Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00138
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: July 1978
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00138
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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July 11, 1978

Prepared by extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

J. F. Kelly

R. D. William
Assistant Professor

G. A. Marlowe, Jr.

M. E. Marvel

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

James Montelaro


FROM: R. D. William, Assistant Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist




A. Moving On

B. June Vegetarian Newsletter Page Missing?

C. Quality Strawberry Plants

D. Tomato Growers' Institute Plans for 1978


A. Nematode Control In Fall Planted Cabbage

B. Tomato Variety 'Calypso' Released

C. Virus Control With Oil Sprays In Vegetables

D. Weeds, Nematodes, and Cover Crops


A. Know Your Vegetables -- Chinese Cabbage

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.




A. Moving On

It has been nearly six years since I became associated with the Vegetable
Crops Department -- six good years. I have been particularly pleased with the
fine relationships I have established with readers of the Vegetarian, most
especially the County Extension Agents. I have recently decided to accept the
position of Chairman of the Department of Horticulture at Michigan State
University (my Alma Mater). I assure you that I am not leaving because of any
overwhelming negative factors in Florida I'm certainly not leaving to go to
a better climate. ThanJ: you for your assistance and cooperation.

While a faculty committee searches for a replacement, Dr. Chet Hall has
agreed to serve as Acting Chairman. Dr. Hall is a long-time faculty member
at the University of Florida, a leader in physiological research, a Fellow in
the American Society for Horticultural Science and a recipient of a Florida
Fruit and Vegetable Association Research Award.


B. June Vegetarian Newsletter Page Missing?

The final page of last month's (June) issue of the 'Vegetarian" may have
been left off accidentally from many copies. If a page was missing from your
copy, please attach this page.


C. Quality Strawberry Plants

Growers should beware of strawberry plants stored for longer than a month
at temperatures near the freezing point. The most vigorous, productive plants
are obtained by digging shortly before transplanting to the production field.
In transit, plants can be cooled or chilled for a few days to 2 or 3 weeks,
but plants stored for 9 to 12 months are not recommended for production in



D. Tomato Growers' Institute Plans for 1978

Plans have been finalized for the Annual Tomato Growers' Institute.
It is set for Thursday, September 7, 1978 and is to be held at 18710 S.W.
288th Street (County Agents' Office) Homestead, Florida. The program
promises to be a good one. A detailed copy of the program will be mailed
out next month. Please put this date on your calendar now and make
definite plans to attend.



A. Nematode Control In Fall Planted Cabbage

Nematodes can be a serious problem in late summer or early fall planted
cabbage on many of our Florida sandy soils. This was observed in a number of
cabbage fields throughout the state last fall. The problem can be aanrdled
easily at a small cost with the use of a good nematode control treatment.

Fields with a history of nematode problems should be treated if they
are to be planted to fall cabbage. The fumigant nematicides, D-D and Telone
II, are cleared and recommended for control of all nematodes attacking
cabbage. They are especially desirable where root-knot nematodes are present
in high numbers. Both D-D and Telone II must be applied at least 10 days
before planting to avoid crop injury. A longer waiting period is required
under cold, wet soil conditions. In all cases, growers should read and
follow instructions on the labels carefully.

Two granular nematicides are approved for use in cabbage production.
They are: (1) Nemacur 15% granular and (2) Mocap. HTemacur is recommended
for all kinds of nematodes, but Mocap is registered for sting nematode only.
As with the other materials, label instructions should be studied and
followed carefully.

Good nematode control is only one factor in successful fall cabbage
production. Good, healthy plants, free of diseases and nematodes are just
as important. Failure in the execution of one production practice can mean
partial to complete failure of a crop.

(Dunn and Montelaro)

NOTE: (1) Dr. Robert A. Dunn is Extension Nematologist, IFAS, Gainesville,

(2) The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the pur-
pose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or
warranty of the products named and does not signify that they are
approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.


B. Tomato Variety 'Calypso' Released

'Calypso' is a new tomato variety released recently by the Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) from a cooperative
breeding program with the University of Florida. It is labelled in the
release report as "a tomato variety for the Caribbean and Tropics." Yields
of 'Calypso' in the dry season have been superior to other varieties commonly
used in Trinidad. 'Calypso's' performance was about equal to that of
'Floradel' and 'Walter' in the wet season, at which time the yields of all
varieties were appreciably reduced."

