Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00135
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 1978
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00135
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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April 10, 1978

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist

J. F. Kelly

R. D. William
Assistant Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

G. A. Marlowe, Jr.

M. E. Marvel

James Montelaro


FROM: M. E. Marvel, Professor and Extension Specialist / (*dd



A. Gardening Reprints
B. Reannouncement of Vegetable Field Days Spring, 1978

A. Cabbage Transplants Care In Production
B. Strawberry Plant Production
C. Some Causes of Leaf Spot on Tomatoes

A. Waxing of Cucumbers

A. Southern Pea Classification
B. Know Your Vegetables Martynia

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.



A. Gardening Reprints

This is to bring to your attention two reprints from the 1977 USDA
Yearbook of Agriculture; Gardening for Food and Fun. Both are related
to vegetable gardening and perhaps would be useful to you in County
work. They are as follows:

1. Growing Your Own Vegetables, USDA Agriculture Information
Bulletin 409. (244 pgs. illus.)

2. Canning, Freezing, Storing Garden Produce, USDA Agriculture
Information Bulletin 410. (384 pgs. illus.)

These two reprints may be purchased from the Superintendent of
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402
(price not quoted).


B. Reannouncement of Field Days




AREC, Sanford, Florida
1:30PM Tuesday, April 25, 1978
Cabbage, celery, etc.

AREC, Belle Glade, Florida
9:00AM Tuesday, May 9, 1978
General muck-grown vegetables

ARC, Immokalee, Florida
1:00PM Wednesday, May 10, 1978
Tomatoes, watermelons, etc.

A program for each field day will be sent out later.
dates on your calendar and plan to attend all events.

Put these





A. Cabbage Transplants Care In Production

Cabbage growers in Florida were hit hard again this year with
disease and nematode problems. The most prevalent was black rot dis-
ease. Some fields were plowed under without harvest and most others
were affected to some degree. In many cases the problem could be
traced back to the plant beds. A check of transplants going to the
field and plant beds by Extension and Research workers pointed to poor
plant bed management. Good quality transplants are just as important
to successful crop production as good quality seed.

Sanford AREC Plant Pathologist, Jim Strandberg and Seminole County
Extension Agent, Reggie Brown, feel that good plant bed management is
essential for the production of healthy, vigorous cabbage transplants.
By eliminating or, at least, reducing the incidence of nematodes and
diseases in transplants, the chances of success in the production
field increased many fold. They summarized their recommendations at
a meeting of cabbage growers as follows:

"Successful cabbage production depends upon a total
commitment to cabbage crop management. Growers who
routinely produce steady supplies of quality cabbage do
not approach the problem in a piecemeal fashion. Simi-
larly, maintaining satisfactory levels of pest related
losses or damage also requires a total program approach.
The development of any crop management program must con-
sider the individual requirements and goals of the grower
and such programs will vary. Regardless of what program
is followed successful completion of all steps in the pro-
gram is essential. The best way to solve production pro-
blems is one at a time. The best place to begin is in
the seedbed."

1. Seed

a. The production of seed in apparently disease free
areas of the United States does not insure that
seed will be disease free.

b. Seed of foreign origin has repeatedly been shown
to carry diseases such as black rot and black
leg with much greater frequency than domestic seed.
However, the fact that seed is of foreign origin
does not mean it carries disease producing organisms.
If you try seeds of foreign origin, isolate them in
your seed-bed and production areas or direct seed


c. All seeds should be hot water treated at 500C
for 25-30 minutes to control black rot. This
is an old method but the best we have. If done
properly it will not harm good seed.

d. Some seed lots have been assayed for black rot
and some have been found to be free of this
disease (no infected seeds in 10,000). Inquire
about it and use these seeds if you can.

e. Seeds should be treated with a protectant fungi-
cide by the grower or in some cases this can be
done by the seedsman on special order. It is
definitely beneficial to do so. Be sure to
treat or re-treat seed that has been hot water

2. Location of Seedbeds

a. Seedbeds should be located on high, well drained
soil. Raised beds should be used. Flooding of
seedbed area, even briefly, is usually disastrous
and results in 100% infection by black rot. Pro-
vide for rapid and direct runoff of rain water.
Locate seedbeds where no runoff is likely to enter
the seedbed areas.

b. Seedbeds should not be located within mile of
production fields of any cruciferous crops.

c. Present research indicates that black rot does not
over-season in Florida soils in the absence of
cabbage plant residue. Thus, seedbed areas can
probably be used (if necessary to do so) from year
to year if they are kept free of weeds and are
cover-cropped. Turn under unwanted seedbeds immedi-

d. Avoid areas where cruciferous weeds are present.
There are seven weed species known to be sources
of black rot and other diseases of cabbage.
Volunteer plants of the crucifer family are as
dangerous as weeds.

