Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: September 1978
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00140
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
mlF i UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


September 5, 1978

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crons Specialist

C. B. Hall
Acting Chairman


R. D. William
Assistant Professor


J. M. Stenhens
Associate Professor


G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


M. E. Marvel
Professor


James Montelaro
Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: R. D. William, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 78-9

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Revising the Vegetarian Mailing List
B. Florida 24(c) Labels for Vegetables
C. Strawberry Plant Nursery List
D. Workshop Announcement

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Lesser Known Vegetables Offer Some Potential
B. Weeds, Diseases, And Field Sanitation

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Weight-Size Relationshins Among Varieties


VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Fall Beans
B. Mealy Bugs on Potato Sprouts
C. Know Your Vegetables Broad Bean

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, lease give credit to the authors.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Revising the Vegetarian Mailing List

We are required by law to revise our mailing list annually. If
you wish to continue receiving the Vegetarian Newsletter, please complete
and return the enclosed form (last page of this issue).

If your completed form is not received by October 1, 1978,.your
name will be deleted from the mailing list.

(William)


B. Florida 24(c) Labels for Vegetables

In a recent memo Dr. Richard Lipsey, IFAS Pesticide Coordinator,
listed all 24(c) pesticide labels approved in the south. Florida's
share of this list was; (1) fungicide and miticides 60%; (2) in-
secticides 50% and (3) herbicides 24%. This is an excellent
record and a tribute to the cooperative efforts of the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services, industry and growers. Those approved for
commercial vegetables are:


Use


Pesticides


Hot Peppers/several weeds

Potatoes/inhibit sprouting in storage

Celery


Peppers/sting nematodes


Potatoes/nematodes


Snapbeans/


Watermelons/stem blight,
anthracnose, downy mildew


Sweet potato/weeds


Tomatoes & peppers/preemergent weeds

Tomato transplants/reduce elongation
prevent abscission


Paraquat/Chev./239-2186

Applegates no sprout/

Vydate/DuPont/

Furadan/FMC/279-2712

Furadan/FMC/279-2712


Manzate D/DuPont

Captafol/Chevron


Randox (CDAA)/Monsanto/524-89


Amibem/Amchem/264-138

Ethrel/Amchem/264-267


Lorox/DuPont


Carrots









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Use Pesticides

Cucumber/melonworm, pickleworm Lannate/DuPont/352-342

Spinach Lannate/DuPont

Tomatoes/pinworm & leafminer Pyrellin/Webb Wright

Tomatoes/greenhouse whitefly Lannate/DuPont/352-342

A copy of the complete report can be obtained from this office.

(Montelaro)

C. Strawberry Plant Nursery List

A revised list of strawberry plant nurseries from Florida and
other states is available from this office upon request. Growers
are reminded to purchase freshly dug plants of varieties recommended
for production in Florida when planting strawberry plants for fruit
production. In other words, do not use plants that have been in
cold storage for more than 3 or 4 weeks.

(William)


D. Workshop Announcement

A workshop for Salesmen and Fieldmen of Agricultural Supplies
will be held in Palmetto, Florida on September 21, 1978. The topic
will be "Soil Borne Insects and Diseases: Their Biology and Control
for Vegetable Crops and Sandy Soils". The workshop will start
promptly at 9:30AM at the Manatee County Agricultural Center, the
meeting will conclude at 3:30PM.


(Marlowe)






-4-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Lesser Known Vegetables Offer Some Potential

The 1977 Vegetable Summary published by the Florida Crop &
Livestock Reporting Service shows that Florida grew 433,850 acres
of vegetables. Fifteen vegetable crops accounted for 372,550 acres
and "other vegetables" for the balance of 61,300 acres. The major
vegetables are beans, cabbage, celery, sweet corn, cukes, eggplant,
endive, lettuce, pepper, radish, squash, tomato, watermelon, potatoes,
and strawberries. "Other vegetables" include such crops as okra,
Southern peas, lima beans, collards, mustard, turnip, green onions,
Chinese cabbage, etc. However, there are another 30 to 40 lesser
known or minor vegetables which contribute several million dollars
annually to the FOB value of vegetable crops in Florida. The list
of potentially new crops could be expanded even more.

