Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: October 1977
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00128
Source Institution: University of Florida
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.-.. INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
.- AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE
I AS

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


October 6, 1977

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist

J. F. Kelly
Chairman

James Montelaro J. M. Stephens
Professor Associate Professor

G. A. Marlowe, Jr. R. D. William
Professor Assistant Professor

TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA
F-.'.: James Montelaro, Professor and Extension Vegetable Specialist ,

'S_* Ai.A, NEWSLETTER 77-10
I' -- ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEF'EST
A. Greenhouse Tomato School
B. Last Month's Article on Nemagon Revised
C. North Florida Vegetable Marketing Meeting Thomasville, Georgia

il. C(I..;EFPlIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. The Linear Foot Concept in Vegetable Crop Fertilizer Recommendations
B. Response of Common Weeds to Herbicides in Vegetables
C. Ten Noteworthy Developmenls of the Past Decade in Florida Vegetable
Product ion

1II. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Bitterness in Cucumbers
B. Early Frost in the Vegetable Garden
C. Indoor Lighting for Indoor Vogetables
D. Know Your Vegetables Watercress
E. lemal-ode Control in the V....i.:1able Garden






T;h- Irst>;; of Foo&J nd Airicultural Sciencer is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employci authorized to pi.-ide research,
e-ur~:--; -.a in r, rmalion and ?ther services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or :naio r l origin.
-- .--,, ,- r v--.,,,r- iirM iri i m I TIRm A "lnn I fnMl F FnPNOMICS STATE OF : LOnRI)A, II:AS. UNIVERSFITY OF





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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


1. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Greenhouse Tomato School

A one-day session on Greenhouse Tomato Production is planned for Florida county
agents and producers.

DATE: November 15, 1977

TIME: 9:30 to 3:00 lecture and panel discussion
3:00 to 4:00 tour of a local greenhouse

PLACE: Community Center, Oxford, Florida

A copy of the program outline will be mailed to county agents about mid-October.
(Montelaro)



3. Last Month's Article on Nemagon Revised

Last month's Vegetarian Newsletter 77-9 carried an article in the gardening sec-
tion about the recent controversy over Nemagon. Due to new developments, that article
has been revised and appears in the gardening section of this issue.
(Stephens)



C. North Florida Vegetable Marketing Meeting Thomasville, Georgia

The Georgia Department of Agriculture Marketing Division and the Georgia and
Florida Cooperative Extension Services are planning a meeting for county agents and
growers who currently sell or wish to sell at the Thomasville Vegetable Market. We
plan to discuss pointers on production, varieties, handling, grading and packing
quality vegetables and market prices. The meeting is scheduled for December 2, 1977,
9:30 AM, at the Thomasville Market in Thomasville, Georgia.
(William)


II. COMM.'iERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. The Linear Foot Concept in Vegetable Crop Fertilizer Recommendations

.Many of the major Florida vegetable crops are now being grown with the full-bed
mulch system or some modification of this method. Growers used to think of "field
acr:" but this idea is gradually changing to "bed acres" because of this new system
of culture. Application rates for fumiganis, herbicides, plastic film, stakes (when
used), and drip tubing are all based on the row concept. Fertilizer recommendations
are still being given in pounds per acre which often causes great confusion and error
for arnm r"nagers, fertilizer salesmen, and county extension agents.






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


The spacing between beds varies a great deal from grower to grower, but the actual
bed width is fairly constant (32-48 inches). In a recent four-county survey in south-
west Florida it was noted that the distance between beds varied from 6.5 to 12.5 feet.
Much of the space between beds is used for roadways and ditches for drainage and irriga-
tion. At the various row spacings the space utilization is as follows: (Based on a 208'
x 208' acre).


Percent of Total Acre
Distance Between Actual Bed Actual Ditch Space Between
Beds, Feet Surface Area Beds
6.5 41 7 52

9.0 33 1I 56

12.5 30 10 60



The distance between rows is not considered by most growers in the calculation of
fertilizer rates to be applied. Most growers consider the "plastic acre" to be a six
foot wide strip 7,260 feet long, thus omitting the fact that the bed may be only about
3 feet wide and beds from 6.5 to 12.5 feet apart. Confusing? Yes indeed, and this
complicates fertilizer, irrigation, and yield calculations, too!

