Title: Vegetarian
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00133
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: February 1978
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00133
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

Vegetarian%201978%20Issue%2078-2 ( PDF )


Full Text

INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
IFAS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE

L I VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

L --- ^ -- _^^


February 10, 1978

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist

J. F. Kelly
Chairman


R. D. William
Assistant Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


M. E. Marvel
Professor


James Montelaro
Professor


TO:


COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (HORTICULTURE AND VEGETABLES) ANI
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA


FROM: J. M Step ns, As spiate Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 78-2

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Congratulations J. Montelaro
B. Getting More Mileage from your Vegetarian

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Selecting Vegetable Varieties that Sell
B. Subsoiling Watermelons in North Florida
C. Avoid the Transplant Production Nightmare
D. Watermelon Foliage Disease Control in Florida
E. Harvesting and Handling Watermelons

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. 'Florida Staysweet' Corn A New Variety for Home Gardeners
B. Know Your Vegetables Upland Cress


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
possible, please give credit to the authors.


Whenever,


wsc
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING




-2-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Congratulations James Montelaro

Jim Montelaro has been contributing to the Vegetarian since 1952,
monthly since 1971. Through this newsletter extension and research workers,
teachers, growers and industry representatives have become familiar with his
effective program. The Vegetarian has been just one part of his work. In
recognition of his contributions, Jim has been selected to receive the Henry
M. Covington Extension Award by the Southern Region of the American Society
for Horticultural Science. Congratulations, Jim!!!

(Kelly, Marlowe, Marvel,
William and Stephens)


B. Getting More Mileage from your Vegetarian

Many offices receive only one issue of the Vegetarian. We have been
told that in many of these offices it is not circulated among other staff.
We encourage you to circulate the Vegetarian rather than ask us to increase
the size of our mailing list. However, we do want to have regular users of
Vegetarian material on our list.

(Kelly)



II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Selecting Vegetable Varieties that Sell

This article is the second in a series of summaries from the Thomasville
Market meeting sponsored by the Georgia Department of Agriculture Marketing
Division and the Georgia and Florida Cooperative Extension Services.

Growers must consider many factors when selecting vegetable varieties
and crops to grow for profit. In previous issues of the Vegetarian Newsletter
numerous articles describe the need for planting high quality seeds (73-12,
74-8, 76-1, 76-2 and 77-1). Another essential factor is selecting a vegetable
variety is choosing one that sells.

The best advice is get to know the customer, who may be the buyer at
the market. Local market gardeners or roadside stand operators need to pro-
vide a wide array of vegetables. Varieties should be selected according to
local preferences. A wide variety of colorful vegetables in a roadside stand
or curb market will attract customers and bring repeated business.




-3-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Vegetable growers who sell through a local market with buyers from
national market outlets should consider varieties that are preferred
nationally. Also, some of these markets are recognized for a certain type
of vegetable. For example, the Thomasville Market is known for supplying
yellow crookneck squash and the buyers prefer the 'Dixie Hybrid' variety,
whereas other markets are known for supplying the straightneck varieties.
County agents should contact Mr. Roscoe Stewart, Manager, Thomasville Market,
about a list of vegetables and varieties.

Another aspect to consider is seasonal prices and price duration during
the growing season for certain vegetable varieties. The buyer or the market
manager knows which varieties maintain the highest prices during the growing
season. For example, 'Purple Hull Crowder', 'Purple Tip Crowder', 'Blackeye'
and 'Acre'peas tend to maintain a slightly higher price for a longer period
at the Thomasville Market than 'Pinkeye', 'Green Crowder' or 'Conch' peas.
Growing these varieties for the Thomasville Market is always better than
growing the old variety 'Purple Hull' or 'Big Boy'.

