Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: May 1977
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00123
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
I COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER
3026 McCARTY HALL VEGETABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


May 1, 1977
Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

J. F. Kelly
Chairman


James Montelaro
Professor

G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

R. D. William
Assistant Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: James M. Stephens Extension Vegetable Speciali t

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 77-5 J

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Field Days Three to go

B. Vegetable Gardening Publications

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Freeze-Damaged Vegetable Crops-A Follow Up

B. Calculating the Daily Water Needs of Vegetables

C. Nutsedge Control in Vegetables Chemical Suppression and
Year-Round Management

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Timely Gardening Topics

B. Know Your Vegetables Peanuts

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible,
please give credit to the authors.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


~7mm~w~l~mrn




-2-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Vegetable Field Days Three to go.


I. Location:
Date:
Time:
Crops:

IT. Location:
Date:
Time:
Crops:

III. Location:
Date:
Time:
Crops:


ARC, Leesburg, FL
Wednesday, June 1, 1977
1:15 PM
Watermelon, Cantaloupe and Cukes

Vegetable Crops Department Gainesville, FL
Thursday, June 2, 1977
9:30 AM
General Vegetables

Zellwood Farm (of AREC, Sanford) Zellwood, FL
Thursday, June 2, 1977
7:00 PM
Sweet Corn


(Montelaro)


B. Vegetable Gardening Publications

The following three publications on Vegetable Gardening have just been
released by the Editoral Department for your use in the counties.

I. Circular 104L -- Vegetable Gardening Guide -- This issue includes
considerable revisions particularly within the planting guide in-
formation. Supplies may be ordered as usual through the Editoral
department. This publication should be used to serve your general
gardening clientele.

II. Planting Guide for Vegetable Gardens -- This portion of Circular 104L
has been reproduced on a sturdy-glossy finish for displaying on walls.
A limited supply has been printed; so each county has been mailed a
limited number based on population. Please distribute planting guides
to those businesses, individuals, or other groups that you feel could
best utilize them. We recommend that they be placed near seed displays.

III. Circular 420 Vegetable Gardening -- Has been produced jointly by
FAMU and University of Florida. It's primary purpose is an instruc-
tional manual to accompany a set of training slides, in working with
counties in the 1890 program. Lawrence Carter of Florida A & M Uni-
versity is controlling distribution. It is not intended for general
gardening audiences, but it may be useful in your program preparations.
(Stephens)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Freeze Damaged Vegetable Crops A Follow Up

The January, 1977 freeze spelled disaster to producers of warm-season veget-
ables in south Florida. Temperatures dropped into the twenties for as many as
three days in all areas of the state. Even the experts, among professors, county
agents and growers, were saying that all warm season crops were "total losses".
This publication, contrary to previous experience, proved to be wrong to a degree.

The first surprise came shortly after the freeze. Pepper and tomato fruits
were not as badly damaged by the severe freeze as predicated. Salvage of mature
fruits continued for two to three weeks in all areas. Quality and grade were down,
but with favorable prices some growers were able to recoup part of their losses.
In a special letter to the affected counties we cautioned against encouraging the
marketing of sub-standard produce.

The choice was not a simple one for growers. The mad scramble to replant was
stymied by a shortage of transplants and direct seeding offered the possibility of
late harvest. Once again, we cautioned against over-planting to avoid a spring
market glut. Taking the only alternative, other than destroying crops, many growers
chose to gamble on suckeringg" in hopes of producing a partial crop. Some growers
hand-pruned their crops, others mowed plants to within a few inches of the soil and
a few left plants untouched.

Interestingly enough all three systems worked. Experts in the field could
see no major differences among the three systems. Some differences worthy of note,
however, were observed. Peppers, tomatoes and eggplant under full-bed, plastic
mulch culture were affected to a lesser degree than these same crops grown without
plastic mulch.

