Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: November 1977
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00129
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
AGUII UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER



November 4, 1977

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

J. F. Kelly
.Chairman

James Montelaro J. M. Stephens
Professor Associate Professor

G. A. Marlowe, Jr. R. D. William
Professor Assistant Professor

TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: James Montelaro, Professor and Extension Vegetable Specialis ) //r7

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 77-11

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Greenhouse Tomato School Final Announcement
B. Greenhouse Tomato Production Costs and Returns
C. Seedling Plant Production Short Course
D. ChloroIPC Herbicide Outlets in Florida
E. North Florida Vegetable Marketing Meeting Thomasville, Georgia
F. Postharvest Horticulturist

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Crop Residue Problems in Vegetable Production

B. Irrigating Small Fields of Vegetables

C. Some of the Causes of Poor Fruit Set in Tomatoes

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Conserving Water in the Garden

B. Know Your Vegetables Brussels Sprouts

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible,
please give credit to the authors.

sps
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Greenhouse Tomato School Final Announcement

A one-day session on Greenhouse Tomato Production is planned for Florida county
agents and producers.

DATE: November 15, 1977

TIME: 9:30 to 3:00 Lecture and panel discussion
3:00 to 4:00 Tour of a local greenhouse

PLACE: Community Center, Oxford, Florida

(Montelaro)


B. Greenhouse Tomato Production Costs and Returns

A preliminary study published recently on greenhouse tomato costs and returns
should be of interest to individuals considering greenhouse tomato production as a
business venture. Dr. D. L. Brooke and Dr. G. B. Wall summarized their results
briefly as follows:

"Interest in hothouse tomato production is increasing in central, north and west
Florida. A survey of eight growers indicated requirements of 504 hours for production
and 208 for harvesting and marketing 7,425 pounds of tomatoes from 900 plants in a
3,000-square foot house. Returns to labor were $1.97 per hour and house construction
cost was $2.80 per square foot."

A copy of this publication can be obtained from this office. It is entitled
"Cost and Returns from Hothouse Tomato Production in Florida," Economics Report 87,
D. L. Brooke and G. B. Wall, Food and Resource Economics Department, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611.

(Montelaro)


C. Seedling Plant Production Short Course

A one-day short course on seedling plant (transplant) production is planned for
county agents, industry representatives, and transplant producers.

DATE: December 6, 1977

TIME: 9:30 to 3:00 p.m.

PLACE: Manatee Agricultural Center
Palmetto, Florida

A copy of the program will be mailed out shortly. Any question on this program
should be directed to Dr. G. A. Marlowe, Extension Vegetable Specialist, AREC,
Bradenton.


(Montelaro)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


D. ChloroIPC Herbicide Outlets in Florida

Many county agents have requested information pertaining to ChloroIPC (trade
name Furloe) outlets in Florida. The basic manufacturer, PPG Industries, has
assured us that ChloroIPC can be purchased from at least one statewide distributor
of agricultural chemicals. Be sure to ask for this herbicide by both the trade and
common names listed above. Because warehouse stocks are maintained at minimum levels,
growers should contact their local distributors) at least 2 weeks prior to the in-
tended use date. Additional information may be obtained by calling the Vegetable
Crops Extension Specialists.

(William)


E. North Florida Vegetable Marketing Meeting Thomasville, Georgia

Last reminder for county agents in North and Central Florida the meeting will
be held at 9:30 a.m. on December 2, 1977, at the Thomasville Market in Thomasville,
Georgia. The program will emphasize production and marketing of quality vegetables.

(William)


F. Postharvest Horticulturist

Effective November 1, Dr. Mason Marvel has returned to the Vegetable Crops
Department as Extension Vegetable Specialist with statewide responsibility for the
postharvest extension program. Many of you remember Mason as a specialist when he
shared the vegetable production responsibilities with Jim Montelaro. He has served
since as Chief of Party on the UF-IFAS project in Vietnam, Assistant Director of
IFAS International Programs and as Program Director in a legume development program
in Ethiopia. Mason will be making the rounds in this coming season and looks forward
to assisting in establishing programs with our state and county staffs.

(Kelly)


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Crop Residue Problems in vegetable Production

Every season we see a number of problems in vegetable production resulting from
untimely or improper destruction of crop residues. Crop injury can vary from slight
to almost total failure. Reduction in plant stand, poor plant vigor, disease and
insect injury, reduced yield and quality, etc., can be attributed directly to crop
residue problems in many cases. To a large extent, these costly problems can be
avoided without undue cost with simple but good management practices.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Four of the more common problems observed over the past several years in
Florida are:

1. Abandoned crops acting as pest reservoirs for other crops nearby.

2. Reduction in effectiveness of soil fumigation.

3. Stimulation of Rhizoctonia root rot.

4. Interference with precision mechanical operations such as planting,
fumigation, etc.

Even though there may be other lesser problems, a discussion of the four listed
above should suffice to emphasize the importance of good management of crop residues.