The buyer or market manager knows which varieties or crops make up
the largest volume of sales at that market, also, which specific crops or
varieties may enjoy a stronger market demand and possibly a higher price
during certain times of the year. However, before planting to produce during
a period of higher price it should be determined whether high yields of qualil
vegetables can be grown at that time. It is also important to calculate ex-
pected expenses and to evaluate the potential profit margin before planting.

After selecting the correct variety, the grower must concentrate on grow-
ing, harvesting and marketing the very best quality product. The vegetables
should be picked at the correct maturity, handled and graded properly, packed
in clean crates of the proper size and dimension, and sold as soon after pick-
ing as possible to keep the produce fresh and attractive.

(William)


B. Subsoiling Watermelons in North Florida

Many watermelon growers along the north Florida border subsoil before
planting melons on the reddish sandy or sandy loam soils characteristic of
the region. The purpose of subsoiling is to break a "hard pan" or "plow pan"
directly beneath the watermelon row. The watermelon tap root will grow
through the broken "pan" and absorb more water and plant nutrients.

According to Dr. Fred Rhoads, Soil Scientist at the Quincy AREC and
others at Tifton, Georgia, these soils contain a clay fraction in the surface
or sometimes in the subsurface horizon. A "hard pan" is formed when equipment
or large animals apply pressure to these soils. A "plow pan" is formed when
the bottom of a mold board plow compacts the soil under the plow. Even the
edge of a harrow or disc can create some compaction. Thus, excessive harrow-
ing or repeatedly driving tractors and equipment across the field should be
avoided.




-4-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Most "pans" occur from 6 to 14 inches (15cm to 42cm) deep. You can
test your soil for a "hard pan" by sharpening a half inch (1cm) rod and
pushing it into the soil. If the rod stops suddenly, it may have hit a
"hard pan". Use a shovel to remove the surface soil. You can identify a
"hard pan" by looking for a rather thin layer of densly compacted clay.
Usually, the clay particles will be arranged horizontally. Seeing this
makes it obvious why plant roots cannot grow through this compacted layer.

The objective of subsoiling should be to break the "hard pan" beneath
the crop row and to prevent formation of a new "pan". Usually, a single
subsoiling unit is used for watermelon production. It should be set just
deep enough to break the "pan". Considerably more energy is used in subsoil-
ing deeper than necessary. To reduce the number of trips over the field,
growers should consider which other planting operations could be accomplished
at the same time as subsoiling.

Watermelon growers polled during a recent series of grower meetings.
We found that most of the growers in Jefferson County and approximately 25%
of the growers in Jackson, Washington, and Holmes Counties subsoil their
watermelons. Average yields during the drought last year were around 25,000
lbs of melons per acre in Jefferson County. In west Florida, the growers
who do subsoil indicated that it was essential for their farming operations.

(William)


C. Avoiding the Transplant Production Nightmare

Many plant growers this past month have been experiencing unusual symp-
toms on the seed leaves and stem tips of seedling tomatoes, peppers, and
eggplants. In some cases the problems have been associated with diagnosable
diseases caused by plant pathogens such as late blight, pythium, and
rhizoctonia. Most of the problems, however, have been related to too much
care.

Growing seedlings is very much like agricultural journalism. Experience
writers tell young writers: Keep it short. Keep it simple. Perhaps plant
growers need a simple formula such as that. If they followed an "as needed"
rule, rather than "if some is good more is better" rule they could eliminate Z
great many of their serious problems.

Most problems being brought to our attention are "undiagnosable" because
so many things have been done to these plants. It is not uncommon to find
that a grower has put on 4 different fungicide-bactericide sprays, 3 different
insecticides, and 3 different nutrient spray applications in a one week
period.




-5-


Water is often applied in this "more is better" manner, too. Root
oxygen is often so depleted that the seed leaves drop, the true leaves
are small and yellow, and the spindly plant almost perishes trying to
signal that strangulation is occurring.

What basic program will help alleviate these serious mistakes?


