Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: October 1978
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Volume ID: VID00141
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
IFJAS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE

F_ VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


October 6, 1978

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

C. B. Hall
Acting Chairman


R. D. William
Assistant Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


M. E. Marvel
Professor


James Montelaro
Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: R. D. William, Assistant Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 78-10

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetarian Mailing List Last Chance
B. Vegetable Transplant & Bedding Plant School

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Some Information Capsules On Soil-Borne Pathogens Of Vegetables
B. Weeds And Virus Diseases Of Vegetables
C. Cold-Stress Related Problems In Vegetable Crops

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Quality Factors Related To Machine Harvested Fresh Market Tomatoes
B. Compatability Of Fruits And Vegetables During Transport In Mixed Loads

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Soil Testing For Vegetable Gardening
B. Know Your Vegetables White Eggplant


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
please give credit to the authors.


Whenever possible,


jcw
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Vegetarian Mailing List Last Chance

If you wish to continue receiving the Vegetarian Newsletter but have not
yet returned the form from the September issue, return it immediately so that
your name will be retained on the mailing list.

Last month, the mailing list update form was inadvertently printed on
the last page containing pertinent information about "Know Your Vegetables -
Broad Bean". To maintain a complete file, we have retyped the information
contained on the reverse side of the form and ask that it be filed with the
rest of the article issue number 78-9.

(William)

B. Vegetable Transplant & Bedding Plant School

Dr. Benny Tjia, Dr. George Marlowe and Mr. Bruce Barmby have planned a
school for producers of "Vegetable Transplants & Bedding Plants" as follows:

DATE: Tuesday, November 21, 1978

TIME: 8:30 AM to about 4:00 PM

PLACE: Howard Johnson's Convention Center (next to
Sheraton Towers off I-4 and Kirkman Road)
Orlando, Florida

County agents, plant growers and suppliers are invited to attend.

(Montelaro)


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Some Information Capsules On Soil-Borne Pathogens Of Vegetables

The third annual Agricultural Fieldmen and Salesmen's Workshop was held on
September 21st in Palmetto. The topic of "Soil-borne Insects and Pathogens,
Their Biology and Control", contained valuable information for members of the
agricultural information delivery team. One presentation by Dr. John Paul Jones,
Professor of Plant Pathology, AREC-Bradenton, covered temperature relations of
soil-borne pathogens which may be of interest to County Extension Agents and
fieldmen who were not able to attend.






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


An understanding of the influence of temperature on disease expression
can be very helpful. Diseases favored by high temperature can be expected to
decrease in intensity as the cool season approaches. Some soil-borne pathogens
require more moisture than others to reach their optimum development. The
influence of these factors described by Dr. Jones will help in field diagnosis
of field problems and counseling growers. The listing includes the major soil-
borne pathogens found on vegetable crops.

A. Low Temperature, 55-650F; abundant moisture

1. (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) Known as stem rot or wilt of tomatoes,
causes damping off of seedlings, or watery soft rot of many vege-
tables in transit.

a. Survives as tiny, round black bodies (sclerotia) in the soil.
Last year's sclerotia develop into tiny mushrooms which produce
spores that infect the new crop.

b. Spores may be carried several miles by the wind, or by diseased
plants, soil movement, or on the seed surface.

c. Spores invade succulent tissue most readily.

B. Moderately Warm Temperature, 75-85F; abundant moisture

1. (Verticillium albo-atrum) Verticillium wilt infects some cucurbits,
tomato, potato, eggplant, okra and pepper.

a. Infects wide host range of crop and weed plants.

b. Favored by high soil pH and high nitrate-N levels.

c. Invades roots and wounding facilitates entry. Can infect stems
or leaves.

d. Considered a disease of maturing plants.

2. (Alternaria solani) Known as early blight of tomato, potato, and egg-
plant.

a. Organism remains viable in infected plant tissue and on seed of
solaneaceous crops and weeds.

b. Considered a weak pathogen because infection is slow unless
plant is wounded.

c. High fertility reduces severity of disease. Older leaves usually
affected first.

3. (Fusarium oxysporum) Causes Fusarium yellows of beans, Fusarium rot of
onion, Fusarium foot rot and wilt of cucurbits, and Fusarium wilt of
tomato.