Old abandoned crops act as reservoirs for many plant diseases and insects. This
is especially true of plant viruses which can be so destructive to vegetable crops.
Attention should be given, not only to abandoned crops, but to volunteer and escaped
plants in and around the field. This was demonstrated vividly this fall in a central
Florida squash planting. It was so severely infected with mosaic that it had to be
plowed under without a single harvest. It is good agricultural practice to completely
destroy a crop residues as soon as harvest is completed. By doing this, growers not
only benefit themselves but their neighbors.

Reduction in effectiveness of soil fumigation for subsequent crops from undecayci
crop residues results from: (1) absorption of the fumigant on undecayed organic
matter and (2) inefficient kill of nematodes in organic matter, especially living
tissue like roots, bulblets, etc. A problem observed one or more times annually is
poor nematode control with fumigation following a gladiolus crop. Fumigants will not
kill nematodes found in the tiny bulblets left in the soil after the large bulbs are
harvested. Based on these observations, growers would be wise to turn their crops
under early and re-disk as often as necessary to permit complete decay of all crop
residues before attempting to fumigate the soil.

Stimulation of Rhizoctonia root rot by fresh, green organic matter is a common
occurrence in Florida. This problem is most obvious on bean crops. Any kind of green
crop residues may stimulate Rhizoctonia fungus under certain conditions. The results
can be disastrous. An abandoned crop should be turned under four to six weeks before
planting time to permit complete decay. This alone does not guarantee elimination
of Rhizoctonia root rot, but will certainly lessen the severity.

Interference with precision mechanical operations also can be a serious problem.
Undecayed plant stalks and limbs may clog fumigation equipment, fertilizer distributor:;,
seeders, and transplanters. Though not quite so serious as the others, interference
with mechanical operations can be costly to growers from troublesome delays, poor crop
uniformity, and yield losses.

In summary, all vegetable crops should be plowed or disked under thoroughly as
soon as harvest is completed. Advantages to be gained from this practice are worthwhile
indeed. Any grower not tending to this important task, when needed, is inviting trouble
in subsequent crops.


(Montelaro)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Irrigating Small Fields of Vegetables

Small farm operators or part-time vegetable growers often wish to irrigate
their crops during periods of dry weather, especially on Florida soils having a
limited moisture holding capacity. Professor Dalton S. Harrison, Extension Agricultural
Engineer, suggests that either a small sprinkler system or a drip irrigation system
should. be considered. Both systems have limitations and require capital investments
in basic equipment.

Consider first the major differences in pressure or horsepower requirements,
water sources, and costs between the small sprinkler and drip irrigation systems.

Pressure or horsepower -- The small sprinkler system requires a much higher
pressure (40 to 60 psi) to distribute the water uniformly from the sprinkler
nozzles than the drip irrigation system (4 to 15 psi). Consequently, a one
horsepower motor and a 4-inch well or large pond is needed to deliver the
water for the small sprinkler system (up to 30 gpm). However, a low volume
home water supply can be used to deliver the water for both the home and drip
irrigation system.

Water source and quality -- The major consideration for drip irrigation is
having an excellent source of CLEAN water containing no iron or sulfur. Either
tiny particles or the growth of slime bacteria from dissolved iron (Fe) or
sulfur (S) (0.2 to .6 ppm) can clog the porous tubing or holes in the drip
emitter. Therefore, clean water free from all dissolved Fe, S, algae and sand
is essential.

To reduce clogging of drip lines, chlorine should be injected into the irrigation
water so that a one ppm concentration is maintained at the end of the drip tube.
Chlorine will help precipitate the Fe which can be filtered before entering the
drip lines and it will inhibit growth of the slime bacteria. A chlorine tester
for swimming pools can be used to monitor the free chlorine in the drip tubes.
These kits are listed in the last issue of "Citrus Newsletter."

According to Dr. Bill Stall, County Extension Agent in Dade County, water movement
in clogged drip systems that contain only plastic tubes and fittings can be
improved by mixing furnace grade phosphoric acid into the irrigation water behind
the pump and all other metal fixtures. Before adjusting the irrigation water to
pH 3.5 or 4.0, open the ends of all drip tubes to allow the "jelly-like" material
to escape from the tube. Be certain to use free phosphoric acid. Complete
clogging will occur if other materials containing phosphorus are used. Also,
be certain that no metal parts of any kind are exposed to the phosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid corrodes all galvanized, zinc, brass, or iron pipes.