Markets are pretty well saturated with the major vegetable crops
except when disaster strikes a major producing area. Prices can
fluctuate several fold in a matter of days. For the small operator
with limited capital and assets, this group of crops offers stiff
competition and limited opportunities.

The lesser known vegetables, however, are somewhat different in
that, once a market is established, prices do not fluctuate greatly.
Note the statement -- "once a market is established". This is the
trick to success in developing a profitable business with the minor
crops in Florida. The minor crops offer some opportunity to the new
grower or the grower with limited land and capital. In many cases,
a small acreage can return a handsome income to an enterprising
person.

How does one go about finding market outlets for speciality
vegetable crops? Roadside and U-pick markets are quite common
throughout the states. Many successful operators often are more
than willing to talk with anyone contemplating this type of business.
Other specialty outlets must be searched out individually. The large
cities with large ethnic groups are good starting places. Check re-
tail store and restaurants selling specialty items for name of brokers.
Success depends on ingenuity of the individual.

There are many lesser known vegetable crops which can be grown in
Florida. However, a few cannot be grown economically. Anyone antici-
pating production of one of these crops should check with their exten-
sion agent for advice on specific crop requirements.


(Montelaro)









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

B. Weeds, Diseases, And Field Sanitation

Many common weeds of Florida have been identified as additional
hosts for some vegetable diseases (Table 1). Note that many diseases
infect both vegetables and weeds of the same plant family. Often,
these weed hosts along with abandoned vegetable fields serve as a
reservoir of disease inoculum for the following crop. Thus, vegetable
growers who recognize and practice field sanitation often produce
quality crops with fewer problems and reduced production costs.

Previous Vegetarian Newsletter articles have described numerous
field problems that could have been reduced or eliminated by using
adequate field sanitation practices (74-4, 76-9,78-1). In addition,
growers have been advised to minimize moving equipment and people
throughout the vegetable field especially when foliage is wet to
reduce mechanical transfer of the inoculum. Successful elimination
or control of certain plant hosts, early in the season, near vege-
table plantings can postpone and reduce the incidence of some plant
diseases such as downy mildew and virus diseases. Even more important,
growers are reminded to destroy abandoned vegetable fields and weeds
soon after the final harvest to reduce overseasoning of plant patho-
genic organisms on and/or in crop debris and weed hosts. Good crop
rotation and cover crop practices can aid in the control of soil-
borne organisms while reducing populations of undesirable weeds.


(William & Simone)








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Examples of weed and crop hosts for some important bacterial and fungal
diseases for vegetables in Florida.a


Weed and Crop Hosts


Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens


Sedge family
- Sedge (Cyperus sp.) -1


Grass family
- Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) -3
- Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) -3

- Vaseygrass (Paspalum urvillei) -1
- Gamagrass (Tripsacum) -2
- Corn -1,2

Pigweed and Lambsquarter families
- Pigweeds (Amaranthus sp.) -1
- Lambsquarter (Chenopodium album) -1

Legume family
- Many legume weeds -1
- Kudzu vine (Pueraria sp.) -2
- Beans, Southern peas -1,2

Cucurbit family
- Balsamapple (Momordica charantia)
-2,3,4,5,6
Citron (Citrullus vulgaris) -1,3,4,6
Creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula)
-1,6
Bur cucumber (Sicyos angulatus) -3-5
CUCURBITS (General) -1,2,3,5,6
WATERMELON -4

Cabbage or Brassicae family
- Black mustard (Brassica nigrum) -1,2
- Wild mustard (B. kaber) -2
- Pepperweed (Lepidium sp.) -1,2
- Shepherds purse (Capsella bursa-
pastoris) -2
CRUCIFERS -1,2


1. Southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii)



1. Bacterial Spot (Pseudomonas alboprecipita
2. Northern leaf blight (Helminthosporium
turcicum)
3. Southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii)


1. Southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii)




1. Southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii)
2. Halo blight (Pseudomonas phaseolicola)


1. Angular leaf spot (Pseudomonas lachrymans'
2. Cercospera leaf spot (Cercospera citrullii
3. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lagenarium)
4. Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.
niveum)
5. Gummy stem blight (Mycosphaerella citrull:
6. Downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis)




1. Alternaria leafspot (Alternaria brassicael
2. White rust (Albugo candida)


Table 1.