A brief look at some yield relationships may be of interest. The distance between
plants varies from 18 to 32 inches, with most at 24 inches. The average yields for fields
with narrow to wide row spacings is as follows:



Distance Between Length of Row No. of Plants* Avg. Yield,# Pounds Fruit,
Ce0s, Feet for I "acre" per "acre row" per acre per Plant

6.5 6700 3350 33150 9.9

9.0 4840 2420 24450 10.1

12.0 3485 1742 27210 19.2


SAverage distance between plants in the row 24 inches.


It mary be noted that the wider spacings produce more fruit per plant but less per
"acre". Growers feel that the wider spacing produces larger fruit which usually means
more dollar return per "acre".




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


It is common practice among tomato growers to mix the phosphate and micronutrient
fertilizer in the bed, apply some low analysis starter fertilizer on or into the upper
surface of the bed, and place the major portion of the N and K in bands on the surface.
The typical grower provides a total of 322 Ibs N, 220 Ibs P205 and 525 Ibs of K20 to
the "acre". This amount is applied to narrow or wide rows, using the "6 foot" row width
calculation. A 6 foot strip, 100 feet long is visualized. The 100 foot length is pre-
ferred for calibration purposes. This 600 square feet "row" is divided into the 43,560
scare feet "acre" resulting in 72.6 units per acre.

If the fertilizer recommendation is for 2,000 pounds of a fertilizer for the bands,
the gro.-.er then divides 72.6 into the 2,000 Ibs for a rate per 100 linear feet of row
(approximately 27.5 Ibs). One may ask a rather important question: Does this result
in more fertilizer per plant than recommended by IFAS? Or less? Are IFAS fertilizer
recommendations based on a broadcast acre? In any case, there is merit in developing
a standard for the current row method of culture. This would approach more nearly the
ideal of applying fertilizer based upon plant population and/or fruit production capacity.
A realistic view would be to consider the 36 to 48-inch bed top 14,520 feet long for the
linear foot of row concept. The fertilizer calculation for a 3' x 100' unit would al-
.ays be 48.4 units (or a 4' x 100' unit, 36.3). This linear feet concept (100 feet or
31.2 meters) would make fertilizer, herbicide, fumigant, and other rate calculations
much easier. Reactions to this concept from County Extension Agents and others would be
greatly appreciated.
(Marlowe)



3. Response of Common Weeds To Herbicides In Vegetables

Weed identification and selection of appropriate weed control methods are essential
steps in designing or modifying a weed control program. Where more than one herbicide
is registered for a specific vegetable crop, the grower may choose the most effective
chemical for control of those weed species found growing in the field.

The following tables were developed from research data and experience of research
and extension workers from Florida and southeast United States. The information is
based on comparative ratings obtained under normal to optimal conditions for herbicide
activity including appropriate temperature ranges, rainfall or soil moisture, applica-
tion rate and method, soil type and texture, soil organic matter contents, etc. Con-
sult the herbicide label for specific information relating to the use and expected re-
sponse of the herbicide under your conditions.


(William)





CONTROL OF COMMON WEEDS FOUND IN FLORIDA BY HERBICIDES USED .IN VEGETABLES-


Common weed name
(Scientific name)




GRASS WEEDS (From Seed)


9
0
i
O
Lo
:2 Z
L3 0


0t
0 -'


Alexandergrass -
(Brachiaria plafntaginea) ___ ___ --___-

(Banardgrass E* G* F-G* G F-G G G* F-G" G E* E* G* F-G F G G G*
(.hnochola sp4)

(Diaitaria ap.)-G* G* F-GX G^ G E* E G* G F-G
Crowfootgrass E G F-G G G G E E G G-EP G G G G
(Dat_ _lotenium aegyptiwn)

Gos eigrdis E* G G* G F-G* G G E* E* G* G F G G G G*
(-Z1_,uj ine indica)
Johnsongrass (seedlings) G* EY F F* G G N G*
(Sorhum haepense) F-G N G F-G* F*

(Prachieiaa plat phlyZa) N N N N N N N N N *
Signalgrast (narrowleaf) N N N N *
(Brachiariia piZligera) N N N N N N N