1. Fungicides

Plant growers should apply only one good fungicide every 5 to 7 days.
Coverage should be complete. Application should be made when the leaves
are dry. Maneb sprays are recommended and strict adherence to label direc-
tions are mandatory.

If growers prefer to apply a fungicide as a smoke bomb during the night
hours, extra precautions should be taken. Dr. Tom Kucharek, Extension Plant
Pathologist, says that the chlorothalonil bombs are very effective, and with
reasonable care should not be too hazardous. Growers should close up their
greenhouse, place the specified number of bombs, and then light the wicks as
one proceeds out of the greenhouse. Dr. John Paul Jones, AREC-Bradenton,
cautions that re-entry into the greenhouse should follow label directions
precisely.

2. Bactericides

Outdoor plant beds require a slightly different approach than media-
grown plants in multipot trays in a greenhouse. A combination of basic
copper sulfate with the maneb spray is recommended as a preventative or as
an as-needed spray to reduce the possibility of bacterial spot.

3. Good Sanitation Practices

General cleanliness of the area and workers, making routine observations
of the plants, avoiding excess humidity, temperature, or shade conditions,
and prompt removal and destruction of sick plants are very important.

4. Insecticides

Plant growers should be cautioned about label instructions on insecti-
cides, as many have approval for outdoor use, but not for use in greenhouses.
Some are more phytotoxic on young seedlings in the greenhouse than they are
on more mature plants in the field. Many materials might be used which do
not have greenhouse clearance, but we should promote strict adherence to the
label.

Insecticides may be applied on an "as-needed" basis, but most growers
prefer a preventative program. Endosulfan (Thiodan) and products containing
Bacillus thuringiensis are approved for greenhouse use. Dr. D. J. Schuster,
AREC-Bradenton, feels that these make a very effective combination for most
of the insects encountered.

Discretion should be used for the selection of a "clean-up" spray for
leafminers. Methomyl, naled, dimethoate, and azinphosmethyl insecticide are
not cleared for greenhouse use, and Monitor has special restrictions which
should be read very carefully.




-6-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


5. Watering

Watering should not be done by the calendar or clock. Overwatering
invites root oxygen starvation, invasion by pathogens, and excess use of
fertilizer. In large operations the entire greenhouse often gets a water
application even though the grower feels that only some need it. Provi-
sion should be made for spot watering those plants which need it when others
do not.

6. Symptoms

Many plant trays are brought to our attention with plants showing a
wide range of symptoms. The symptoms are seldom clear-cut, and when a case
history of the problem is made one can soon see that any one of several
practices may have caused the disorder. When the problem has been compounded
by so many factors, diagnosis is all but impossible. Thus the nightmare for
plant growers continues.

A simple program based on successful practices should be modified with
caution. It is like the old-timer said, "All the folks in my town are
Baptists and Democrats unless they have been tampered with".

(Marlowe)


D. Watermelon Foliage Disease Control in Florida

Extension agents in Florida are probably called upon more often for
information on foliage disease control for watermelons than for any other
crops. On many occasions, the call is made too late to assemble needed
equipment and materials in time to take effective action. Downy mildew
(wildfire), for example, spreads so rapidly that a one- or two-day delay can
mean total failure. The successful watermelon grower is the one who plans
in advance to carry out a good disease control program. By doing this, it
can be done effectively and at a minimum cost.

Dr. D. L. Hopkins, Associate Plant Pathologist at the ARC, Leesburg
has worked on watermelon foliage disease control for a number of years. We
asked him to summarize his observations on the major foliage diseases of
watermelon and how best to control them. His suggestions should be studied
carefully by all watermelon growers, especially in relation to effectiveness
and cost of each fungicide. Properly used, those suggestions can go a long
way toward eliminating failures in watermelon production due to foliage
diseases. They are as follows:

"The recommended fungicides (Table 1) will control
the major foliar fungus diseases of watermelon. The fungi-
cide sprays may be applied by various high-volume or low-
volume ground sprayers and by airplane sprayers. Regardless
of the method of application, complete coverage of the foli-
age is most important for good disease control. Inadequate
coverage results in poor disease control. The number and
timing of spray applications depend primarily on weather condi-
tions. More sprays are required generally in southern Florida




-7-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


than in central and northern Florida. In southern
Florida fungicide sprays are necessary from seedling
emergence; whereas, in northern Florida regular sprays
usually are not necessary until vining or fruit-set
stages."