~______~_
--









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Table 1. (Continued)


Weed and Crop Hosts


Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens


Composite family
- Chicory (Cichorium sp.) -2
- Cocklebur (Xanthium pensylvanicum) -4
- Common Thistle (Cirsium sp.) -2
- Cudweed (Gnapalium sp.) -2
- Fireweed (Erechtites sp.) -2
- Golden rod (Solidago sp.) -2
- Groundsel (Senecio sp.) -2
- Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)
- Sowthistle (Sonchus sp.) -2
- Sunflower (Helianthus sp.)
- Wild Lettuce (Lactuca sp.) -2
- Many composite weeds -3
- ENDIVE, LETTUCE -2

Potato or Solanum family
- Nightshade (Solanum sp.) -1,2,3,5
- Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) -1
- Ground cherry (Physalis hetrophylla) -2
- Many solanaceous weeds -4
- TOMATO, POTATO -1,2,3,4,5
- EGGPLANT -1
- PEPPER -4

Cotton family
- Velvet leaf (Abutilon theophrasti) -1
- OKRA -1

Purslane family
- Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) -1


1. Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum)
2. Downy mildew (Bremia lactucae)
3. Southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii)
4. Verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrui


Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum)
Early blight (Alternaria solani)
Late blight (Phytophthora infestans)
Southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii)
Verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrui


1. Verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrui


1. Southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii)


aThe occurrence of these diseases on weed
only or primary source of inoculation to
seasoning reservoir for these pathogens.


hosts does not imply that this is the
vegetable fields, but may be an over-


_~ ~


.. ~...-.--
_-- -.









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Weight-Size Relationships Among Varieties

New varieties continually enter the tomato production and mar-
keting channels. Some varieties dominate the scene for a decade,
some for a few years, and others for only a season. A new variety
may solve some problem in production but create another type of
problem in the harvesting-handling-marketing sequence. To determine
the relationship of weight-to-size differences which had created
some sizing problems, a close look at differences between Walter
& Flora-Dade varieties was initiated.

A quick look at the sales and shipments of Florida tomatoes
during 1977 shows the importance of size (and quality):


SHIPMENTS AND SALES, 1976-77
FLORIDA TOMATO COMMITTEE ANNUAL REPORT, 1977

Designated GRADES Sales % Sales $
size #W #2 #3 Comb. of total millions

Extra large
Larger 8.3 1.4 5.5 7.1 26 33
Large 21.7 3.4 4.4 1.4 36 44
Medium 21.3 3.7 6.9 4.2 31 39
Small 6.9 1.3 1.5 0.9 6 8
Extra small 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 1 -


Total 58.2 9.9 18.3 13.6 100 124



When we look at the distribution of sizes and weights produced by
the Walter variety grown under good care in Florida we may find these
interesting relationships:









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


NUMBER AND WEIGHT OF FRUIT OF WALTER TOMATOES
(Data from a study by Montgomery, R.T., M.T. Pospichal,
and G. A. Marlowe, 1978)


Size
Designation


Percent of total, single harvest
Number/Plant Weight/Plant


Extra large 20 46
Large 20 21
Medium 16 12
Small 8 4
Extra small
and culls 36 17

Total 100 100


The Walter cultivar has been the leading tomato variety for the
past 8-10 years in Florida. In the search for a cultivar with resistance
to Verticillium wilt a new variety was developed and named Flora-Dade.
In a very short time differences between these two varieties were noted
during grading and sizing operations in the packinghouse.