PERENNIAL SEDGES

Purple rotundus) N N N N N N N N GE N N N N
(rLCyneru ratunduis) N .41N NIN1N1' N GEjNINN G


E = Excellent; G = Good; F = Fair; N = No-Control or "-" No Information based on -reseorch or extension
informat-ion from Southeast U.S.; "*" indicates weed is listed on herbicide label. Ddiapon (Zco .n M+)
will control most annual and perennial ~ rassros when applied :.,.tc.1irin'rc., to actively growing weeds or
procmorgenco to somie annual gross seedlings. Also, EPIC is labelled for control of bermudagrass rhizomes
and trifluralin for johnsongrass rhizomes.


?/ -- = trkle mark..


1/ Key to symbols:


--












un





-ron weed name
(Scientific name)



:?rOtF ; EEOS


CCFOPOL OF COMMON WEEDS FOUND IN FLORIDA BY HERBICIDES USED IN VEGETABLES .


H


u8
s"


+3 |
'- r
a
0 !
o~


i
H
I

*1
a


C
0


*I-


E -
Ip

0
~,0
L~<
P
O*


E '?
_
2 5
C
. 0- t
m- -


(Citrutii vu laris) E N N N N N N N N N G N F N

ocklecur
:..." L ,1 .. N G N N F N N N N F-G F-G N N G

ick i pod (collfee Coo d )
(Caida i slZi:'olia and C. N N N F N N F-G F G* N N F N N


Icrida becgarweed
(r.-.cd'.i: t:OruO,) F-G E N G F-G F N N G G F F N N

lo,-.1 p sley
r.;:;.a cabral) G-E E F G G F G-E* G* F* G N G-E* *

L.ambsq-;urter
*Ch":3:odit album) F E* F-G F F G-E G* F-G G G* G* G-E* E* E G G-E* E G-E*

erniti-3lories (annual)
ic. p.. N G* N N N *N F N N G* F N F G F G

Ni.htshade *
'Soan:-c r;: .tr ,- F *

Picweed (careless weed) G
(Am!rant;hua sp.) E* E* G G G* G* G* F-G G G-E* G* E* E* G G* G* E G

Purslano
(?or" utaca oteraoea and P.
,pilosa) G* E* F G G* E* G* G* G G* G* G-E* G G E* G* E E*

Racweed
'(A broaia artc miriifolia) F E* N F-G F G* F N N F G-E* G* N N


PoZl;Jonw ponslZaniezn) F E N N F G < E* N F-Gx N GF G* F G N E


Southern side (te+ or Ironwood
(aida avctia)


'" to symbols:


r s Exclllnit; G z Good; F = Fair; N o Conutrul or "-"
"'" ifndicjl woocd i. lIlsted on horbici lte' Ib l, llnrbicicdo
capillifotiim) woro not lined in nny consult d reference,.


No Information based on research or


extension


F-G


informal ion from South'rl t U.;.


officucy for Soutlorn horcowood (fEri'gron puailhln) and dojgfonnel (upat...."




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Ten Noteworthy Developments of the Past Decade in Florida Vegetable Production

In spite of freezes, droughts, inflation, regulations, competition, etc., vegetable
production in Florida in 1977 is still a thriving business. This accomplishment can be
attributed primarily to the tenacity and ingenuity of the vegetable grower. Credit must
be given, also, to the many people from industry and government agencies who support him.

To progress, or even to survive, a highly competitive business like vegetable produc-
tion in Florida must be aggressively innovative. This is certainly true of our industry.
Many innovative developments can be noted over the past decade. Ten such developments,
in the opinion of the writer, are worthy of note. They are:

I. Soil fumigation in potatoes, beans and certain mulched crops.
2. Full-bed plastic mulch culture.
3. Use of containerized transplants.
4. Plug-mix seeding.
5. Efficient use of fertilizer.
6. Irrigation of watermelons.
7. Development of the semi-closed irrigation system.
8. Drip irrigation.
9. Integrated pest management.
10. New crops and varieties.

