lower in acid (have less acid, thus a higher pH) than others. Yet, the
fact remains that all are within the pH range of 4.0 to 4.5, so are considered to
be acidic.

Many assumptions are made due to the light color of the tomato skin and mild
sweet flavor of the fruit. However, acidity is not always easy to taste, and even
white tomatoes are just as acid as the red ones.

Here is a list of some varieties and their respective pH. Keep in mind that
these are general guidelines. The pH value will vary for each variety due to climate,
soil, cultural practice, and ripeness.


Yellow/Orange Varieties
Jubilee
Sunray
Yellow Pear
Yellow Plum


White Varieties
Snowball
White Beauty
White Queen





Old Varieties
Earliana
Oxheart
Rutgers
Valiant


Pink Skin Varieties


4.22
4.21
4.40
4.31


pf
4.16
4.30
4.21





pH
4.37
4.30
4.29
4.37


Oxheart
Pink Ponderosa
Traveler



Small Tomatoes
Basket Pak
Patio
Presto
Red Cherry
Small Fry
Stakeless


New Varieties
Early Girl
Fantastic
Flora-Dade
Walter


In actuality, the selection of a tomato variety based on level of acidity has
limited practical value. Most use it as a guide to taste and to canning hazard.
Although acidity does affect taste, the net effect is unpredictable. Taste in tomato
is more greatly influenced by the presence of more than 100 volatile compounds iden-
tified in tomatoes. The home canner should not be overly concerned with the hazards
associated with the selection of specific tomato varieties for home canning. It is
more important to select properly ripened tomatoes, to follow reliable canning in-
structions, and to discard any abnormal appearing canned product.
(Stephens)


4.30
4.37
4.30


4.30
4.30
4.10
4.40
4.15
4.35


pHf
4.14
4.26
4.20
4.30





-12-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

B. Know Your Vegetable Broccoli Raab

Broccoli raab (Brassica campestris L. Ruvo Group) in the curcifer family
is also known by such names as raab, rapa, rapini, broccoli turnip, spring broccoli,
taitcat, Italian turnip, and Italian mustard.

The plant is grown for its tender leaves and flower shoots which are used
as greens or pot herbs. Plants, which resemble both turnip and broccoli, develop
quite rapidly and are harvested before the flower buds open.

Broccoli raab is seldom grown in Florida, even in home gardens. It is one
of a number of vegetable crops grown by the highly diversified vegetable industry
of the state of New Jersey, (Cumberland County).

Gardeners wishing to try it here should plant seeds in the fall, winter or
very early spring. If planted too late in the spring, the warm weather hastens the
opening of the flower buds, signaling that the plants have passed their peak.

Apparently there are two different major strains of broccoli raab. In New
Jersey, one is planted in the fall so that some growth occurs before the plant goes
into a "wintering-over" dormancy. Harvest of this strain occurs following regrowth
of new shoots and flowers in the early spring.

The other strain is planted from seed in the spring. Earliest spring
plantings require 60 days from seeding to harvest. Later, with warmer days,
plantings mature in only 40 days.

Seeds of the spring strain are reported to be available from seedsmen, and
are listed in seed catalogs of Asgrow, Abbott & Cobb, Stokes, and Ferry Morse.
However, the fall strain seems to be planted from seed saved by the growers.

Culture of the vegetable is similar to the production in Florida of mustard
and other greens. Fertilization requirements are similar, with ample nitrogen and
a pH of about 6.0-6.5 needed. Seeds should be planted in rows spaced 12 inches
apart, with plants averaging 12 to 15 per foot in the row. Seeds also may be broad-
cast over the bed surface, with the bed made as wide as can be readily worked.

Plants are ready for harvest when they reach a height of 10 to 15 inches.
Plants are cut at the ground level, or where the stem tissue ceases to be tough and
becomes succulent.

Commercial growers in New Jersey pack the stalks loose and in bunches. Most
of their volume is marketed in Toronto, New York, and Philadelphia.

(Stephens)


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