Recommended Fungicides for the Control of Foliar Diseases of
Table 1: Watermelon
Rate Min. Days To
Fungicide (amt./acre) Harvest1

Maneb 80% lh lbs. 5
Dithane M-45 80% 1 lbs. 5
Manzate 200 80% lh lbs. 5
Difolatan 4 flowable 2 pts. NTL
Bravo 75% or 6F 1-2h Ibs. or
2 1-2 pts. NTL
Benlate 50% k- lb. NTL


1This is the minimum number of days allowed between the last foliar applica-
tion and harvest. NTL = no time limit.

2Benlate does not control downy mildew or Alternaria leaf spot.


"Gummy stem blight and downy mildew are currently
the two most prevalent and damaging foliar fungus dis-
eases of watermelon in Florida. The gummy stem blight
fungus causes leafspots, stem cankers, and fruit rot.
All the recommended fungicides in Table 2 can provide
adequate control of gummy stem blight. In wet, rainy
years when this disease has been quite severe, Difolatan
has been most effective against it in tests at Leesburg
(Table 2)."

"The downy mildew fungus attacks only the leaves
of watermelon. When environmental conditions are favor-
able, downy mildew develops rapidly and may give an
entire field a "burned-off" appearance. Dithane M-45,
Manzate 200, and Bravo have consistently provided the
best control of downy mildew in tests at the ARC, Leesburg
(Table 2). Benlate does not control downy mildew. It is
most important with this disease that fungicide applica-
tions be made before the appearance of symptoms in the
field."




-8-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Table 2: Fungicidal Control of Downy Mildew (DM) and Gummy
(GSB) of Watermelon at Leesburg, Florida


Stem Blight


Rate % disease1 1971
(Amt./100 GSB DM yield
Fungicide gal. per acre) (1970) (1971) (tons/acre)


Dithane M-45 1l lbs. 39 18 26
Manzate 200 lh lbs. -- 27 24
Bravo 1 lbs. 45 35 25
Difolatan 2h pints 22 53 26
Benlate + h lb. + 42 35 24
Manzate 200 1 lb.
Unsprayed -- 89 97 18


Ratings were made the third week of June in both years.


"With the widespread use of anthracnose-resistant
commercial watermelon varieties, anthracnose is not the
serious overall problem that it used to be. Where
anthracnose race 2 does occur, it can be controlled with
recommended fungicides. Alternaria and Cercospora leaf-
spots also occur on watermelon in Florida, but are not
as severe as gummy stem blight and downy mildew. They
are more easily controlled with fungicides."

"Bacterial leafspot is a disease associated with cool,
wet weather. This disease usually disappears with the onset
of warm dry weather, but if it becomes severe it can be
controlled with copper sprays (3 lbs. of 53% copper per
acre)."


(Montelaro and Simone)

NOTE: Dr. Gary Simone is Extension Plant Pathologist, IFAS, Gainesville.




-9-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


E. Harvesting and Handling Watermelons

There are several good reasons why more attention must be paid to the
harvesting and handling of watermelons. The main reasons are: Cost of
production gets higher every year, competition from Mexico and elsewhere
is becoming more intense, and buyers and consumers are demanding better
appearance and quality.

There are about ten points that should always be kept in mind. Some of
these may seem to be so simple that everybody who grows and ships watermelon
should already know them, yet we see them ignored or forgotten every year.