Considerable differences were observed in the "quality" of fruits produced.
Eggplant appeared to be the hardiest of the three crops. It recovered more uniformly
and produced higher quality fruit than the other two crops. Tomato, of the popular
Walter variety, produced good plants, but did not size its fruit adequately. This
may have resulted from an overly abundant fruit set, especially on multi-branched
plants. Varieties, like Florida MH-1 and Floradade, did somewhat better in sizing
of fruits. Pepper, on the other hand, was somewhere in between eggplant and tomato.
Plants recovered satisfactorily and fruit quality was good. Fruits, in most cases,
resembled second harvest "limb fruit" rather than the large, blocky, "crown-pick"
growers have become accustomed to from full-bed, plastic mulch-grown peppers. One
veteran county extension agent reported a yield of 650 boxes of marketable peppers
from the first harvest of a suckered crop. Surprisingly, the crop graded about
75 percent fancy.


- 3






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


In a parallel vein, the potato crop produced no surprises. Crops that were
advanced in stage of growth, especially where tubers had formed, were damaged
severely. Reports on these crops vary from 30 to 50% yields depending on state
of development. Potato crops just planted or sprouting were not injured except
to delay maturity somewhat. The cool-season crops like celery, cabbage, escarole,
lettuce, etc., suffered considerably less damage than was anticipated. Crops had
been well conditioned to withstand the freeze by a long, cold period preceding the
freeze. Some leaf burn and early bolting resulted, but even that was minimal.

The January, 1977, freeze was different as were all others in the past. Much
was learned from it which should benefit vegetable growers in future freezes. Much
was done to reduce growers losses and it is hoped more can be done when a severe
freeze strikes again.

(Montelaro)


B. Calculating the Daily Water Needs of Vegetables

Vegetable growers throughout the world are becoming increasingly concerned
about water use. To some, it is a concern for water quantity, to others the
emphasis is on quality, but to most the common concern is on energy costs for
distribution and/or drainage.

We are being forced to look more closely at crop water needs. A simple
answer should not be expected because over twenty soil, plant, and environmental
factors influence crop-water efficiency. The system used by the University of
Florida Water Resources Council is referred to as the Modified Blaney-Criddle
Method. This method considers crop growth characteristics, length of light period,
and air temperature during the growing period. This method provides a reasonably
accurate estimate of water used by the crop in transpiration and water lost from
the soil by evaporation, thus the term Evapotranspiration (ET).

Many states provide water needs in terms of inches of irrigation per day for
the crop.

These crop figures vary a great deal between humid and arid areas, light and
heavy soil types, and crop variety, as one would expect. In a recent survey of
water needs per day of some commonly grown agricultural crops the following were
noted: (inches per day)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Multiplication of the daily requirement by the length
season gives a rough approximation of the seasonal need to
irrigation or natural rainfall.


of the growing
be supplied by


A more accurate method may be to determine the seasonal ET and fit
this figure to the growth curve of the crop. An example of this procedure
may be of interest. Let us assume that the Blaney-Criddle method showed
that summer squash planted February 1 in Central Florida required 6.2 inches
of water during its 60 day crop growing season. If the grower used an irriga-
tion system 50% efficient (and no rainfall occurred) 12.4 inches of water would
have to be applied.

If one were to compare the two methods of expression, the following would
apply:


Water, Inches


Direct Division


per Period


i Growth Curve


t I


.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62


0.14
0.52
1.08
1.15
1.12
1.05
0.63
0.27
0.12
0.12


I. -I t


Irrigation, Inches
(50% Efficiency)


0.28
1.04
2.16
2.30
2.24
2.10
1.26
0.54
0.24
0.24


Crop Arid West Humid East Florida

Field Corn 0.27 0.24 0.22
Pasture 0.29 0.24 0.18
Citrus 0.19 -- 0.10
Tomatoes 0.24 0.20 0.27
Potatoes 0.24 0.18 0.22
Beans 0.25 0.17 0.20
Carrots 0.23 0.18 0.18
Sw. Corn 0.31 0.16 0.32
Radishes 0.23 0.18 0.18
Sw. Potatoes 0.17 0.15 0.22