'Calypso' was tested in 1973 under the designation of MH-11 at Immo-
kalee. It produced higher yields and larger fruit in both spring and fall
tests. At other locations in Florida, it was equal to the best commercial

CAUTION is advised by Mr. Don Burgis, Horticulturist at AREC at
Bradenton, Florida. He warns that under adverse growing conditions 'Calypso'
is apt to produce more "rough fruit" than 'Walter'. Growers who tried the
'Florida MH-1' tomato, well remember the rough fruit problems associated
with this variety.

Based on these observations and the lack of recent field trials in
Florida, growers are advised to "go slow" with 'Calypso'. No grower, re-
gaardless of size of operation, need try more than 1 to 2 acre test plantings
until more is known about its performance under Florida conditions. Any-
one wishing a copy of the 'Calypso' release can obtain one on request from
this office.


C. Virus Control With Oil Sprays In Vegetables

A recent breakthrough makes the control of virus diseases of vegetables
a distinct possibility. This was reported by Drs. Zitter and Ozaki at the
Vegetable Field Day held in May at Belle Glade. Virus disease control is
achieved through the use of specially prepared and applied mineral oil
sprays. The mode of action is simple. Mineral oil interferes with the
aphid's ability to acquire and transmit viruses. It is felt that oil sprays
should be effective against all stylet-borne (aphid-transmitted) viruses.

Certain oils were known to suppress the transmission of viruses by
aphids. However, prior formulations failed as a result of crop injury.
The introduction of a new oil formulation (JTIS Stylet-oil) and improved
application techniques has essentially eliminated the problem of crop
injury. A 24C label was granted for use on squash, pepper and tomato in
Florida and the material will be distributed to the vegetable industry next
season by a state-wide supplier of pesticides.



Vegetable growers are warned to use the recommendations supplied by the
distributor's representative. Timing, equipment and application techniques
are very specific and should be adhered to carefully. In general they are as

(1) The program of spraying oil should be started when aphids first
appear on the crops.

(2) Specific nozzles are recommended for certain crops.

(3) Pressure used should be no less than 400 psi.

(4) Oil sprays should be applied weekly (more often on fast-growing
crops like squash).

(5) Oil sprays should be applied separately and at least one day
after other fungicide applications.

(6) Leaves should be dry at time of application.

Growers wishing to use oil sprays should check with their County Agent.
A copy of the Belle Glade presentation is available from this office upon

(Montelaro and Simone)

IOTE: (1) Dr. Gary W. Simone is Extension Plant Pathologist, IFAS, Gainesville,

(2) Use of trade names in this article is not intended as an advertise-
ment of a specific product to the exclusion of others which might
now or in the near future demonstrate similar efficacy.

D. Weeds, Nematodes, and Cover Crops

Numerous weed species have been identified as alternate hosts for nematodes
(Table 1). Purple nutsedge hosts at least 7 different nematodes and root-knot
nematode infests many of the "most troublesome weeds" found in Florida's vege-
table fields. Perhaps the greatest increases of both weed and nematode popula-
tions occur during summer when fields are left fallow. Because suppression or
control of these pests is a major cost of producing vegetables, growers can in-
crease their production efficiency by controlling both pests using similar
cultural practices.



"Troublesome weeds" in Florida that are reported to host nematode pests.

Weed name

Nematodes reported to infest the weed

Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)

Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)

Junglerice grass (Echinochloa colona)

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica)

Crabgrass (Digitaria sp.)

Signalgrass (Brachiaria sp.)

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)

Spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus)

Root-knot, sting, awl, spiral, lance,

Root-knot, sting, awl, spiral, lance,
reniform, and stubby-root

Root-knot and root-lesion


Root-knot, root-lesion and reniform

Root-knot, sting and root-lesion


Root-knot, root-lesion and reniform


1/ Adapted from William, R. D. 1978. Weed Control in Vegetable Crops.
paper presented at the Tenth Anniversary Meeting of the Weed Science
the Philippines, Manila. (Proceedings in review).

Society of

Flooding, for example, can reduce populations of nematodes and certain weeds
such as nutsedge and some other perennial weeds that are not adapted to growing under
wet conditions. Where flooding is feasible during the summer, anaerobic conditions
should be maintained for several months to reduce oxygen levels around the pest
organisms, thereby reducing their populations. This practice is especially feasible
where organic or muck soils predominate because subsidence is also reduced by

Proper application of multi-purpose soil fumigants when soil moisture is at
or near field capacity can reduce both nematode and weed populations. Note previous
Vegetarian Newsletter articles for details (77-12).