1. Have a buyer/broker and transportation lined up before making a
final decision to plant. Get to know the buyer and work out differences
and any previous disagreements early. He is just as anxious as the
grower to have a smoothly operating harvest and shipment. After the
crop is ready to harvest is no time to begin negotiating. Trucks for
hauling watermelons are usually in short supply. Indications are that
the situation may get worse this year, so make sure there will be a
dependable source of transportation.

2. Most growers now use high levels of fertilizer, irrigation and
intensive cultural practices. This creates very rapidly growing and ran]
plants, but also makes conditions right for foliage diseases. In water-
melons, the sugars are formed by the foliage and translocated into the
fruit during the last few days before maturity; therefore, living func-
tioning vines are necessary to produce sweet melons. Vines must be kept
alive as long as possible. This also reduces sunburning of melons.

3. Maturity is based on many factors. The most dependable means of
determination is experience and judgement. Here are some factors that
must be used.

a. First harvest vs. later harvest. The first harvest is always
the most difficult to determine and this varies greatly among
varieties, time of year, whether irrigated or non-irrigated,
wet or dry season, high or low fertility and foliage disease
severity. Only an experienced cutter can put all these factors
together and cut with reasonable accuracy. Cutters will open
many more melons in a new field than in subsequent cuttings.
Using an experienced cutter is most important, especially for
first cuttings.

b. Every variety has slightly different indicators and these must
be studied and learned. 'Charleston Gray' is probably the easiest
and most "forgiving" of the present varieties. This may be
either good or bad. Usually, if cut too immature, they will
eventually turn pink or red. They will never develop acceptable
sugar levels if harvested too green, even though they will look
ripe. Some of the new varieties have a very short prime maturity
time and deteriorate rapidly if harvested too ripe.




-10-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


4. It is important not to cut too far ahead of shipment. One-day's
loading is the maximum that should be cut ahead except in times
of emergency, such as holidays or when heavy rains are expected.

5. Melons should be handled as few times as possible. Loaders must
not throw, walk or ride on loads from fields. In addition to
causing internal injury that cannot be seen until the melon has
been cut, every time a melon is handled, external scuffs and scars
are increased and the melons become more unsightly several days
later. Internal injuries, splitting, water-soaking, etc., even
though the melons are still edible, are so unslightly that retailers
who sell sliced watermelons usually throw them away.

6. Melons should always be stacked in the shade in stacks not more
than 6 to 8 melons high with plenty of mulch straw on the bottom.
If they are left in the truck or wagon it is important to park in
the shade where there is plenty of air movement, but never next to
a metal building.

7. Field wagons should be padded well with burlap bags or carpet. Sinc<
burlap bags are now more difficult to find, pile carpet remnants are
usually available from carpet shops. Some hay or straw should also
be used in the bottom and it should be cleaned out every day to avoic
abrasion from accumulated sand.

8. Long melons all have thin blossom ends. Crossway loading is a good
idea for long melons, but it has never been adopted. The work was
done primarily with rail cars and no melons are shipped by rail now.
Loading and packing should be done so that the thin ends are pro-
tected using fresh clean hay or straw. Again, an experienced packer
is essential to have loads arrive in good condition.

9. There are some innovations such as cartons and pallet-bins that will
be used more in the future. More work needs to be done on these new
systems to make them more acceptable. Some of the problems have
been that a standard carton size is difficult to establish with so
many sizes and shapes of melons. Cartons strong enough to withstand
stacking loads, leaking melons, rough handling, and receivers willing
to pay the premium necessary to justify the added expense of the
cartons are just a few problems.

With pallets, some of the same problems exist as with cartons. Thert
is a need for standardization of sizes to conform to sizes of trailed
and grocery stores, warehouses. There is a choice of nailed wood bii
plastic or veneer wire-bounds or knock downs, or returnable or dis-
posables. Most melons are still loaded near fields where there is n(
hard surface for ordinary forklifts with platform tires. Growers
should check into the use of loading equipment specially fitted with
pneumatic field tires.