Growth
Period


- 6
-12
- 18
- 24
- 30
- 36
- 42
- 48
- 54
- 60


days
days
days
days
days
days
days
days
days
days


0.103
0.103
0.103
0.103
0.103
0.103
0.103
0.103
0.103
0.103


J


F


Total


6.20 6.20


12.40






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


The essential difference between the direct division and growth curve methods
is that the curve method supplies the greatest amount of water during the period of
maximum leaf expansion and early fruit setting. The growth curve method seems to
be the most logical, but both methods deserve careful research attention so that
specific water requirement figures can be more firmly established for each growing
area of the state.
(Marlowe)


C. Nutsedge Control in Vegetables Chemical Suppression and Year-Round
Management

In the previous article, several management options involving preventive
measures and cultural practices aimed at reducing crop losses caused by nutsedge
competition were discussed. This article will discuss chemical control and im-
plications of developing a year-round cropping system designed to reduce nutsedge
populations to manageable levels.

c. Chemical Suppression or Control Historically, 2,4-D or related compounds
and a few other chemicals were sometimes applied to actively growing nutsedge foli-
age during the fallow season or in conjunction with certain crops to suppress nutsedge
growth. However, these chemicals killed only a few tubers at best, and control of the
foliage was often erratic.

Until recently, herbicidal control was limited to a few chemicals that either
suppressed germination of the tuber or partially controlled the foliage. For example,
thiocarbamate herbicides such as EPTC (Eptam), vernolate (Vernam), pebulate (Tillam),
and butylate (Sutan) inhibit the germination of nutsedge tubers and other susceptible
weeds when applied preplant and incorporated 4 to 6 inches into the soil surface.
Occasionally, alachlor (Lasso) and napropamide (Devrinol) will also suppress nutsedge
germination when the soil remains very moist. Nutsedge foliage can be controlled with
a postemergence application of paraquat in certain crops where spray shields can be
used to protect the crop. However, because these chemicals only inhibit tuber germina-
tion or "burn" the nutsedge foliage, control is only temporary and tubers resprout
within 3 to 12 weeks.

Although nutsedge populations have been reduced by killing the tubers with
certain multi-purpose soil fumigants, the application rates were 2 to 3 times greater
than normal fumigation rates. Thus, nutsedge control using these chemicals was
limited to high value crops and was seldom used to reduce nutsedge populations.

A new herbicide named glyphosate (Roundup) can be applied to actively growing
foliage of many perennial grasses and other perennial weeds such as purple nutsedge,
either in non-cropland situations or before the emergence of barley, field or sweet
corn, oat, sorghum, soybean or wheat. At present, growers who wish to plant crops not
listed on the label must wait one year after application. Although the chemical moves
throughout the entire plant within a few days after spraying, repeated applications
may be required for maximum nutsedge control because some plants will be protected by
other foliage or some tubers may not germinate after the initial soil preparation.
Tubers will seldom be erradicated even with multiple applications of glyphosate.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


REMEMBER READ THE LABEL CAREFULLY when choosing an herbicide to suppress
or control nutsedge in any vegetable crop. Rates, application directions, and
precautions are also stated on the label.


C. Year-Round Nutsedge Suppression

When developing or modifying a weed management system, growers should be
aware of two facts that will influence nutsedge populations. First, purple
nutsedge can produce as many as 7 new plants or tubers within a month, especially
when competition from other weeds or crops is minimized during the cropping season
or fallow period. Second, nutsedge is susceptible to shading either by a competi-
tive crop or cover crop, or by other weed foliage.