Planting resistant or non-host crops during the summer growing season can
reduce both weed and nematode populations in fields intended for vegetables in the
fall. Crops such as corn, sorghum, small grains and certain varieties of soybean
generally host low to moderate populations of root-knot nematode. Careful selection
of resistant crops is required where mixed populations of nematodes infest the field.
For example, Dr. H. L. Rhoades at the Sanford AREC has shown that populations of
sting and root-knot nematode can be reduced by planting hairy indigo, a vigorous
growing cover crop. Yields of green bean and cabbage were similar following either

Table 1.


hairy indigo or other treatments plus an application of nematicide. However,
cucumber yields were improved when a nematicide was applied following the hairy
indigo cover crop.

By providing a dense canopy that competes against weeds, cover crops such
as hairy indigo can reduce weed seeds and vegetative propogules of perennial weeds.
Mowing the early weed growth just above the hairy indigo will release the cover
crop so that a canopy will form naturally within 4 to 6 weeks after planting.

In summTary, growers who plant resistant or non-host crops can achieve
several crop management objectives. First, growers can improve soil properties
such as soil structure and cation exchange capacity by incorporating a cover
crop before it produces seed and becomes a weedy pest. Second, subsequent weed
populations can be reduced when a cover crop competes against a native population
of weeds. Third, nematode populations can be decreased substantially by plowing
down a resistant cover crop rather than an array of nematode-infested weeds.



A. Know Your Vegetables -- Chinese Cabbage

Chinese cabbage has been grown in Asia since the fifth century, but was not
grown in the U.S. until about a century ago. Now, it is grown for sale primarily
in California, New Jersey, Hawaii, and Florida. In Florida, the principal production
areas are the organic soils of the Everglades and Central Florida. Some production
is scattered throughout other counties on sandy soils such as in Martin County.
Many home gardeners around the state include Chinese cabbage in their fall and
winter gardens.

The name, Chinese cabbage, is applied to such a wide range of types and
varieties of this vegetable that placing them in a logical order is quite difficult.
The confusion is due in part to there being two sub-species and to the fact that
Chinese and Japanese plant breeders have spent hundreds of years selecting within
these two sub-species.

Following is an outline of the major types and varieties of Chin-ese cabbage.

Chinese Cabbage

Cruciferae Mustard Family


Brassica campestris L. (Pekinensis group), or sometimes referred to as
Brassica pekinensis is commonly called the pe-tsai group. In one place or another,
common names include celery cabbage, Chinese white cabbage, Peking cabbage, pal-



tsai, won bok, napa or nappa (Japanese), hakusai (Japanese), pao, hsin pei tsai
(Mandarin), bow sum or bok choi (Cantonese).

Pe-tsai includes the broadleaved, compact-heading varieties, of which there
are two major forms Chhiili and Che foo. Note, however, that there are some
varieties of the pe-tsai group which have the broad leaves, but do not form a
compact head, eg. Santo.

Form A: Chihili type -- forms a cylindrical head 18 inches long and 6
inches in diameter, with an erect, upright growing habit. Among the varieties
having this form are 'Chihili', 'Michihli', 'Market Pride', 'Shantung', and 'Shaho

Form B: Che-foo type -- forms a compact, round head of green-bladed, white-
petioled leaves. Varieties represented in this category are Che-foo, Wong Bok,
Spring Giant, Toiyo Giant, Tropical Pride, Tropical Delight, Early Top, Tip Top,
China King, Winter Giant, Oriental King, and Winter Knight.


Brassica campestris L. (Chinensis group) is sometimes written Brassica
chinensis. The most commonly accepted designation is bok choy, or pak choi. Many
refer to it as Chinese mustard. Other names, some of which overlap those in Group
I, are (a) celery mustard, (b) pei tsai (Mandarin), (c) pak choi (Cantonese), (d)
chongee (Japanese) and (e) Japanese white celery mustard.

Bok choy is a non-heading form of Chinese cabbage, with several thick white
leaf stalks petioless) and smooth, glossy, dark green, round leaf blades forming a
celery-like cluster. There are not as many bok choy varieties available as there
are of the pe-tsai type. Two are (a) 'Canton Pak Choi' (Sakata Seed Comp.) and
(b) 'Pai Tsai White Stalk' (Herbst). Closely related is a flowering type of bok
choy which is called Chol sum (Brassica Chinensis var. parachinensis). "Sum" in
cantonese means "flower stalk".