3. Fumigation and Seedbed Preparation

a. The fumigant materials available have provided
very erratic results unless carefully applied
under proper weather and soil conditions. Read
the label. Many, if not most fumigation jobs are
poorly or improperly done and often cause as much
harm as good.



b. Contact nematicides (check labels for approval)
coupled with a good fungicide spray program can
produce excellent transplants without fumigation.

4. Seedbed Operations General

a. Isolate different varieties by as large a dis-
tance as possible or plant at different times.
Do not plant miscellaneous crucifers in seedbed
areas regardless of source. Direct seed them in
an isolated area.

b. If possible, plant several small seedbed units
rather than one large one.

c. Farm equipment used in seedbed areas should remain
in seedbed areas. Do not use field equipment to
maintain seedbeds. This includes sprayer, carts,
fertilizer equipment, and irrigation pipe, etc. If
this is not possible, decontamination procedures
are essential.

d. Inspect areas and eliminate cruciferous weeds. They
are sources for several insects and diseases.

e. Seedbeds should be inspected at least once weekly
for insects and diseases and especially just prior
to pulling transplants. It is usually a waste of
time to use transplants from seedbeds infected with
black rot.

f. Unless the grower feels qualified to attempt other
methods, seedbeds should receive regularly scheduled
general purpose fungicide and insecticide sprays.
Although seedbeds can be grown under a pest manage-
ment program, there is little room for error in con-
trolling diseases and insect pests. Larger growers
should initiate a pest management approach since
substantial savings can be realized by avoiding unnecs-
sary sprays.

g. A fungicide program using presently recommended
materials for downy mildew control will usually con-
trol Alternaria and significantly reduce problems
due to damping-off fungi and Rhizoctonia.

h. Do not irrigate from open ditch sources close to a
seedbed. Use well or subsurface irrigation.



5. Harvesting Transplants

a. Transplants should not be topped or mowed to toughen
them up or reduce their size. It is better to cut
back on fertilizer or water to toughen them up.

b. Do not wet down transplants,wash soil from roots, or
dip transplants prior to planting. These are some
of the most effective ways known to spread pests and
diseases to your entire crop.

c. Decontaminate plant boxes after each use. Do not
bring field equipment into the seedbed area to pick
up transplants. If necessary, a thorough washing
with water is better than nothing at all.

6. Transplants from Other Sources

Transplants grown for sale should be grown under a system
which considers all the topics outlined above. Trans-
plants from out-of-state have been inspected and certi-
fied as being free of visible symptoms of diseases and
pests. Unfortunately this system is not completely effec-
tive. Treat all transplants as you would seed from a
questionable area. Isolate them from other production
units. Decontaminate equipment. Remember, equipment is
an excellent agent for movement of diseases and pests from
field to field.

7. Additional Comments

It is entirely possible and highly likely that bacteria
which cause black rot are always in the seeds or on
plants. When weather is favorable an epidemic results.
Always assume that it is present whether you see dis-
ease symptoms or not and you will probably benefit.

It is futile to spend time and effort on any of the
above considerations if you are going to ignore the others.
Only a total effort can eliminate seedbed pest problems.

It is the weather conditions which determine good and
bad years for black rot. In spite of favorable conditions
for diseases, some growers usually escape serious losses.
They are the growers who are following a sound management



B. Strawberry Plant Production

Production of both strawberries and strawberry plants could easily
be increased throughout Florida. Almost every community in Florida
has room for a U-pick strawberry operation. Also, we know that people
are willing to drive 25 to 100 miles to pick their own strawberries.
Agents, therefore, may wish to identify one or more small farmers who
have some capital to invest and show potential in growing a quality
crop of strawberries.

Another segment of the strawberry industry that needs attention is
the production of quality plants for commercial berry growers. This
past year, plants and shipping costs were $30 to $50 per thousand, or
$500 to $1000 per acre. Berry growers would feel better about this
cost if healthy, vigorous plants could always be purchased. Therefore,
we belive that a small plant industry can be enlarged, especially on
some North Florida soils where excess rainfall can be drained quickly
from the entire bed.

Potential growers should consider the following points carefully
before beginning to grow strawberry plants.

1. Nematode Control

All plant pests, especially nematodes, must be controlled on
strawberry plants offered for sale. Therefore, considerable
cost and extreme care must be exercised to produce quality
pest-free plants. Treatment involves the use of multi-purpose
soil fumigants which control most nematodes and some weeds
and soil-borne diseases. Application costs are considerably
higher than berry production fields because the entire field
must be treated and covered with plastic.