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

a. Infects plants under varying soil moisture.

b. Favored by acid, sandy soils and ammonium-N.

c. Low potash-high N increases disease development, whereas high
potash-low N decreases development.

d. Penetration believed to be through root wounds or direct entry
into root.

4. (Rhizoctonia solani) Rhizoctonia has a wide host range that includes
crown rot of carrot, stem canker and soil rot of beans, damping-off
of many vegetable seedlings, stem canker of tomato, wire-stem of
cabbage, black scurf of potato, and soil rot of vegetable fruit.

a. Fungus survives in soil or on plant material in the soil as
sclerotia. Occasionally, sexual spores are formed in himid,
warm weather which can be aerially disseminated.

b. Invades through wounds or by direct entry.

c. Usually concentrated in top 3 inches of soil.

C. Warm Temperatures, 85-950F; abundant moisture

1. (Pythium aphanidermatum) Causes damping-off and storage rots of
many vegetables, root rot of peas, soft rot of pepper, cottony leak
of eggplant, root rot of tomato.

a. Disseminated in soil, although some aerial spread may occur
during hot, humid weather.

b. Invades through wound, or by direct entry.

c. Common in poorly drained soils.

2. (Sclerotium rolfsii) Infects a wide host range and is known as Southern
blight, Southern wilt, crown rot, and sclerotium rot.

a. Above-ground symptoms include rapid yellowing or wilting and
rapid internal rot of stem. Characterized by pronounced weft of
fungal threads and tan sclerotia on the stem near the soil
surface.

b. Penetrates plant directly.

c. Survives as mycelium and sclerotia.

d. Favored by low pH and low N soils.








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


3. (Pseudomonas solanacearum) Infects a wide host range among solana-
ceous plants including tobacco, potato, tomato, eggplant, pepper.
Known as brown rot of potato and Southern bacterial wilt of potato
and tomato.

a. A bacterial pathogen that infects a wide range of soil habitats.
The organism is one of the most serious diseases of tropical
tomatoes.

b. Invades through root wounds caused by cultivation, insect, and
nematode punctures, etc.

c. Favored by sandy, acid soils.

d. Symptoms similar to Southern blight, but much more rapid.
Stems collapse and plant wilt followed by death of the plant.

(Marlowe)


B. Weeds And Virus Diseases Of Vegetables

Most plant viruses cannot survive without a living host. Some viruses are
seedborne cowpeaa mosaic virus or lettuce mosaic virus), whereas others survive
in vegetative propagules of a plant (potato virus Y in potato tubers). An excep-
tion is tobacco mosaic virus which can survive in cured tobacco. Otherwise,
viral pathogens require a living host for reproduction.

A wide array of vegetable crops and weedy plants are known to host certain
viral pathogens that can cause economic losses to vegetables in Florida (Table 1).
Note that only a few plant viruses are hosted by vegetables and weed species within
the same botanical family. Most vegetable virus diseases affect a diverse collec-
tion of weeds and crop plants. For example, cucumber mosaic virus can infect
plants in about 40 different plant families. Thus, many common weed species and
volunteer or surviving crop plants in abandoned fields serve as reservoirs of viral
inoculum that can be continually disseminated to production fields by insects,
equipment or man.

Weeds not only host vegetable viruses, but also host the various insects that
serve to vector viral diseases from weeds or abandoned crops to new production areas.
Aphids represent the primary class of insect vectors of vegetable viruses. Since
complete control of these vectors, and therefore, the viruses is impossible, pre-
ventative controls must be practiced. The use of repeated applications of a non-
phytotoxic oil to peppers, squash and tomatoes reduces incidence of certain virus
diseases by inhibiting acquisition and transmission of these viruses by the aphid
vectors (Vegetarian Newsletter 78-7).

Field sanitation is a prime example of preventative disease control. De-
struction of all known sources of pathogenic viruses near vegetable fields is an
essential step towards a quality crop. Last year for instance, Extension personnel
noted that a few old squash plants left near a power line provided enough inoculum








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


to infect an entire field of fall squash in Marion County with watermelon mosaic
virus.

Some severe disease situations can be reduced by a slight shift in production
practices. In 1972, approximately P0" of Florida's celery production (about 10,000
acres) sustained loss due to celery mosaic virus. The practices of overlapping
seedbed production with field production; the location of seedbeds and production
fields on adjacent land; and the sharing of transplants among growers favored
disease spread. The growers decided to separate celery seedbeds and production
fields in time and space, thereby limiting major losses in 1975 to only two farms.