Beans grown in East Palm County and potatoes at Hastings showed a dramatic increase
in yield and quality with the incorporation of soil fumigation. Yields of 200 bushels
of marketable snap beans are now common on soils treated with a multi-purpose soil fumi-
gant. At Hastings, quality of potatoes improved tremendously with soil fumigation. The
poor appearance resulting from corky ringspot and nematode damage has been practically
eliminated. The phenomenal success with tomato and pepper yields can be attributed, in
part, to the use of multi-purpose fumigants under full-bed plastic mulch culture.

Full-bed plastic mulch culture was expanded from use on strawberries to tomatoes,
peppers, eggplant and other crops during the past ten years. Yield and quality of these
crops have improved dramatically. Many growers feel that full-bed plastic mulch culture
is one of the main reasons for their competitive position with these crops presently.
Last winter's freeze demonstrated one more unforeseen advantage gained from this system
of culture. Full-bed mulched crops recovered quickly and produced satisfactory crops
following one of the hardest freezes in Florida's history. Double-cropping, being used
successfully by some growers, may make full-bed mulch culture even more attractive.

With the advent of full-bed plastic mulch culture, containerized transplants also
appeared on the scene. Growing transplants in greenhouses reduces "field time" for
crops like tomato and pc.pp(r by three to five weeks. Although cost comparisons are not
available, growers feel that the use of containerized transplants has contributed signi-
ficanifl to recent success in the production of tomato, pepper, c:igplant and other crops.

Plug-mix seeding might have gained widespread acceptance in Florida had it not been
for the almost overnight success of containerized transplants. l.'-vbrtheless, it is beinc
used quite extensively in the rocky soils of Dade County where containerized transplant




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


use is somewhat limited. Plug-mix seeding has not been exploited to its fullest extent.
,s feel that it offers promise for a number of other direct-seeded crops in Florida.

Although less obvious than other developments, efficient use of fertilizer, must be
rated high on the list of changes contributing to a healthy vegetable industry in Florida.
Growers in this state are more aware today than ever before in such matters as use of
phosphorus residuals, use of low-salt index fertilizer and proper placement and timing to
reduce salt injury. Liming is used not only to correct pH, but to supply desired levels
of calcium and magnesium. Growers, in general, are using soil tests to more accurately
manage all aspects of crop fertilization. The results may be reported in actual dollars
saved without loss in yield, better seedling survival, more uniform crop maturity, increased
yields and quality and more. Although hard to measure, benefits to vegetable growers from
more efficient use of fertilizer are substantial.

Incorporation of irrigation as a standard practice in watermelon production, together
with use of other improved practices, has resulted in dramatic yield increases in central
and norTh Florida. Many growers in Marion County now consider 40,000 pound yields average
and are shooting for 50- and 60,000 pounds instead. Watermelon growers in other areas of
the sta-e now are being advised to increase inputs, including irrigation, fertilizer, lime,
spraying, etc., on reduced acreage to enhance profit potentials. Watermelon growers, like
growers of all other vegetables in Florida, have done well by moving toward irrigation as
a standard practice.

Use of semi-closed systems for sub-surface irrigation was started more than a decade
ago in the Hastings area. It did not gain acceptance elsewhere in Florida until water
shortages and rationing threatened. Growers in other areas not only installed plastic
pipe tc replace open ditches but made further improvements by developing inexpensive and
precise discharge systems. Thousands of acres of vegetables are being equipped with the
improved semi-closed system. This innovation conserves valuable water and reduces pumping
costs by 40 to 50%. All of the sub-surface irrigated land used on permanent basis for
vegetable production in Florida should be equipped with the semi-closed irrigation system
for greatest efficiency.

Drip irrigation, although relatively new, has made its mark on Florida vegetable pro-
duction. It is being used on a limited scale on strawberries and tomatoes under full-bed
mulch culture in south Florida. Field tests with tomatoes in the Quincy area look promisil
Drip irrigation will become more attractive as more water shortage problems develop and the
techniques of using it are refined.

Srep rated pest rianjagemcnt is an extension of what growers have been attempting to do
for decades. Forecasting for certain diseases on potatoes, celery and sweet corn has been
used in Florida on a limited scale for several years. Work being done now on celery and
torCa2ces indicates that insects and diseases might be controlled efficiently and economic
wit" -wer applications of pesticides. Integrated pest management, now in its infancy,
pr-c-ises -o be a development worth watching over the next decade.