2. Weed Control

Because cultivation is impossible after the runner plants "peg
down", growers must depend on an effective weed control program.
Proper application of a multi-purpose soil fumigant when the
soil moisture is near field capacity will control a majority of
weeds. Registered herbicides can be applied after transplant-
ing or after plants become established to control susceptible
weeds. Growers should also expect to hand weed once or twice
during the growing season. Avoid locating plant nurseries where
perennial weeds are known to infest the field.


3. Planting and Irrigation

"Mother" plants must be set at the proper depth so that
soil is around the crown. Planting too deep will kill the
crown, whereas planting too shallow exposes the roots.
Irrigate often so that summer plants will "peg down".

4. Labor Requirements

Production of strawberry plants requires considerable hand
labor. Be certain that adequate supplies can be obtained
when needed. Because plants must be harvested and planted
immediately throughout Florida, the peak labor requirement
will occur in late September and October.

Agents may wish to obtain copies of VC Extension Report No.
26-78, "Strawberry Plant Production" from the Vegetable Crops Depart-


C. Some Causes of Leaf Spot on Tomatoes

County extension agents, fieldmen, and pesticide salesmen encounter
a great many foliar symptoms on field and greenhouse tomatoes. Some
of the symptoms may appear as deformities, discolorations, spots, streaks,
or terminal point destruction. This brief article outlines some of the
most common causes of leaf spot problems. Information was developed
from established literature sources, personal experience, and from dis-
cussions and helpful suggestions by Dr. John Paul Jones, Plant Pathologist
and Dr. David J. Schuster, Entomologist, both of the AREC Bradenton

The greenhouse tomato industry has grown in Florida during the past
five years. Many of the varieties being used have little resistance to
some of the most common tomato diseases; thus we are seeing some symptoms
which occur rarely with the multiple-resistance field varieties.

The following leaf spot symptoms on tomatoes have been grouped accord-
ing to their most prevalent early occurrence on the plant. This list is
to be part of a series of symptoms. This list is not exhaustive and
the author welcomes constructive suggestions as to how this series may
be made more complete, interesting, and useful.


A. Younger Leaves

1. Light tan or gray spots appear which soon became covered
with a heavy growth of fungus. The leaf usually col-
lapses and withers.

Gray Mold Botrytis cinerea

2. Light green mottling followed by the development of
numerous grayish-brown dead spots on the leaves may also
be accompanied by stem streaking and fruit disorders.

Potato virus Y group

3. Irregular pale green patterns form between veins of the
leaf followed by necrotic spot development.

Manganese deficiency

4. The shallow circular insect wounds due to ovipositor
punctures usually turn into yellowish-white spots.
The female may make 400 to 500 punctures, about 1% of
which may contain an egg which later develops into a
burrowing larva causing the characteristic serpentine

Leaf miner Liriomyza sativa

B. Older Leaves

1. Irregularly shaped greenish-black water-soaked patches
appear which enlarge rapidly. A white, downy growth may
appear on the lower surfaces of the leaf which is slightly
purplish when wet. Severely affected plants look like
they have been killed by frost. Also attacks young foliage
and plant seems to melt.

Late blight Phytopthora infestans

2. The small, black, round or irregular spots with zonate
markings are slightly sunken. They enlarge rapidly and
coalesce (fuse). The leaves turn yellow and curl upward
and remain attached to the plant.

Phoma destructive

Phoma spot



3. Small irregular brown deadspots show ridged concentric
rings in a target pattern as they enlarge. Leaves may
fall from plant. Often a disease of hungry plants.

Early blight Alternaria solani

4. The minute brownish-black specks may be circular or
irregular. Heavily infected leaves usually turn brown,
die and drop from the plant.

Gray leaf spot Stemphylium solani

5. The pin-point lesions increase in size with the centers
changing to white circular spots. The spots coalesce
as they enlarge. The leaves die, shrivel, and dry but
do not fall from the plant.

Target spot Corynespora cassiicola

6. Small, irregular greasy spots on the underside of the
leaf appear as light tan lesions on the upper side of
the leaf. The lesions have distinct yellow margins.
Often confused with bacterial spot.

Bacterial speck Pseudomonas tomato

7. Greasy, small irregular or circular spots with sunken
black centers tear away, giving the leaf a ragged
appearance. The leaves usually turn yellow and die.
May appear on young foliage, too.