Growers are, therefore, best advised to assess their nutsedge situation and
determine whether the infestation is localized in water furrows or in patches within
the field, or distributed throughout the field. If localized, in small areas, the
grower may wish to isolate these areas and apply an herbicide such as glyphosate
followed by small plantings of green cover crops. However, if the entire field is
infested, a major vegetable grower may wish to consider rotating the land with a
series of agronomic crops in conjunction with glyphosate application, or to selec-
tively suppress nutsedge with an herbicide in a competitive crop such as bush green
bean, sweet potato, or possibly sweet corn followed by an intensive land management
system involving a competive green cover crop during the fallow season.

In summary, vegetable growers who wish to manage their perennial weed problems
as they manage their crop production systems can reduce nutsedge populations to
manageable levels and possibly eliminate the weed from some fields. To accomplish
this goal, every management factor that either influences nutsedge growth and produc-
tivity or that shifts the competitive advantage towards the crop must be considered
and used in the entire crop management system.

(William)


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Timely Gardening Topies

Four timely topics on vegetable gardening are offered each month to assist
Extension agents in developing periodic (weekly) radio or newspaper shorts.

1. Community Gardening May perhaps is the most satisfying month of the
year for Florida vegetable gardeners. While harvesting also occurs in other months,
,ost vegetables grown in home gardens reach the edible stage in May. Thus, all the
toils of land preparation and planting finally pay off -- providing the gardener
has done his job well. It is not the time, however, to let down the guard. Atten-
tion must be given to watering, weeding and controlling an assortment of pests and
predators intent upon reaping their own harvest. Some additional fertilizer may be
needed, particularly for those vegetables still a few weeks away from harvest. Bear
in mind that as plants get larger, their roots reach further into the row middles.
Place light applications of fertilizer at the edges of the roots. Some scratching
into the soil to determine root location may be helpful in avoiding fertilizer burn.





THE VEGETARIAN NESWLETTER


Keep irrigation equipment in good working condition, then use it wisely.
Florida frequently has a rather dry April and May, and with plants reaching maxi-
mum sizes at maturity, some form of irrigation is required in most locations. The
further into the spring and closer to summer we go, the more pests and related pro-
blems we encounter. Observe label directions on pesticides containers; heed neces-
sary waiting periods between times of application and harvest. Avoid spraying or
dusting the same day that you harvest. Always wash produce thoroughly before cooking
or serving. Insecticides and fungicides recommended for gardens are the mildest
forms of poisons available; yet, like chemicals, they are still capable of causing
serious injury if misused. Since flowers are now on the plants and insects (bees)
are needed by many for pollination purposes, it is a good idea to wait until after
10:00 AM to dust or spray. Bee activity is greatest during the early morning hours,
thus chances of bee kill are also greatest then. Keep the scarecrow prominently
displayed as a deterrent not only to crows, but other birds as well. Some gardeners
have found that a mock owl serves the same purpose. Protective netting is available
to prevent damage from birds.

2. Pollinating Vegetables for Fruit Productions At harvest time, gardeners
may be looking for fruits as well as vegetables in the vegetable garden. Almost all
parts of vegetable plants are consumed as food, with the fruit of the plant being
the most important in many instances. The most common vegetables producing edible
fruits are tomato, eggplant, pepper, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, melons, okra, peas,
beans, and sweet corn. With all of these vegetables, transfer of pollen from male
to female parts of the flower (called pollination) is required before an edible fruit
is produced. There are some exceptions, such as with parthenocarpic (seedless)
varieties of vegetables. Pollination is accomplished and aided in one of three main
ways: (1) wind, (2) insects, or (3) self-pollinated. The wind is directly responsible
for the pollination of sweet corn, as it carries pollen from the tassels to the silks.
Wind is indirectly responsible for the pollination of other vegetables due to its
shaking of the plant and flowers. The tomato is an example of vegetable flowers
self-pollinated by aid of the wind. Beans and peas are examples of vegetables that
pollinate themselves due to the structure of the flower.