;. varieties and crops of the past 10 years contributed significantly to Florida's
co~ :-t position in vegetable production today. The 'Walter' tomato introduced within the
pr- cIc-de is the number one variety in Florida today. An improved selection, 'Walter
PF', J.ill probably replace it in importance. Ci -r tomato varieties as well as other cro
varie-ies will be forthcoming to -he industry.







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Carrots were not a major crop until recently. They are produced now on more
than 10,000 acres in Florida. Onions appear to be the next in line for major pro-
ducticn in Florida. Several hundred acres are due to be planted next season. There
are a number of other crops which we feel could be grown profitably in Florida also.
With certainty, others will be added to this list.

In summary, the vegetable industry has survived and even prospered over the past
decade. This is a tribute to the growers and the many people supporting it. If it
continues to be innovative, it will survive and prosper as it has in the past.
(Montelaro)


Ill. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Bitterness in Cucumbers

Anyone who has eaten a cucumber without first peeling it probably is familiar with
bitter taste in cucumbers. Even peeled cucumbers may have some of the bitter taste.

The bitter taste is due to natural compounds called cucurbitacins. Wild cucumbers,
which are extremely bitter, contain these and other related contributing compounds.
Cucur;itacins occur in all parts of the plant and leaves, stems and roots in varying
aroun-s. Only occasionally does the bitter principle spread from the vegetative parts
into The cucumber fruits.

'nen it is found in the fruit, the bitterness does not accumulate uniformly. It
varies from fruit to fruit as well as within individual fruits. The compounds are likely
to be more concentrated at the stem end than at the blossom end. Bitterness is located
in arj just under the peel of the cucumber, rather than deep within the fleshy portion
of the fruit.

V.hy there is more bitterness one time than at another is difficult to answer. Many
theories have been suggested, but few proven. Temperature seems to have an effect, since
there are more complaints of bitter cucumbers during a cool growing season than during a
warm one. Research has shown that fertilization practices, plant spacing, and frequency
of irrigation have little consistent effect on the number of bitter cucumbers produced.
However, nubbins and other misshapen fruits resulting from poor production practices seem
more likely to be bitter than well-shaped fruits.

There does appear to be a relationship between the variety (cultivar) of cucumber and
bitterness. Most of the varieties that grow well in Florida do develop bitterness to one
:-;ree- ur another from time to time. For the most part, however, bitterness is only an
occassional nuisance rather than an overwhelming problem. If fruit is bitter, just remove
the outer lcesh with the peel, peeling more deeply at the stem end.


(Stephens)






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Early Frost in the Vegetable Garden

Although not as popular as spring for gardening, wintertime in Florida is an
excellent time to grow vegetables at home. Commercially, Florida leads the nation in
the production of vegetables during the period of December through April. One does
not have to live in sunny south Florida to have a winter garden, although it helps. A
difference of 40 in latitude between Jacksonville and Miami gives about a 6 degree
chance in mean winter temperature. Gardeners should be aware of normal temperature
expectations for their area as well as abnormal possibilities when selecting planting
dates and those kinds of vegetables to plant.

Frost occurs occasionally over the interior of the extreme northern position of
the state during the last week of October, but the temperature is rarely low enough to
materially damage any crop before the second or third week of November. No portion of
mainland Florida is immune from frost under favorable conditions of atmospheric pres-
sure and sky. However, many areas of south Florida can expect plant-killing conditions
so rarely that warm season vegetables should be included in the winter garden.

To acquaint gardeners around the state with what to expect (but not necessarily get)
in the way of first frost of the season, here are some selected geographical points and
average dates for an 8 consecutive year recorded period:

Apalachicola (Franklin) -- December 2, November 25, December 9, '!ovembnher 20,
November 30, November 16, November 24, and December 3.
Arcadia (DeSoto) -- December.3, None, None, None, November 21, December 15,
December 13, and December 10.
Bartow (Polk) -- December 3, December 1, December 20, November 12, November 21,
December I, December 13, and November 25.
Bradenton (Manatee) -- December 4, None, None, None, None, December 15, December
and December 20.
Brooksville (Hernando) -- December 2, December I, None, November 10, November 21,
November 30, November 20, and November 25.
Defuniak Springs (Walton) -- November 13, November 28, November 10, November 18,
November 30, November 16, and November 24.
Deland (Volusia) -- November 5, December I, December 20, November 10, November 21
December 1, November 20, and November 25.
Ft. Lauderdale (Broward) -- None, None, None, None, December 10, None, None.
Ft. Myers (Lee) -- None, None, None, None, December 10, Nore, None, None.
Gainesville (Alachua) -- December 2, November 25, November 25, November 10,
November 20, November 30, November 16, November 24, and
December 29.
Jacksonville (Duval) -- December 2, November 25, None, December 9, November 20,
llovcr..lr 30, November 17, November 25, and December 29.
Miami (Dade) -- None, None, None, None, November 21, None, None, and December I0.





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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Orlando (Orange) -- December 2, None, December 20, November 10, November 21,
None, December 17, November 25, None.
Pensacola (Escambia) -- December I, November 25, November 28, None, November 20,
December 3, November 16, December 9, and December 26.
St. Augustine (St. Johns) -- December 2, November 30, December 20, November 10,
November 21, November 30, December 19, and
December 29.
Tampa (Hillsborough) -- None, None, None, None, November 21, None, None,
December 31, None.

(Stephens)


C. Indoor Lighting for indoor Vegetables

.Many hobby vegetable growers in Florida find themselves with a desire or a need to
arow vegetables in containers indoors. Since vegetables require several hours of full
sunlicht1 for best growth, supplemental artificial lighting is required when attempts are
made at indoor production.

Artificial light does not exactly duplicate sunlight, but certain types of artificial
light can support natural responses in plants, including vegetables.

On an equal wattage basis, fluorescent lamps are more ideal for plant growth than
regular incandescent light bulbs because they give off greater and more uniform light,
last .s to fifteen times longer, and give off less heat. By burning cooler, fluorescent
lamps can be placed closer to plants, giving more light without burning the plants.

Ajequacy of light is not measured just in terms of duration and brightness, however.
The quality of light as measured in wavelength is just as important.

Research studies have shown that many favorite indoor ornamental plants and some
leafy vegetable plants mainly use two wave length regions of the light spectrum, the
bands of red and the bands of blue. In contrast, flowering and fruiting vegetable plants
generally use three wavelength regions-red, blue, and far-red.

Incandescent bulbs are rich in red and far-red light. However, they are low in blue,
so are an- incomplete source of light. Fluorescent lights, on the other hand, are high
in blue licht range, but low in red and far-red. It stands to reason then that to prc-
duce both lart foliage and flowers, one should use a combination of incandescent and
luires on Try experimenting to find the proper ratio of incandescent watt to fluore-
sceC- 'ACts. Usually, somewhere around I (I) to 5 (F) will be needed.

Th.re re available special growth lamps that provide all the light ranges necessary.
These are ?roving to be very acceptable and are suggested here for trial. Since they are
r.anulf-ctur.J and sold under several trade names, check at your garden center fcr brands
Last sA-itini your needs.


(Stephens)






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


D. Know Ycur Vegetables Watercress

Watercress belongs to the genus Nasturtium, yet the plant generally known as
nasturtium is completely distinct. Botanists still are confused over alternative
generic names, suggesting both Roripa and Radicula. Perhaps the most commonly found
scientific name for watercress is Nasturtium officinale acquaticum.

Cultivated watercress also goes by a variety of other names, such as eker, billers,
biller, bilure, rib cress, brown cress, teng tongue, long tails, and well grass.

Watercress is a perennial plant grown for the pungent leaves and young stems which
are widely used for garnishing and in salads. The leaves are smooth and compound with
Three to a dozen nearly round leaflets. Leaves and stems are partially submerged during
growth. It grows wild in running water and flooded places all of the United States,
Europe, and the East. Commercially, it is grown in unshaded shallow pools of flowing
clean water. It was brought to this country by European immigrants.

watercresses s does best in a moderately cool climate. Much of the nation's winter
supply is grown in central Florida. Very few home gardeners attempt to produce it.

Production This report deals with the home growing rather than commercial pro-
duction of watercress.