Estimated costs -- Initial costs for the small sprinkler system will range from
$2000 to $2500 per acre. This estimated cost includes a 4-inch well, one horse-
power motor, pump, irrigation pipe, etc. Subsequent costs will be minimal. Drip
irrigation coscs initially will average about $400 per acre, but subsequently $60
to $140 will be required to replace the drip lines after one to two crops depending
on care and maintenance.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Additional engineering information and examples of irrigation system designs
are available from the Agricultural Engineering Department, IFAS. Considerable
production information relating to drip irrigation is available from several IFAS
Departments, Extension offices, and Research Centers.

(William)


C. Some of the Causes of Poor Fruit Set in Tomatoes

Visits to commercial tomato fields in central and southwest Florida during the
past several weeks revealed a serious delay in fruit set for the fall crop. In
many fields the bottom two or three clusters were completely blank. Fruit counts
of tomatoes 2 inches or more in diameter averaged approximately 4 per plant in a
great number of fields. Most growers have correctly attributed this problem to
the high temperature and humidity which prevailed during the early period of flower
development and fruit set. Fortunately, fruit is now setting normally as the cooler
weather develops.

It should be helpful to review the principle environmental factors and flower
structures involved in tomato fruit formation to give a better understanding of this
important segment of tomato production.

The characteristic, bright yellow flowers of most tomatoes generally have five
sepals, (green) five petals, (yellow) five anthers, (pollen-bearing male structures)
and one female structure, which resembles a small round-bottom flask with a long
neck flared at the top (ovary, style, and stigma). The anthers, which contain the
pollen, are usually united in the form of a "tube" which surrounds the style and
sticky, pollen-receptive stigma. This arrangement generally insures self-pollination
since the pollen is shed from the inside of the anther "tube." Although air movement
is adequate to accomplish this under most field conditions, it is necessary to
mechanically vibrate plants or flower clusters in the greenhouse.

Fruit formation depends on successful pollination and a series of important
changes which lead to maturity. Essential steps in pollination are:

1. Production of viable pollen in the anthers.

2. Release of this pollen onto the female receptive structure, the stigma.

3. The germination of the pollen grains on the stigmatic surface.

4. The movement of the pollen tubes down the neck (style) into the round bottom
structure (ovary) and union of the male sex cells with the female egg cells
resulting in fertilization.

In the ovary, each pollen cell that unites with an egg cell results in a seed.
The seeds develop in jelly-like cavities called locules. Most of the commercially
important tomato cultivars grown in Florida have 5 or more locules per fruit. If
only one side of the stigmatic surface receives pollen, only that side will develop
into a well rounded fruit. Many cat-faced and otherwise mishapen fruit are the
result of poor pollination.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Unfavorable temperatures, (above 900F or below 550F) may cause one or more of
the pollination processes to fail due to:

a. production of sterile pollen,

b. inhibition of pollen germination on the stigma, or

c. retardation of pollen tube growth.

Poor light, excess nitrogen, low humidity, high temperature (above 900F) may
cause the style to elongate excessively and pass through the anther "tube" before
the pollen is shed. This condition results in blossom drop and poor fruit set.
In general, the high temperature effect on the blossoms is not visible until about
3 days after the damage is done.

The time it takes to complete the pollination process has advantages and
disadvantages. Under normal temperatures, nutrition, and relative humidity the
stigmas become receptive for 1 to 2 days before the anthers split open and shed their
pollen. Stigmas remain receptive for about 6-8 days. The anthers shed their pollen
about 24 hours after the yellow petals open and the pollen remains viable for up to
2 weeks. The time from pollination until successful fertilization takes place is
usually 2 to 3 days.

During the development of the flower, pollination and the period until fertilization
occurs the fruit formation potential of the tomato is subject to many hazards. This
brief article has mentioned only a few.

(Marlowe)


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Conserving Water in the Garden

Water is one of the two most common soil additives required for plant growth.
The other is fertilizer. However, due to extreme competition from an ever-growing
population of Floridians for this scarce resource, gardeners must find ways to grow
vegetables with as little water as possible.

Hopefully, home vegetable gardeners will not have to give up watering their
gardens in order to safeguard municipal needs of a more basic nature. Prospects
of this happening would be especially dire since home food production is of such
importance to many Florida families.

Here is a brief summary of some of the conservation techniques available to
gardeners:

1. Plant fast-growing early-maturing vegetables. The longer the garden is
occupied, the more the water is needed.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


2. Plant during periods of adequate rainfall. Home gardeners have a fairly
wide choice of planting dates for most crops, since "hitting a market" is
not a consideration.

3. Avoid over-watering. Young plants will not require as much water as older
plants.

4. Improve the water-holding capacity of the soil. The coarser the soil
particles, such as Florida sands, the less water will be held. Apply liberal
amounts of organic materials such as animal manures, cover crops, and compost.

5. In general, water thoroughly once a week to encourage deep rooting. However,
shallow soils and very sandy soils need more frequent and lighter waterings.