Preliminary studies showed that these two varieties had signifi-
cantly different weights per unit of diameter. The following data of
the study by Marlowe, Smolinski, and Carbienier, 1978, summarizes these
differences: (Average of 1200 tomatoes of each variety, all sizes):


Walter Flora-Dade
Size Range Avg. Max. Avg. Wt. Avg. Max. Avg. Wt.
name mms diam.,mms grams diam.,mms grams

Extra small 48-54 51 60 51 66
Small 54-58 56 76 56 81
Medium 58-64 61 97 60 99
Large 64-73 68 131 68 143
Extra large 73-88 81 217 79 209






-10-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Most of the fresh market tomatoes of Florida are sold in 30 Ib
cartons. The above table shows that 30 lbs of Walter tomatoes in
the four sizes Extra small, Small, Medium, and Large would more
nearly fill the volume of the carton than would the heavier Flora-
Dade variety. The less full carton may displease the out-of-state
buyer who doesn't understand these differences. The following
data (from the same study, 1978) shows these relationships:


Average number of fruit/30 lb carton
Size Group by size category

Former Range Size
Category mms Name Flora-Dade Walter

7 x 8 48-54 ES 205 213
7 x 7 54-58 S 167 174
6 x 7 58-64 M 136 142
6 x 6 64-73 L 95 99
5 x 6 73-88 EL,L 65 67


This preliminary study helped to shed some light on these grade-
weight differences. The most important factor we might learn from
this study is that each new variety must be fully characterized before
it reaches large scale production and marketing levels. Future
studies will be expanded to include more tomato cultivars from diff-
erent locations and seasons.

(Marlowe)


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Fall Beans

Although some vegetables are started in late July and August to
allow sufficient time to mature before the first cold snaps, most fall
vegetable gardens throughout Florida are planted in September. Deter-
mining which of the many vegetables to include in the fall garden is
one of the first considerations gardeners must make.

If you like them, plant bush snaubeans. This crop yields very
satisfactorily when seeded in September in all areas of the state.
Snapbeans are just one of the many vegetables which may be included






-11-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

in the fall garden. For other possibilities, gardeners are advised
to refer to the Florida Vegetable Planting Guide available at all
County Extension Offices. The snapbean is a warm-season, tender
vegetable easily injured by frost. However, due to the fact it
produces the first beans just 50 to 60 days after seeding, there is
sufficient time for a satisfactory crop between September and the
average date of the first killing fall frosts in most areas of the
state.

Most gardeners are satisfied with a harvest period of two to
three weeks. This interval allows the beans to be picked anywhere
from 3 to 6 times. Even where only one picking is accomplished,
an average of 10 pounds per 100 linear feet of row should be ex-
pected.

In areas of Florida from Gainesville north, snapbeans probably
should not be planted later than September 20. The first part of
the month would be ideal, and would fit more closely with the
planting of other vegetables in the garden.

Plantings in central Florida might start in early September,
but could be delayed until as late as October 10. Generally, in
this area the average date of the first fall killing frost is around
December 10.

Further south, where tender plants such as snapbeans are only
occasionally killed by cold weather, snapbeans could be started in
the garden from mid-September on through March.

The selection of the best variety of snapbean for the fall garden
is another consideration to be made. In north and central Florida,
the best performing varieties appear to be 'Harvester' and 'Miami'.
The standard variety called 'Sprite' has performed well in south
Florida when seeded September through March. It has proven satisfactory
in north Florida for fall planting and excellent variety for spring
planting. 'Roma', the Italian type of bush bean, does quite well in
the spring. Gardeners might want to give it a try in the fall to
determine its adaptability this time of year.

(Stephens)


B. Mealy Bugs on Potato Sprouts

Many Florida gardeners are still eating on stored stocks of Irish
potatoes gathered from their May and June diggings. An occasional
problem on these stored tubers, along with the more normal insect and
disease problems, has been the appearance of mealy bugs.

The first sign of the presence of these tiny insects is the mass
of white cottony fibers at every eye and about the base of each sprout.




-12-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Even very small unsprouted eyes may be white with the webbing of the
mealy bugs.

Only the sharpest of eyesight is able to detect the mealy bugs
themselves and hand lens is needed to reveal them. The young insect
resembles a green aphid. The adult mealy bug is 4 or 5 times larger
and has several long leg-like protrusions from both sides and the
front. Both the young and old are covered with a white waxy or
mealy substance, giving them their name and white appearance.