If you have your own stream, and know that the water is clean, set aside a shallow
portion, such as on the inside of a bend, for a patch of watercress. The site should
be relatively flat with a slight slope below the spring that supplies the water.

For those without a stream, watercress may still be grown in small quantities.
Fashion a plant bed using 4 mil polyethylene or sheets of heavy duty roofing paper.
Scoop out a 6 inch deep basin, then line it with the waterproof material. Fill the
bottom of the basin with about 2 inches of composted soil, peat moss, or other regular
potting mix.

Watercress can be grown from either seed or cuttings. Small plants may be transplantec
Seed is very small. Broadcast it thinly over finely prepared compost or potting mix, then
lightly rake to cover the seed. One ounce of seed sows 700 square feet of plant bed.
Obviously, this is far too large an area for the home gardener. Only a tad of seed will be
needed to sow the 100 square feet or less most gardeners would plant (seed may be mixed
with sand for ease of distribution). In the final stand, allow 6 inches between plants.

Keep the plant bed moist, but not covered with water. If you are using a shallow
portion of a stream bed, you may have to start plants first in pots, then transplant
irto the .*ater-covered bed.

AFoer the seedings appear in about 5 days, keep raising the water level urtil the
pla.-s are growing in water. For proper spacing, tranrsplan-i seedli .j.: when they are
about t',-.o inches high. In this small homeowner arr-~,-:.r l -ni, it is no-i necessary to have
mov irn- ~. er. however, a slow fl ow would be more desirable if possible.





713-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


One must learn by trial and error how to fertilize the watercress. Start out by
mixing I cup of garden fertilizer into 25 square feet of planting soil.

In about three weeks the plants are ready to harvest. Following cutting, they
continue to grow and even appear to become thicker in the bed. Cuttings (12" long)
from the old beds may be used to start new beds.

To harvest, cut the tops of the plants about 6 inches below the tips. Gather them
into bunches as they are cut. Trim the butt ends so the bunches are about 4 inches
long. Thoroughly wash with clean water, then place into plastic bags and keep in the
refrigerator crisper until used. Periodic sprinkling helps keep it fresh. Even under
ideal conditions one cannot expect to hold it much more than a week without loss in
quality.

Watercress is a good source of Vitamin A and Vitamin C, along with niacin, ascorbic
acid, thiarine, riboflavin and iron. It is seldom used alone, but adds zest and zing
to many other foods.

(Stephens)


E. Nematode Control in the Vegetable Garden

Ridding the soil of those pesky nematodes has long been a somewhat tedious, yet
very worthwhile chore for most Florida vegetable gardeners. The buildup of these
soil borne plant parasites eventually causes a general decline in the productivity of
most all garden plots in the state. Thus, many thousands of gardeners have become
familiar with DBCP soil fumigant, better known as Nemagon and also available as Fumazone
and OXY-BBC. This liquid or granular material, when placed into the center of the
planting row prior to planting, has provided satisfactory plant protection.

Recent reports have cast some doubt on the safety features of the chemical DBCP
during manufacture and use. Therefore, all products including Nemagon, Fumazone, and
OXY-r-'"_ will no longer be available for purchase or use by the general public. The
general public, of course, includes home gardeners. Fortunately, there are other
materials available to the public which have been recommended and used for years for
controlling nemalcdes in the home garden. The most common ones are Vapam, Fume V, Vidden [
Vorlex, D-D, Telone, and soilbrom (EDB). Many of these offer other benefits in addition
to nematode control. In all cases, gardeners should read the label to become thoroughly
acquainted with the proper way to use these chemical nematicides.


(Stephens)










SNAFU- For reasons we have not been able to uncover, probably in the

distribution system rather than in the addressing system, several of

our regular Vegetarian readers have not received one or more of our

last several issues. We have not skipped any month for several years,

so if you are missing any issues, especially since this past spring,

please let us know and we'll send out replacements.


In order that we may check out the system we ask that you please re-

turn this slip to us: Vegetable Crops Department
3026 McCarty D Hall
University of Florida IFAS
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Date Vegetarian Received:

Received BY:

Address:


Back Issues Missing To Be Replaced:

;_____________ 2 ______________ ______________ 1


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