With most vegetables, insects play the major role in transferring pollen from
the male parts of the flower to the female parts. Examples of vegetables producing
edible fruits resulting from insect-borne pollen are cucumber, cantaloupe, watermelon,
squash, pumpkin, eggplant, pepper, and okra. In most all of these cases, the
honeybee, both wild and domestic, is the insect primarily responsible for pollination.

In well cared-for gardens growing under good conditions, pollination takes
place normally; however, situations do arise where for some reason or another pol-
lination does not occur naturally. In these cases the gardener may need to assist the
plant by hand pollination, shaking the plant, or introducing the proper supply of
insects (bees).

3. Diazinon Dual Purpose Insecticide For the Florida home gardener, choosing
an insecticide for both foliar and soil application may not be as difficult as it may
appear. Now that DDT is a thing of the past, and chlordane soon to follow, the choice
narrows down to diazinon as the main substitute. Not only is diazinon safe when used
as directed, it is a suitable tool for home gardeners for several other reasons.




-Y-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

As indicated, it may be used both on the plants above ground parts to control foliar-
feeding insects as well as to the soil to control insects living in the soil. It
may be used on a wide variety of crops and insects. Here are some examples of the
pests it controls on the foliage: Aphids, bean leaf beetle, Mexican bean beetle,
spotted cucumber beetle, leaf miner and thrips. Applied to the soil it helps
control cutworms, wireworms, white grubs, root maggots, and lesser corn-stalk borer.

From this listing it is obvious that diazinon does not control all the insect
pests in the garden. However, along with the two most popular garden insecticides -
carbaryl (Sevin) and malathion, it is a very handy and useful insecticide to have on
the garden supply storage shelf. As with any garden insecticide, always read and
heed the label on the container.

4. Are Your Beans Ready to Pick Early in the season, gardeners spend a lot
of time peering into the dense foliage of the various vegetable plants in hopes of
spotting a squash, tomato, or bean that is ready to pick. Knowing exactly when a
bean is ready to pick can be a little tricky, since there are so many types of beans.
As the name implies, snap beans are meant for snapping, so must be crisp, young and
tender. The seeds should not be well developed, and there should be no stringy fiber
or toughness to the pods. Shell beans might be snapped also, if picked in the younq
tender stage just prior to seed development. Using a similar vegetable for an example,
southern peas are generally preferred as a combination of both snaps and shelled peas.
When the housewife is shelling the peas, she makes the decision whether to snap or
shell based on how young and tender the pod is. Pods that are too immature are limp
and flabby. However, if handled rapidly they are a delicacy. In France many of the
garden beans are consumed when very small. The main types of beans for snapping pur-
poses are bush snap, pole snap, and wax beans.

The most common shell beans are lima and horticultural. The seeds are shelled
out of the pods while young and tender, but after the seeds become plump. Left too
long in the pods the over-mature seeds become tough and flavorless. Even so, some
gardeners prefer to harvest their shell beans in this mature stage, then produce the
flavor by proper seasoning. The U.S.D.A. standards for lima beans state that lima
beans should be fresh, not over-mature, not excessively small, and fairly well filled.
The term "fairly well filled" means, according to the standards, that "more than one-
half of each pod shall be filled with well developed beans, but no pod may have less
than two fairly well developed beans".

Dry beans are either snap or shell beans which are allowed to mature before
picking. The pods may be picked when mature, yet still green, then dried later, or
picked after they are dried hard in the garden. Such drying in the garden is diffi-
cult to accomplish due to regular rainfall which usually occurs in the harvest period
in Florida.


(Stephens)




-10-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

B. Know Your Vegetables Peanuts

The peanut (Arachis hypogea) is also called goober, pindar, groundnut, and earth
nut. While peanuts are most valuable as an agronomic crop here in Florida, they also
are grown quite frequently in home vegetable gardens. Therefore, this article deals
with their culture in a home gardening situation.

The peanut plant is a low annual legume with a central upright stem. The
numerous branches vary from low flat to almost erect. Peanut varieties are readily
separable into bunch and runner types. The nuts which are legume pods like peas and
beans are closely clustered at the base of the bunch type. The runner varieties have
nuts scattered along their prostrate branches from base to tip. The peanut has a
well-developed tap root with numerous lateral roots that extend several inches into
the ground. Most roots have nodules but bear very few root hairs.

The flowers are borne in the leaf axils, above or below ground, singly or in
clusters of about three. It is not uncommon to find the blossoms with their yellow
petals three inches below the soil surface. After self-pollination, the ovary which
produces the pods is pushed into the soil by "pegs" where the pod develops. The pods,
containing usually from 1 to 3 seeds, develop only underground. The seed is covered
with a thin papery seed coat.

1. Varieties -- Peanut varieties are classified into three market types:
Runner, Spanish bunch), and Virginia (both runner and bunch).

For Florida, the following varieties are suggested: Florigiant a Virginia
type maturing in about 135 days. Florunner a runner type maturing in about 135 days.
Starr a Spanish type maturing in about 120 days. Other Spanish types which may be
planted are Tifspan, Spancross, and Tamnut 74.

2. Planting Information -- Peanuts are adapted to all portions of Florida
except South Florida. Prepare the garden soil as you would for all the vegetables.
Be particularly careful to apply sufficient lime to the present row and mix thoroughly
with the top soil. For development of well-filled nuts, an adequate supply of calcium
must be available in the fruiting zone.

Plant seeds in the spring of the year, beginning March 15 in Central Florida
and April 1 in North Florida. Continue planting through May 15.

Space seed 2 to 4 inches apart in rows 24 to 36 inches apart. Cover the seed
two to three inches in light soil and 1 1/2 to 2 inches in heavier soils.

Fertilize the peanut row as you would for the rest of the garden. A broadcast
application of regular garden fertilizers is adequate. Two to four pounds of 6-6-6
or other common analysis garden fertilizer may be used.

The peanut is a legume and therefore, capable of fixing nitrogen within its
root nodules. Where peanuts are grown for the first time, inoculation of the seeds
is advised. Use the cowpea group strain. Granular application in the seed furrow
at planting time is sufficient. Follow label directions.




-11-


3. Pests Peanuts are attacked by a wide variety of insect and mite pests.
Cutworms, armyworms, corn earworms, lesser cornstalk borers, wireworms, white grubs,
leafhoppers, thrips, and spider mites are the most common. Most of the insecticides
normally used on the other vegetables in the garden are suitable for use on peanuts.
However, be sure to check the label on the container for special peanut directions.
For example, malathion for aphid control should not be applied within 30 days of harves

For disease control, some of the same fungicides that are used on the other
garden vegetables may be used to control peanut leaf spots and rust. Be sure to check
the label on the container for possible use on peanuts. Maneb, copper, and Bravo
are recommended.

Nematodes control, use Nemagon, Fumazone, or Oxy BBC.

4. Harvesting Peanuts from the garden are used either as boiling peanuts or
as dried peanuts. Those used for boiling are harvested while the peanuts are well forn
yet still "green". When harvesting for dry usage, open a few pods before digging.
Look to see if the seeds are turning darker indicating maturity. Some gardeners prefer
to cut off the top half of the plant 3 to 4 days before harvest. After digging the
plants, pile the plants into fluffy well aerated piles (called windowss. Allow to
"cure" in this fashion for 5 to 10 days of warm temperatures and relatively dry
weather without rain. Proper curing is necessary to insure desirable flavor, texture
and overall quality. Reducing the moisture content of the seeds and pods is the main
purpose of curing.
(Stephens)


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $346.21, or
.57e cents per copy, for the purpose of communicating current
technical and educational material to extension research and
industry personnel".




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