6. Use watering methods that apply water just in the root zone where needed.
Overhead sprinkling wastes water by the wind carrying it away and by wetting
areas between the rows. Many plants are set far enough apart that they can
be individually watered by hand.

7. Use drip or trickle irrigation. Drip irrigation trials in Florida have shown
that vegetables produce as well or better and use 80% less water than those
grown with overhead sprinkling.

8. Use a mulch such as hay, straw, leaves or plastic.

9. Keep weeds out of the garden. They use water for their own growth and
transpire large amounts to the air.

10. Gardeners should use good judgement in determining when to turn off the water.

(Stephens)


B. Know Your Vegetables Brussels Sprouts

Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) gets its name from having
been grown 400 years ago in the vicinity of Brussels, Belgium. As a commercial
crop, it is produced in the U. S. primarily in such states as California and New York.
They are widely grown and highly esteemed in the British Isles. Very little is grown
in Florida, and that almost totally is in back yard gardens.

Description. Brussels sprouts is a tall-stemmed cabbage in which many tiny
heads call "sprouts" form along the stem at the bases of the leaves instead of making
one large head at the top of a short stem. It hybridizes freely with other forms of
the same species, such as cabbage, kale, collards, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and
broccoli. The round vegetable sprouts are about walnut size, from 3/4 to 2 inches
across, and are comprised of tightly packed leaves and a core. Each resembles a
miniature cabbage head. The plants, which reach a height of 28-30 inches, form the
sprouts from near the ground up.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Climatic Adaptation. Brussels sprouts requires cool weather for best growth.
Warm weather causes the sprouts to be soft and open rather than solid and tightly-
packed. An ideal average temperature would be around 580- 600F. The plants
withstand light to heavy frost; however, temperatures well below freezing are
detrimental even to this hardy vegetable.

The best time to grow Brussel sprouts in Florida is during the winter. When
planted in October through December, sufficiently cool weather is encountered in
most areas of the state for fair results. At other times of the year, such as the
spring, temperatures become too high for quality sprout production.

Varieties. Two suggested varieties are "Jade Cross" and "Long Island Improved."
"Jade Cross" is a hybrid variety which matures in about 85 days. "Long Island
Improved" is an open pollinated variety that takes a few days longer for the sprouts
to reach an edible stage. The plants are taller and more leafy than "Jade Cross."

Planting. For those wishing to include Brusselssprouts in their Florida garden,
it should be grown much like cabbage. Brussels sprouts can be started either from
seeds or transplants. Since good plants for starts are not always available at
local garden supply stores, it probably will be necessary to begin with seeds. Seeds
can be planted in flats or other starting containers such as peat pellets, peat cups,
or plastic pots. They may be concentrated in an open outdoor seed bed, and of course
they may be sown directly in the garden row.

To start plants in a flat or seedbed sow seeds about 20 to 25 per foot of row
and cover with to 4 inch of soil or medium. Thin seedlings to stand one inch
apart. Plants are ready to set out in the garden when they are 3 to 4 weeks old.
Plant them in 3-feet wide rows, with plants 30 inches apart.

Fertilizing. Fertilizer should be applied similarly to other vegetables in
the garden. Some fertilizer should be worked into the bed as it is prepared. On
most sandy Florida soil, broadcast about 6 pounds of 6-8-8 per 100 linear feet of
row, then build the bed over it. The fertilizer should be mixed thoroughly with the
top 6 inches of soil. An additional 6 pounds per 100 linear feet of row should be
banded in a shallow furrow beside the seed or plant furrow. Periodic sidedress
applications of nitrogen fertilizer every 2 weeks or so are suggested. On the
alkaline soils of south Florida, adjust your fertilizer program according to local
advice. Since it is much warmer in areas where these soils occur, Brussels sprouts
would not be expected to produce as well as in central and north Florida.

Pests. The most common pests likely to be encountered in the Florida garden
are worms looperss and imported cabbage worms) and aphids. Various diseases, such
as downy mildew, will be damaging from time to time. The regular garden spray
programs as used for the other vegetables usually will give adequate control. Nematodes
if prevalent in the soil, will attack Brussels sprouts. Fumigating the soil prior to
planting may become necessary.

Harvesting. sproutss should be picked after they reach full size and become
fairly firm, but before they are tough and yellow. The first sprouts near the bottom






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


of the plant should be ready after about 3 months. First, pull off the leaves
below the mature sprouts, then remove the sprouts by twisting them from the
stem. Pick the sprouts as needed, but usually at about 2-week intervals. Continue
harvesting as long as good sprouts are formed.

Storing. Keep sprouts in the crisper of the refrigerator. Temperatures of
32-34F and a relative humidity of 90 to 95 percent are best for Brussel sprouts.

(Stephens)


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $146.98 ,
or 28o cents per copy, for the purpose of communicating current
technical and educational material to extension, research and industry
personnel."




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