Bacterial spot Xanthomonas vesicatoria

8. The yellowish or light green spots on the upper surface
of the leaf are supported by a grayish-purple moldy
growth on the underside of the leaf. More common in
greenhouses than in field tomatoes. May appear on young
foliage, too.

Cladosporium fulvum

Leaf mold



9. Dead spots develop at margin and tip of leaf which make
leaf appear scorched. Growth is usually retarded. In
advanced stages tip die-back is evident. Most common
late in growing season.

Potassium deficiency K shortage or excess of
calcium or magnesium

10. When first hatched the larvae from the clustered egg-
masses feed mainly on the underside of the leaf leaving
only the upper epidermis intact resulting in windowed
holes. Later more mature larvae may devour large section
of leaves.

Fall armyworm Laphygma frugiperda
So. armyworm Prodenia eridania

C. Spots Not Restricted to Oldest or Youngest Leaves

1. Round, elongate or triangular white spots which later
form brown necrotic centers.

Contact herbicides

2. Irregular shaped, sunken spots which often have a glazed
or transparent appearance on the upper surface.

Various chemical sprays

3. Irregular brownish-white spots which are confined to
interveinal areas and leaf tips where spray droplets
gather. These usually do not coalesce except in
severe cases, may be upper or lower surface.

Air pollution damage

4. Pale yellow to brownish spots, variable in size and on
both upper and lower leaf surfaces which give the leaf
a bronzed or stippled appearance. The leaves usually
brown, die and drop if infestation is heavy.

Red spider Tetranychus sp.



5. Transparent spots are formed due to young loopers eating
holes in the underside of the leaf, leaving the upper
epidermis intact. These spots are often referred to as
"windowed holes".

Cabbage looper Trichoplusia sp.



A. Waxing of Cucumbers

This is the season that Florida begins volume shipping of cucumbers
and we hear many comments from consumers concerning excess wax on the
fruit which makes them feel greasy as well as look unattractive when

Work done by Segall, Dow and Davis in 1973 and 1974 and published
in the 1974 Florida State Horticulture Proceedings has reconfirmed
earlier research that has shown weight loss and shriveling is reduced
significantly by waxing. Yet along with this the decay incidence was
doubled. Average decay incidence was 59% for waxed and 32% for unwaxed.
Most of the decay in storage at 21C was bacterial soft rot caused by
Erwinia carotovora which followed bacterial spot infections that occurred
in the field. There are some things that can be done to help this

1. Good field disease control so fruit are free of bacterial
spot and anthracnose.

2. Inspect waxing equipment to make sure it is applying wax
properly. Make sure brushes are picking up the proper
quantity of wax.

3. Make sure cukes are moving slowly enough and are turning
sufficiently so that they are being brushed thoroughly.

4. See that brushes do not become saturated with wax so that
they are actually applying more wax rather than removing
and evenly spreading it.

5. Check on the quality and composition of the different
waxes available. There are several different forms from
different sources.





A. Southern Pea Classification

Probably no other vegetable crops is surrounded by more confusion
in classification and varietal nomenclature than the southern pea.
Even the name of the vegetable itself is surrounded by a mixture of
synonyms. Southern pea is the preferred name now, but many still refer
to this vegetable as cowpea, edible cowpea, field pea, blackeye, and
table pea.

There are many named varieties (cultivars) as well as many unnamed
strains of this excellent human food legume. Part of the confusion in
knowing precisely which of these varieties or strains one might have is
due to many growers saving their own seed. The true varietal identity
becomes lost, and a new local name is given. As the seeds are spread
around even more, names are given to what started out as one variety.
Precise identification is extremely difficult once the original name
tag is lost.

Some years ago, over 50 of these varieties and strains were identi-
fied. Through testing each one was shown to be a little different
from the others. Since then, many other varieties have been added to
the list through the efforts of plant breeders around the country,
particularly in the south.

The following groupings are offered to provide the gardener with a
way to classify more closely his unknown seed-stock.

With the exception of the Purple Hull Group, the classification
is based mostly on color of the seed and seed-eye, and closeness of
spacing of seeds in the pod.

Varieties with seeds that are so closely spaced that the seed ends
are pressed against each other are called Crowders. Seed color varies,
but is either concentrated around the seed-eye hilumm) or is general
all over the seed coat. Any amount of seed color causes darkening of
the "pot-liquor" and the cooked seeds. Those varieties having no color
are called Creams. Most of the cream peas are loosely spaced, but newer
cream crowder varieties are available. The Purple Hull group includes
those having some purple coloring on their pods, even though they may
fit into another grouping due to other characteristics.