Mealy bugs normally are not a problem on vegetables, being more
a concern for growers of ornamentals and fruits. However, they some-
times move onto and feed on the succulent tissue of vegetables stored
close to normal host plants. Their damage is not great, particularly
on the stored tubers of potatoes. However, they do create a possible
point of entry for rot to enter tubers, and in general dirty the
potatoes at peeling time.

There is no control established for mealy bugs on stored potatoes.
The tubers may be washed and scrubbed with a mild detergent solution.

(Stephens)

C. Know Your Vegetables Broad Bean

Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) is also known as horse bean, tick
bean, Windsor bean, English bean, fava bean, field bean, and pigeon
bean. The broad bean is sometimes classified into subspecies accord-
ing to cultivars (varieties) and their uses in various countries.
Thus, subspecies faba var. minor is the beck, tick, or pigeon bean,
greatly used for human consumption in the Arabic world, but also used
for animal forage, like the horse bean (var. equina) specifically
fed to horses. The broad bean proper, also known as Windsor or
straight bean, is var. major. Indian varieties, generally dried and
eaten as a pulse, are classified as subspecie paucyuga.

Origin The origin of broad beans is obscure, but best information
indicates the mediterranean. Remains are reported to have been found
in Egyptian tombs.

Description Broad beans get their name from the seeds which are
large and flat. Seeds are variable in size and shape, but usually are
nearly round, white, green, buff, brown, purple or black in color.
Pods are large and thick, but vary from two to 12 inches in length.
The plant is an erect, stiff-stemmed, leafy legume reaching 2 to 5
feet when mature. They are quite different from the beans in appear-
ance.

Climatic Requirements Broad bean is a long, cool season crop.
It requires 4 to 5 months from seeding to harvest. It is best adapted
for planting September through March in most of Florida. It is grown
as a summer annual in northern climates and as a winter annual in
warmer climates. It is suited for the tropics only at higher altitudes.






-13-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Flowering is adversely affected by dry, hot weather. Actually very
few broad beans are grown in this state, even in home gardens.

Planting Its Florida soil and cultural requirements are similar
to other common garden beans, except for the climatic conditions. Seed
are planted 2 inches deep in rows 3 feet apart, with plants spaced
3 to 4 inches in the row. The hill system may be used, planting 6
seeds per hill and spacing hills four by four feet anart. Some tall
varieties may require staking or trellising.

Use The parts of the plants used are the seeds as a cooked
vegetable. Pick when the beans are full-sized, but before the pods
dry, since they are a green-shell bean. Or, they may be used as a
dry bean for food and livestock feed. Broad beans are very nutritious,
containing 23% protein.

Nutrition The following proximate composition has been attri-
buted to the immature broad favaa) bean (Col. Ag. Bul. 788).

Per 100 grams -- 53 calories; 81% water; 5.6% protein (23% mature);
0.6% fat; 2.8% sugar; 350 I.U. Vit. A; 33 mg. Vit. C; 22 mg. Ca; 1.9 mg.
iron; 38 mg. magnesium; 95 mg. phosphorus; 250 mg. potassium; and 50 mg.
sodium.

Where these beans are eaten regularly as the main diet, as in
certain tropical countries, a paralytic condition known as favaism
has occurred.

Seed Availability

Seeds are not as widely available as for other types of beans.
Most local garden supply stores do not carry them in Florida. The
varieties 'Long Pod' and 'Giant Three seeded' have been listed in
catalogs of at least five of the leading national seed companies.

(Stephens)







Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of
$ 219.38 or 37 per copy, for the purpose of communicating
current technical and educational material to extension, research
and industry personnel.




The Vegetarian Newsletter 78-9


VEGETARIAN1 MAILING LIST UPDATE FORVI




All subscribers must complete and return this form by October 1, 1978
to continue receiving the Vegetarian Newsletter.



(1) I wish to continue receiving the Vegetarian Newsletter.


Yes /


No z=7


(2) My address (including my zip code) is correct.

Yes /-

No 7 Please correct as follows:


(Print your name clearly)


(Signature)


Return to:


Dr. R. D. William
Assistant Professor (Fxtension Vegetable Specialist)
3026 MTcCarty Hall
Vegetable Crops Department
University of Florida, IFAS
Gainesville, Florida 32611




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