'Chinese Tsai Shim' (Sakata) is a dark green variety of the flowering type
which is very similar in appearance to ordinary bok choy which has bolted. A purple
variety of the flowering bok choy is 'Hon Tsai Tai' (Sakata). It has dark green
deeply cut (serrated) leaves with purple-red veins. Both flowering varieties have
small yellow flowers borne on top of erect flower stalks. However, the purple variety
'Hon Tsai Tai' has purple flower stalks.

Bok choy should not be confused with a similar but broader leaf Chinese mustard
cabbage called kai choy (Brassica juncea var. rugosa). Other names for it are (a)
Chieh tsai (Mandarin, (b) gai coi (Cantonese), (c) takana (Japanese) and (d) oriental
mustard. Popular varieties are (a) 'Paau Sum Kaai Tsoi', a wrapped heart mustard,
(b) 'Takana', a red and green leaved Japanese variety, and (c) 'Miike Giant', a giant
size mustard.


Climatic Requirements

Chinese cabbage is a cool season annual vegetable. It grows best with short
days and moderate to cool temperatures (60 to 70 degrees F mean temp.). Although
cultivars will vary in their response to temperature, below 600F, seedstalks may
form before good heads can be produced. In particular, some of the bok choy
varieties, such as 'Canton Pak Choi', will bolt quickly when grown in cool weather.
Temperatures above 750F cause soft, bitter heads. Many growers have reported that
hot weather causes seed stalk formation (bolting). However, studies have shown
that bolting is due to the longer day usually associated with the warm weather.

In Florida, best results are obtained when Chinese cabbage is planted in
the fall through early spring. The short warm, mild days of this period are ideal
for good head formation. Severe cold snaps during this time can result in damaged
leaves and seed stalk formation.

Chinese cabbage is fairly quick maturing. It varies from 40 days from
sowing to harvest for some cultivars to 75 days for the longer maturing ones.

Planting Instructions

Chinese cabbage is grown from seed sown directly in the garden row, or it
may be transplanted. Space the rows 24 inches apart; space pe tsai types 18 inches
apart and bok choy types 8 to 12 inches apart within the row.

Use similar soil preparation, liming, fertilizing and cultivation practices
as for regular cabbage. Keep soil moist for best results.

The major diseases are downy mildew, black speck, virus, and bacterial soft
rot. Insect pests are cabbage worms and aphids.


Most Chinese cabbage is harvested by cutting the entire plant just above the
soil line. Old, ragged, and decayed outside leaves are removed. The heads or entire
plants are then ready for washing, using, or storage. For flowering cultivars, pick
the tender, young flower stalks leaving at least 3 to 4 young leaves on the plant.
Successive stalks will grow from the leaf axils. Add a little side-dress fertilizer
after each picking.


Chinese cabbage of all types is used both fresh and cooked with certain
varieties being more suitable than others for some uses.

For salad use, leaves can be sliced finely (like cole slaw) and used with
or in place of lettuce. Since the leaves are crisp and tasty, they make excellent
additions to sandwiches.



Chinese cabbage is cooked in various ways; as a potherb, with meat or other
vegetables, or fried in vegetable oil.

To prepare and cook flowering bok choy, follow these simple steps provided
by Sakata Seed Company. Wash the stalks thoroughly with clean water and cut into
1 1/2 to 2 inch lengths. Prepare a well-heated skillet or frying pan using a good
grade vegetable oil. Fry beef, pork, or ground meat to a light brown. Add the cut
lengths of stalks to the already fried meat and mix all ingredients thoroughly. At
the same time, stir all ingredients, adding small amounts of cold water to prevent
the contents from overcooking or burning. Continue this procedure for 30 seconds
or so, adding salt, pepper, or other seasoning. Just prior to removing the frying
pan from heat, add small amounts of cold water and allow enough time to evaporate
until all ingredients are tender, but not over fried. Serve immediately while hot.
With a little practice one can prepare a very tasty dish. The secret is when and
how much water is added and the length of time the ingredients are fried.

A unique dish, Kimchi, is prepared in Korea and elsewhere by fermenting
Chinese cabbage and pickling it in salt solution. Under cool conditions, Kimchi
can be stored for up to three months and can also be dried for later use.

Nutritional Value

According to Purseglove, Chinese cabbage contains 91.0% water, 1.7% fat;
5.4% carbohydrates; and 0.6% fiber. Chinese cabbage also is a good source of
vitamins and minerals, again with variations between leafy-green and non-leafy
heading types.


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 258.03 or 45
per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical & educational material to
extension, research and industry personnel."

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