The use of resistant varieties, where available, is the most desirable control
strategy. Many sources of resistance in pepper, potato, tomato and strawberry to
viruses such as tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X, Y and others have been derived
from "weedy" relatives of these vegetable crops. Thus, weeds have served both to
spread as well as control viral diseases of Florida crops.

(Simone* & William)


*G. W. Simone, Assist. Prof. and Extension Plant Pathologist, Dept. of Plant
Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville.


Table 1. Some Common Florida Weed Families That May Host Common Viral Diseases in
Florida.


WEED AND CROP HOSTS


VIRAL PATHOGENS1


AMARANTH family (Amaranthaceae)
Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus)-2
Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)-1,3

BORAGE family (Boraginaceae)
Corn-gromwell (Lithospermum arvense)-1

COMPOSITE family (Compositae)
American burnweed (Erechtites hieracifolia)-l
Butterweed (Senecio glabellus)-1
Common groundsel (Senecio vulqaris)-3,4
Hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa)-1
Horseweed (Erigeron canadensis)-1
Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)-2
Spring sowthistle (Sonchus asper)-6
ENDIVE, LETTUCE -1,5

CONVOLVULUS family (Convolvulaceae)
Wild morning glory (Convolvulus sepium)-l


1. Potato leafroll virus
2. Turnip mosaic virus
3. Tobacco rattle virus

1. Turnip mosaic virus


1. Bidens mottle virus
2. Pseudo curly top virus
3. Turnip mosaic virus
4. Potato virus Y
5. Lettuce mosaic virus
6. Tobacco rattle virus


1. Internal cork virus








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Table 1. Some Common Florida Weed Families That May Host Common Viral Diseases in
Florida. (con't.)


WEED AND CROP HOSTS


VIRAL PATHOGENS1


SWEET POTATO -1


FIGWORT family (Scrophulariaceae)
Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus)-l
Toadflax (Linaria canadensis)-2

GERANIUM family (Geraniaceae)
Cranesbill (Geranium carolinianum)-l

GOOSEFOOT family (Chenopodiaceae)
Goosefoot (Chenopodium murale)-l
Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album)-1,2
SPINACH-3

GOURD family (Cucurbitaceae)
Balsam pear (Momordica charantia)-1,2,3
Bur cucumber (Sicyos angulata)-2,3
Citron (Citrullus vulgaris var. citroides)-2,3
Creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula)-1,2,3,4
Prickly cucumber (Echinocystis lobata)-l,2,3
CUCURBITS -1,2,3,4
SQUASH, WATERMELONS -1,2,3

MINT family (Labiatae)
Cancerweed (Salvia lyrata)-1,2


PLANTAIN family (Plantaginaceae)
Plantain (Plantago major)-2
Plantain (Plantago virginica)-I

PULSE family (Leguminosae)
Beggarweed (Desmodium sp.)-5
Coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis)-2
Sesbania (Sesbania macrocarpa)-4
Showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis)-1,4
Sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia)-3
Sweet clover (Meliotus indicus)-4
BROAD BEANS, COWPEAS, GARDEN BEANS-1

MALLOW family (Malvaceae)
Velvet leaf (Abutilon theophrasti)-l


1. Cucumber mosaic virus
2. Tobacco etch virus


1. Cucumber mosaic virus

1. Turnip mosaic virus
2. Lettuce mosaic virus
3. Cucumber mosaic virus

1. Cucumber mosaic virus
2. Watermelon mosaic virus-I
3. Watermelon mosiac virus-II
4. Squash mosaic virus




1. Tobacco rattle virus
2. Cucumber mosaic virus

1. Tobacco rattle virus
2. Watermelon mosaic virus-II

1. Cowpea mosaic virus
2. Turnip mosaic virus
3. Tobacco etch virus
4. Watermelon mosaic virus-II
5. Celery mosaic virus


1. Turnip mosaic virus








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Table 1. Some Common Florida Weed Families That May Host Common Viral Diseases in
Florida (con't.)