-11-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


10. New grade standards for watermelons were revised by the Food Safety
and Quality Service, U.S.D.A. and the effective date was January
15, 1978. For further information contact Frank J. McNeal, Fresh
Products Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Quality Division, Food Safety
and Quality Service, U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C. 20250. Telephone
number (202) 447-2185.

(Marvel)



III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. 'Florida Staysweet' Corn A New Variety for Home Gardeners

Here is good news for home gardeners who like sweet corn "sweet".
The University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
(IFAS) has developed a new hybrid sweet corn variety with a much higher
sugar content in the kernels than other available varieties.

Not only is the corn sweet when harvested, but it stays sweet for a
relatively long period of time. Aptly enough, it has been named 'Florida
Staysweet'.

The extra amount of sugar possessed in 'Florida Staysweet' is the
result of a sugary gene which ordinary varieties of sweet corn do not have.
Most commonly grown varieties have only about 3 percent sugar as compared
with the 9 percent for 'Florida Staysweet'. If that sounds too sweet for
good taste, keep in mind that out of 84 persons eating the new corn in one
taste test, 56 acclaimed it as the best tasting corn they had ever eaten.

Perhaps just as important as 'Florida Staysweet's' original sweetness
is its ability to remain sweet long after harvest. Unless the ears of
ordinary varieties are adequately cooled, the sugar changes quickly to starch
The sweet flavor is gone in less than a day. You have only a few hours in
which to harvest, then either cook or store the corn at its peak of quality.
However, with 'Florida Staysweet', you may leave the ears unharvested on the
plant for a few days without any appreciable loss of sweetness. For maximum
tenderness, however, it is best to harvest at the precise time when it is
first ready to eat.

With all varieties, including 'Staysweet', refrigeration below 45F great
helps to maintain sweetness. Tests have shown that 'Florida Staysweet' still
may have from seven to nine percent sugar of its original nine percent after
eight to ten days of storage at 38 to 44 F.

Ok! It tastes great, but how well does it grow? 'Florida Staysweet's'
yield record shows it to be equal to other commonly grown varieties such as
'lobelle'.




-12-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


And, here's a real plus worth considering. It is resistant to
northern leaf blight, a disease often encountered in Florida gardens.

Anything as good as 'Florida Staysweet' must have a few drawbacks.
This new variety's weak point, although only slight, is in the nature
of its seeds. Since they have so little starch in the kernel, the dried
seeds do not sprout quite as strongly under all conditions as most sweet
corn varieties. This weakness can be overcome by planting extra seeds
in the row, then thinning seedling plants to the proper spacing.


Special Requirements for Growing 'Florida Staysweet'

If you plan to grow 'Florida Staysweet' in your garden, be sure that
no other kinds or varieties of corn are growing within about 500 feet of
it. Also, do not plant in your garden other varieties within 4 weeks of
the planting date for 'Florida Staysweet'.

The reason for such special care has to do with pollination. Pollen
from other varieties planted close by will be carried by the wind to the
silks of your 'Florida Staysweet'. The resulting kernels will be starchy
and unsweet. Likewise, pollen blowing from 'Florida Staysweet' and land-
ing on silks of regular varieties will cause an undesirable starchy flavor
in those kernels.


Growing Instructions for 'Florida Staysweet'


NORTH FLORIDA

CENTRAL FLORIDA

SOUTH FLORIDA


BEST TIME TO PLANT


March 15 to April 15

February 15 to April 1

September thru March


NOTE: Be sure the soil is

warm before planting seed


SPACING AND SEEDING


Depth of Seed . . . .

Distance between plants after thinning ..

Distance between rows . . .