Further confusing the issue is the plant growth habit, there being
bush, vining, and semi-vining habit. These groupings will not deal with
plant habit.



1. Blackeye Group

The seeds are not crowded in the pods. They are white with
dark black eyes. Examples: Ramshorn Blackeye, California
Blackeye # 5, Big Boy, Extra Early Blackeye, and Blackeye

2. Blackeye Crowder Group

Similar to regular blackeyes, except the seeds are crowded
in the pods. Examples: Alacrowder.

3. Colored-eye Group

This group has seed-eye coloring other than black. Usually
it is brown, tan or pink. Seeds not crowded. Examples:
Alalong (Longhorn), Todd, and Alabunch.

4. Colored-eye Crowder Group

Same as above, except seeds are crowded in pods. Includes
Red "Holstein eye" pattern. Examples: Pinkeye Crowder,
Browneye Crowder, White Pinkeye, Calico (Hereford), and

5. Black Crowder Group

The seeds are solid black. Seed most always crowded. Examples:
Black Crowder.

6. Brown Crowder Group

Most crowders fit into this group, and most all brown seeds
fit here. Some seeds are tan colored. Examples: Brown Crowder,
Sugar Crowder, Silverskin Crowder, Alabama Crowder (not the
same as Alacrowder), Mississippi Silverskin, Jackson 21, Dixie-
Lee, Producer, and Calhoun Crowder.

7. Speckle Crowder Group

Speckled blue seeds are moderately crowded in pods. Have
largest seeds of the southern peas. Examples: Blue Goose (Gray
Goose), Whittle, Speckled Java, Gray Crowder, and Taylor.

8. Cream Group (Conch)

Seeds are light green or white. Cooking water comes out bright
and clear. Since most creams are uncrowded, most fit into this
group. Examples: Floricream, Sadandy, Cabbage (Bush White Acre),
Running Acre (Running Conch), Topset, Snapea, Climax, Bush Conch,
White Acre, Terrace, Gentlemen, and Texas Creams (40, 8, 12



9. Cream Crowder Group

Uncolored seeds, but crowded in pods. Examples: Lady Cream,
Lady Finger (Rice or Catjang), White Sugar Crowder (actually,
have a colored eye so would fit the colored eye crowder group),
and Zipper Cream.

10. Purple Hull Group

Seed pods show some purple coloring, either at tip are all
over. Seeds may or may not be crowded. Usually white peas
with buff, brown or pink eyes. Examples: Jackson Purple Hull,
Dixie Queen, Herbken, Knuckle Purple Hull, Pinkeye Purple Hull,
Purple Tip Crowder, and Purple Hull.

11. Field and Forage Group

This final group includes all those grown most usually for
forage cropping and soil improvement. Examples: Iron, Clay,
Whipporwill, New Era, Groit, Brabham, Victor, Arlington, Red
Ripper, Columbia, and Michigan Favorite.
B. Know Your Vegetables Martynia

Martynia (Proboscidea louisianica (M.) T.), popularly called "Unicorn
Plant" is grown for its seed pods which are picked while young and tender
and used for pickles, like cucumbers. Both the generic name Proboscidea
(nose-like) and the popular name Unicorn Plant refer to the configuration
of the pods. These fruits are hairy, about one inch thick and four to
six inches long at maturity, about half the length consisting of a slender
curved beak.

The plant is an annual, up to 2 to 3 feet in height, with big 4 to 12
inches wide round, pointed leaves.

Due to the unusual shape of the pods, the plants are grown as orna-
mentals and the floral arrangements more often than for vegetables.

Martynia is native to the Southwestern United States and occasionally
is grown in home gardens throughout the country. Florida gardeners wish-
ing to try this as a novelty plant should look through their seed catalogs
for a listing.


Martynia unicorn plant is grown about the same as okra. Like okra,
it does best in a warm sunny location, for it is a hot-weather plant.



It may be started in the garden either by direct seeding or by
setting out transplants. For transplants, sow seeds in individual
transplant containers, or in an outdoor seed bed. Like many other
vegetables, be sure to keep as much soil as possible around the roots
when transferring the plants from the seed bed to the garden row.

In the garden, space plants three feet between rows and 18-24 inches
between plants. Sow the seeds to 1 inch deep and thin out young
seedlings to the desired distance.

Except in South Florida, start plants outdoors in the spring as
soon as frost danger is past. In South Florida, including the keys,
wintertime planting is possible.

Pick the pods while still tender, or they are unfit for consump-
tion. Continue picking as they develop, to encourage more pods to set.
The entire young pods are used for pickling sweet like cucumbers.


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