WEED AND CROP HOSTS


VIRAL PATHOGENS1


MUSTARD family (Cruciferae)
Black mustard (Brassica nigra)-3
Charlock (Brassica nigra)-3
Crunchweed (Brassica kaber var. pinnatifida)-3
Field pennycress (Thlassi arvense)-3
Hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale)-3
Pepper grass (Lepidium campestre)-3
Pepper grass (Lepidium virginicum)-1,3
Sheperd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)-2,3
Tumble mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum)-3
Watercress (Nasturcium officinale)-3
White mustard (Brassica hirta)-3
Yellow rocket (Barbarea vugaris)-3
BROCCOLI, BRUSSELS SPROUTS, CABBAGE-3
CAULIFLOWER, KALE, MUSTARDS-3
RADISH, TURNIPS-3
WATERCRESS-3

NIGHTSHADE family (Solanaceae)
Ground cherry (Physalis angulata)-1,3,4,6,9
(P. ciliosa)-4,6
(P. floridana)-2,3,4.
(P. pubescens)-1,4,7
(P. spp.)-4,6,8,11
(P. virginiana)-4
(P.. viscosa)-8,9
Jimsonweed (Datura spp.)-4,6
(Datura metal)-4
Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)-4
(S. gracie)-5
.ni rum)-1,4,5,6,8,9.10
(S. sisymorifolium)-4
(S. spp.)-2,4,8,9
Wild tobacco (Nicotiana rustica)-4,7
PEPPER-1,2,4,6,8,9
POTATO-3,4,6,9
TOMATO-1,2,4,5,6,8,10

PARSLEY family (Umbelliferae)
Mock bishop's weed (Ptilimnium capillaceum)-2
Wild celery (Apium leptophyllum)-2
CELERY-1,2
CARROT-2
PARSLEY-2


1. Bidens mottle virus
2. Cucumber mosaic virus
3. Turnip mosaic virus


Cucumber mosaic virus
Pepper mottle virus
Potato leafroll virus
Potato virus Y
Pseudo curly top virus
Tobacco etch virus
Turnip mosaic virus
Tobacco mosaic virus
Tobacco rattle virus
Tomato yellows virus


1. Cucumber mosaic virus
2. Celery mosaic virus






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Some Common Florida Weed Families That May Host Common Viral Diseases in
Florida. (con't.)


WEED AND CROP HOSTS


VIRAL PATHOGENS1


PINK family (Caryophyllaceae)
Chickweed (Stellaria media)-1,2
Corn-cockle (Agrostemma githago)-2

POKEWEED family (Phytolaccaceae)
Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)-1,2


POPPY family (Papaveraceae)
Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana)-l

PRIMROSE family (Primulaceae)
Scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis)-l

PURSLANE family (Portulacaceae)
Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae)-l

SPIDERWORT family (Commelinaceae)
Wandering jew (Commelina nudiflora)-l


1. Cucumber mosaic virus
2. Turnip mosaic virus


1. Cucumber mosaic virus
2. Turnip mosaic virus


1. Bidens mottle virus


1. Turnip mosaic virus


1. Turnip mosaic virus


1. Cucumber mosaic virus


The occurrence of these pathogens on weed hosts does not
primary means of spread to a vegetable crop.


mean this is the only or the


C. Cold-Stress Related Problems in Vegetable Crops

INTRODUCTION

Probably the most serious problem facing Florida growers of winter vegetables
is cold weather. Hardly a season passes without visible affect of this problem on
some, if not, all vegetable crops. They can vary from poor growth and development
to complete kill of a crop. In general, certain growth and development problems
can be attributed to cold weather stress. Complete kill, of course, results from
frost or freeze. Vegetable growers who understand cold weather hazards can do much
to minimize crop damage. This article deals with common problems associated with
cold weather stress and how they might be handled. The second article to follow in
the November issue will cover frost and freeze protection.


Table 1.


_~ _~~






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

GENERAL COMMENTS

Cold weather stress (frost & freeze not considered) might be described as the
problems brought on by lower than normal temperatures of late Fall, Winter and
early Spring. Symptoms of cold weather stress are not always as readily visible
as the quick kill of a frost or freeze. In many cases, growers may note slower
than expected growth which can be attributed to cold weather stress. On the other
hand, rotted seed, puffy or cat-faced tomatoes, bolted celery, etc. are easy to
see and may be caused by cold weather. This article will describe some of the more
common problems caused by cold weather stress and how they might be partially or
completely controlled. It must be pointed out that: (1) there is nothing that
can be done by growers to control certain types of problems, (2) some of the
suggestions are not practical under all conditions, and (3) the suggestions made
here must be general in nature. For instance, specific information on varieties
resistant to bolting can be found elsewhere. Following are some of the general
problems associated with cold weather stress and, where possible, control methods
to help keep crop damage to a minimum.

A. Poor Germination, Crop Stand, and Seedling Growth

Lower than normal soil temperatures can cause a myriad of problems related
to germination and seedling growth. The warm season crops are especially affected
and to a lesser extent, the cool-season group, as well. Anything, which will
speed up the germination process or seedling development will tend to counteract
this problem. These include: (1) use of pre-soaked seed, (2) shallow seeding,
(3) maintaining adequate oxygen supply through good drainage, (4) use of plastic
mulch, windbreaks, etc. to trap heat of the sun and to retain it, (5) use of
seed treatment to retard soil-borne diseases, (6) use of east-west oriented beds
sloped to the south, (7) use of containerized transplants to lessen length of
exposure period and (8) avoidance of injury from residual fumigants, high soluble
salts, crop residues, etc.

B. Nutrient Unbalances

Cold soils can create problems in nutrient balance which can retard seedling
growth significantly. The two most common are: (1) phosphorus (P) deficiency
and (2) nitrate-nitrogen deficiency. Even with an ample supply of P in a soil,
seedlings (especially members of the tomato family) can exhibit severe P defi-
ciency. Seedlings cannot forage for P efficiently in a cold soil due to limited
root systems. The problem can be prevented by the placement of a small amount
of an available form of P in the seed or root zone prior to planting. In this way,
seedlings can forage for P easily and develop the necessary root system for normal
growth.

Cold soil temperatures retard conversion of organic nitrogen (N) to ammonia-
nitrogen (NH -N) and further to nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N). The problem is a complex
one which can be compensated for by increasing the ratio of NO3-N to NH4-N and
organic nitrogen applied.

Cold soils, also, affect availability and uptake of other nutrients. Main-
taining good all-round growing conditions help to counteract all types of cold
weather stress, including nutrient unbalance.








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

C. Retardation of Growth

Plant growth is a biochemical process which in general doubles in rate for
every 10C (180F) increase in temperature. Generally speaking, a plant grows
only half as fast at 600F than it would at 780F. Lower than normal temperatures
may exhibit abnormal symptoms other than general retarded growth. Such plants
often resume normal growth with increased temperatures. The only obvious effect
being delayed maturity.

D. Physiological Disorders (Non-Pathogenic Diseases)

This category encompasses cold-stress related problems which are obvious to
the grower since in many cases plant parts intended for harvest are affected.
Physiological disorders may develop late in the growth cycle at fruit set and
development time. The list is a long one. It includes such problems as: (1)
poor fruit set in cucurbits, beans, tomato, eggplant, pepper, etc., (2) reduction
in fruit, head, ear or stalk size in the tomato family, cabbage, sweet corn
and celery, respectively, (3) premature seeding in cabbage, celery, and other crops,
(4) abnormal fruit development (puffiness, cat-facing, distortion, etc.) in tomato,
pepper, eggplant, etc., (5) poor tip fill in sweet corn and (6) many other lesser
problems associated with the product intended for harvest.

Many of the problems listed above are related to inadequate transfer of viable
pollen to the female parts of the flower and subsequent fertilization of ovules.
Crops like the cucurbits requiring bee pollination can be helped by an adequate
population of active bees when the crop is blooming. Selection of the right variety
can do more to counteract specific disorders than anything else a grower can do.
For instance, certain varieties of celery are more resistant to premature seeding
than others. Similarly, tomato varieties are available that are somewhat resistant
to cat-facing.

E. Physical Damage

Vegetable crops can suffer considerable injury from cold, dry winds. The
cucurbit crops are especially susceptible to this type of injury. Cucumber and
cantaloupe plants exhibit a whitish or bleached leaf symptom from the drying
effects of cold winds. Keeping the surface soil moist and use of windbreaks
will tend to lessen cold wind injury.

Tomato, pepper, eggplants, etc. harvested during periods of low temperatures
can be bruised easily in the harvesting and handling process. Delaying or avoiding
harvest in cold weather is advisable under such conditions. If harvest can not be
delayed, care should be exercised in handling from the field through the packing-
house.

In summary, cold stress problems are many, variable and complex. Growers can
do much to lessen the serious effects in many, if not all, situations.


(Montelaro)


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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING


A. Quality Factors Related To Machine Harvested Fresh Market Tomatoes

The following paper was presented at the September 7, 1978, South Florida
Tomato Growers Institute. The message is so important and timely that I have
asked Norman Hayslip to allow me to reprint it here in its entirety.

(Marvel)

QUALITY FACTORS RELATED TO MACHINE HARVESTED
FRESH MARKET TOMATOES
Norman C. Hayslip 1/

Quality control is the most important single factor to consider in machine
harvest of fresh market tomatoes. Unless this factor receives top priority the
once-over tomato harvester is likely to result in more immature fruit and an
increase in damage. The direct yield loss from throwing out grossly immature and
obviously damaged fruit would be costly enough. However, immature and damaged
tomatoes which escape into fresh market channels would have a negative effect on
the consumer at a time when we are already over-filled with critism on quality,
We have developed over a period of 10-12 years a harvesting system which will insure
maximum yields of mature and undamaged tomatoes. It is this system that I wish to
discuss.

To achieve high yields of mature tomatoes will require that all stages from
mature-green to red-ripe be harvested and sold through fresh market channels.
Concentration of maturity through breeding, higher plant populations, growth
regulators, etc. collectively reduce the spread in maturity. However, even using
the best methods and varieties will still result in a maturity spread of several
weeks to a month or more. In my opinion we are not ready for once-over machine
harvest until satisfactory varieties and systems of handling and marketing red-
ripe and turning tomatoes are developed and proven. Crack resistance and firmness
are primary variety characters needed for red and turning tomatoes. Provision
for sorting out the reds on the harvester for special handling and packing must
be provided, because they cannot be commingled with mature-green in pallet boxes
or bulk carriers without excessive bruising. More studies on packing, shipping
and shelf life of red tomatoes are needed. Pink, turning and mature-green stages
of a firm tomato variety can possibly be handled together in bulk containers for
transport to the packinghouse. Provision for separating and packing these colored
tomatoes in 20-pound, 2-layer containers would supply the typical "vine-ripe"
tomato.

In a once-over machine harvest the grower would be supplying three stages of


l/Professor, Vegetable Crops, Agricultural Research Center, Fort Pierce.






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

maturity: mature-green, "vine-ripe" or "turning", and red-ripe. This procedure
would require some drastic changes for mature-green growers. To some it may seem
impractical. To date we have only the Florida MH-1 variety with adequate red-
ripe firmness. However, the alternative of marketing only mature-greens and low
priced "packinghouse pinks" may be more impractical from the standpoint of re-
duced yields and lower over-all quality. Culling out reds and commingling light
pink to breakers with the mature-greens and sorting these at the packinghouse for
packing and marketing as "vine-ripes" would simplify the operation, and would be
a step in the right direction, but would still fall short of getting maximum yields
of fully mature fruit. Therefore, the inclusion of red-ripes is suggested as a
highly desirable part of machine harvesting.

Just as important as fruit maturity are the harvesting and handling procedures.
Every machinery component and operation should be thoroughly examined and constantly
monitored for potential fruit damage. No machine should be considered until every
possible source of obvious and hidden damage has been corrected. At Ft. Pierce we
found that once the source of damage was pin-pointed we could almost always correct
the problem. And through proper padding and the use of an adequate amount of water
we were able to eliminate most fruit damage. Our approach was to use padding at
every point machinery, sand and fruit were present together, and to remove the
sand from both fruit and machinery at the earliest possible point of travel through
the harvester. The second goal was to eliminate or reduce to a very minimum the
drop of tomatoes during their travel throughout the harvesting operation.

During my active involvement in machine harvest over a period of 10-12 years
we spent much time and effort in the successful development of a system and machinery
which provides for all maturity stages and which handles all fruit with a very
minimum of damage. Since harvesting, packing, shipping and retailing red-ripe
tomatoes was a new and unexplored field for Florida tomatoes we initiated some
additional investigations. These include the construction of a portable field
packing assembly for packing red-ripes on the farm; types and methods of packaging;
shipping tests; in-store consumer preference studies; and taste panels. This work,
primarily using the Floria MH-1 variety was limited, but results were encouraging.
Much more work is needed. Consumer preference studies and taste panels under the
leadership of Dr. Jim Hicks were especially impressive and indicated there is a
ready market for red tomatoes if our industry can consistently get them into the
stores in good condition.

Florida continues to face fierce competition from Mexico where labor is cheap
and abundant. Our tomato industry has been bombarded with critism on the quality
of Florida tomatoes. Most consumers are going to shop around for the best tomato
at the lowest price, and they could care less whether they were grown in Florida or
Mexico. If Florida tomato industry leaders support an intensified quality improve-
ment program including an all-out attempt to develop varieties and machine harvesting
and handling methods for red-ripe, turning and mature-green tomatoes machine har-
vesting will be a success. And if machine harvesting is a success we will have made
a big step toward meeting foreign competition and solving labor problems.






-14-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Compatability Of Fruits And Vegetables During Transport In Mixed Loads

This publication from USDA-ARS, "Compatability of Fruits and Vegetables
During Transport in Mixed Loads", Marketing Research Report No. 1070 has recently
replaced ARS 51-48. I have a limited number of copies for distribution on
request. Because of the high number of mixed loads or "mixers" that originate
in Florida and the wide range of shipping and holding requirements of produce
being shipped, it is essential that shippers know what commodities can be mixed.
We know from past observations that many "mixers" are made up of incompatable
combinations. Losses and reduced quality has resulted. For example, at the 1978
Tomato Growers Institute, Mr. Ted Barefield of the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services reported on "What Supermarket Buyers are Saying about
Florida Tomatoes". One complaint was that tomatoes in mixed loads with ice on top
cause the boxes to break down. The solution is not packing tomatoes in a wet-strength
box, but maintaining mixed loads requiring top ice separate from other loads of
produce.

(Marvel)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Soil Testing For Vegetable Gardening

Florida Extension Agent's Guide To Making Soil
Test Recommendations For Vegetable Gardens
On Sandy Soils

The following table (A) is suggested for county extension workers in Florida.
With it, the job of completing recommendations based on soil test results should
become almost routine for even the lay worker.

The guidelines are based on Dr. James Montelaro's VC Extension Report 25-1978
"Interpretation of Soil Test Values" for the Double Acid Extraction test.

Also, a sample return sheet (B) is included. It provides the extension worker
with an easy, quick fill-in-the-blanks method of responding to homeowners with a
recommendation based on the soil test.

The two forms are offered for use by agents in the field during a trial period
of a few months. We welcome any comments or suggestions before including these
forms in the county agent handbook. If these work out to your satisfaction, we will
try to develop similar guidelines for organic, marl, and rockland soils.


(Stephens)




- I j


A FLORIDA EXTENSION AGENT'S GUIDE FOR VEGETABLE GARDENS ON SANDY SOIL


Factnr


I nw


Prepared by J. M. Stephens
LIMING RECOMMENDATIONS
Profvrrod Rant n


Hinh


pH ( 6.0) (6.0 6.5) ( 6.5)
Apply 1/2 lb. lime* Check Ca and Mg levels, a. Apply 2 lb. sulfur per
per 100 sq. ft. for If either is low, follow 100 sq. ft., and
each 1/10 pH unit that instructions in proper b. Use fertilizer with
is low. Example: pH column. minors, and/or
5.5 is 5/10 unit low c. Use well decomposed
so apply 2 1/2 lb. organic, and/or
lime. d. Apply 1 oz. complete
micronutrient mix per
100 sq. ft.
Calcium (400 Ib./A) (400 800 lb./A) ( 800 lb./A)
(CaO) a. Add lime, first ac- No lime needed if pH is No lime needed if pH is
cording to pH. O.K. O.K.
b. If pH O.K., add
1/2 lb. lime for each
50 lb. increment CaO
is low.

Magnesium ( 100 lb./A) (100 200 lb./A) ( 200 lb./A)
(MgO) a. Add dolomitic lime
(Mg) a. Add dolomitic lime No action required. Action required only if
based on pH or CaO de Ca:Mg ratio is 3:1 or
ficienc Ca:Mg ratio is 3:1 or
ficiency. less. See footnote 2.
b. If Ca and pH are
O.K., add 1 lb. dolo-
mite per 100 sq. ft.,
or
c. Add 1 oz. Epsom
salts per 100 sq. ft.,
or
d. Use fertilizer
which contains (MgO).

FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS
Phosphorus ( 150 lb./A) (150 300 lb./A) ( 300 lb./A)
(P205) Apply 4 lb. of 6-6-6 Apply 2 lb. of 6-6-6 or Apply 1 lb. of 6-6-6 or
or common garden ferti similar fertilizer per similar fertilizer per
lizer per 100 sq ft. 100 sq. ft. at planting.100 sq. ft. at planting.
at planting.

Potassium ( 120 lb./A) (150 300 lb./A) ( 300 lb./A)
(K20) Same as for low Same as for preferred Same as for high phos-
phosphorus. range of phosphorus. phorus.


*Type Lime to Recommend
1. Use dolomitic limestone (dolomite) which contains CaO and MgO where Ca to Mg ratio is
greater than 7 to 1, or where Mg is needed.
2. Use calcic limestone (hi-cal) which contains Ca where Ca to Mg ratio is less than 7 to 1
3. Use either material when lime is required, but only that one which is available to the
homeowner.


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER




-16-
B SAMPLE FORM
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agriculture Science


Your Address


SOIL TEST RESULTS


Name
The


Number Date
result of your soil test is as follows:
Factor Low Medium High
pH
Organic Matter
Calcium (CaO)
Magnesium (MgO)
Phosphorus (P205)
Potassium (K20)


( ) Your soil pH needs to be raised. Apply dolomitic limestone (
limestone ( ) at the rate of:


) or calcic


( ) Your soil pH is too high. Apply Sulfur ( ) at the rate of:
Apply micro-nutrients ( ) at the rate of

( ) Your soil pH is O.K. However, apply dolomitic lime ( ) or calcic lime ( )
( ) to supply more needed calcium ( ) or magnesium ( ).
( ) Use a complete garden fertilizer such as 6-6-6 at the rate of:

( ) Use organic fertilizer such as compost or animal manure if available.
IF YOU HAVE ANY FURTHER QUESTIONS, PLEASE CONTACT ME AND I WILL BE GLAD TO HELP.

Signed (County Agent's Name)


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I






-17-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

B. Know Your Vegetables White Eggplant

White eggplant (Solanum ovigerum Dun.) is an ornamental plant closely resembling
ordinary culinary eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). In fact, there are edible varie-
ties of eggplant having white fruit. However, such popular eating varieties as
'Albino', offered by Twilley, and 'White Beauty', offered by Glecklers and Shumway,
belong to the species melongena.

True white eggplant is a rather low-growing, branching plant. Stem and leaf-
stalks are green, or very faintly tinged with purple, and bear a few white spines.
Leaves are wavy at the edges. Flowers are lilac. The fruit are very white when
immature, but turn yellow when ripe. In shape and size, they greatly resemble an
ordinary hen's egg. Larger fruiting and dwarf plant forms have been reported.

The plants are only occasionally grown in Florida home gardens, due primarily
to the unwholesomeness of the fruit. The plants, with the snowy white 'eggs' con-
trasting brilliantly with the green plant form, are extremely attractive. It is
for this purpose that they are grown in Florida by ornamental plant growers and
merchandised throughout the U.S.

Growing white eggplant is very similar to that for common kinds. It may be
started from seed and is well adapted to container culture. Although very little
information is available on its problems in Florida, it is suspected that those
such as spider mites and wilts would also affect white eggplant.

Gardeners wishing to buy seeds probably will have trouble finding a seed source.
However, it is not too uncommon to find a potted plant which could be taken home,
repotted, set out-of-doors in a warm environment, or kept in the original container.

The edible 'White Beauty' eggplant (S. melongena) is another story. Its fruit
are borne well off the ground on sturdy upright, four feet tall plants. Its'
foliage is a rich light green without the tinge of purple of other strains. It is
large fruiting, being even larger than 'Black Beauty', a popular Florida variety.
Fruits reach a size of 4 pounds and are shaped round-oblong, similar to 'Black
Beauty'. Seed cavities are confined to the blossom-end half. Flavor is reputed
to be deliciously mild when fixed in batter, and without much trace of bitter
taste. It should be harvested when solid and while skin is still glossy.

(Stephens)




Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 2Qa.Ri86 or
37 t per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and educational
material to extension, research and industry personnel.




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