. .1 inch (plant shallow)

. .12 inches

. .30 to 36 inches


Amount of seed required to plant 100 feet of row..300 seeds




-13-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER



Pest Control

Keep weeds out by cultivating or mulching. Main insect pests are worms
that feed in the bud and ear. Dusting or spraying with Sevin is beneficial.
Except on seeds, use of a fungicidris probably not needed. Where nematodes
are known to infest the soil, fumigate the garden with a nematicide such as
D-D, EDB, Vapam, Fume V or Vorlex.


Harvesting

Like any variety of sweet corn, ears of 'Florida Staysweet' should be
pulled at the peak stage of maturity. Normally, this will be between 75
and 85 days from date of planting.

When the silks turn brown, pop a few of the kernels with your finger-
nail to determine tenderness. Give the juice a taste test for sweetness.
Fortunately, ears of 'Florida Staysweet' retain their good eating quality
for a longer period of time than other varieties while still on the plant.


Storing

As with any sweet corn, store in the crisper until ready for cooking.
Refer to the Introduction for more details on storing. At the present,
little is known concerning the freezing and canning qualities of this new
Florida hybrid. You might give it a try. This variety will maintain high
sugar levels even when held for several hours without refrigeration,
especially if not exposed to the sun.


Saving Seeds

Since 'Florida Staysweet' is a three-way cross hybrid, it is not
advisable to save seeds for planting. The next crop will not have the
same quality characteristics.


Seed Availability

Hopefully, you will find seeds of 'Florida Staysweet' for sale in your
local seed and garden supply stores. Soon, it will be advertised in major
seed company catalogs, and will be made available for mail order purchasing.


(Stephens)




-14-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Know Your Vegetables Upland Cress

Cress is a general name for a range of plants eaten as a sharp salad
garnishment or potherb.

Upland cress (Barbarea vulgaris) is one of three major cresses. The
other two are watercress (Rorippa nasturitum-aquaticum) and garden cress,
(Lepidium sativum).

Other names for upland cress are land cress, dryland cress, wild
cabbage, cassabully, creasy salad, and scurvy grass. Upland cress is a
member of the Cruciferae family. Two very similar, but slightly different
species of upland cress are winter rocket (B. vulgaris) and Belleisle cress
(B. praecox).

Upland cress resembles watercress in form and flavor. The leaves are
very small, almost square shaped, with slight notching of the leaf margins.

Upland cress is seldom grown in Florida gardens, although it will grow
here. Like spinach, it should be grown during the coolest months of the
year. Being extremely hardy, it withstands most any Florida winter.

Planting -- Unlike watercress, upland cress may be grown on most garden
soils and in a manner similar for the more common vegetables.

Seed should be sown in late September through December. Seeds should be
planted shallow, about inch deep, keeping the soil moist, especially at
seeding time. Seeds should be planted fairly thick followed by thinning to
remove the weakest plants and obtain the desired stand.

Since the seeds are small, it is necessary for the seedbed to be smooth,
level and free of clods, trash and weeds. Rows should be spaced 12 inches
apart. Plants spaced 3 to 6 inches within the row.

Fertilizing -- Before planting, fertilizer should be scattered over the
bed surface and worked into the top 4 inches, using about 2 pounds of common
analysis (e.g. 8-8-8) garden fertilizer per 100 linear feet of row. Later,
as the plants are growing, a sidedressing with quickly available nitrate
nitrogen may be necessary to prevent yellowing of the foliage.

Pest Management -- In areas where a lot of upland cress is grown, some-
times a foliage disease causing leaf spotting is encountered. Unfortunately,
not much can be done about the disease, since no chemicals are cleared for
use on such a minor crop.

Harvesting -- The portion of the plant used is the leaves. The leaves
are picked when the plants become well-established (about 4 inches high).
The stem and roots are left intact so that the leaves may be picked again as
they grow. The entire plant may be harvested at once as an alternative.

Use -- Upland cress is eaten as cooked greens in some areas, while in
others it is used raw in salads or as a garnish.


(Stephens)




-15-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER





Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 472.91
or 86 per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and
educational material to extension, research and industry personnel.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs