Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: January 1977
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00119
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
IFA UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER
IV-GETABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT
m.I IIII II I III II II 1 II I I I I-


January 6, 1977



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


J. F. Kelly
Chairman

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


TO: OT NTY
cMl-IF R;


James Montelaro
Professor

G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS VEGETABLESS AND HORTICULTURE) AND
D ETSENETNI IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORI A


FRQOM: James Montelaro, Extension Vegetable Specialist Q~ "


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 77-1


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. New Vegetable Extension Specialist

II. COC'MTERCTAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Root Injury Contributing Factors
B. The Increasing Role of Fl Hybrids in Modern Vegetable
Crop Production

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Control of Bean Molds

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Tinely Gardening Topics
B. Know Your Vegetables Sea Kale


NOTE: An one is free to use the infonration in this newsletter.
please give credit to the authors.


Whenever possible,


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Vegetable Extension Specialist

Dr. Ray William joined our faculty as Extension Vegetable Specialist January 10.
Ray has replaced Steve Kostewicz and will be giving his primary efforts in the 26 north
and west Florida counties previously covered by Steve. He will also be giving state-
wide leadership in weed control for vegetables.

Ray is a graduate of Purdue University and has most recently been a crop pro-
duction-specialist at the Asian Vegetable Research Institute in Taiwan.
(Kelly)

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Root Injury Contributing Factors

It can be said that a vegetable crop is as good as its root system. Without
good, healthy roots, no crop can be expected to produce top yield and quality. Root
injury is a commonly occurring problem in the production of vegetable crops in Florida.
The reason is that there are many factors which can contribute to this complex problem.
Root injury problems often are hard to diagnose accurately and without a good diagnosis,
corrective measures cannot be taken.

The importance of understanding the basic principles involved in crop root iniur
and their proper management cannot be overemphasized to the vegetable grower. This is
the first in a series of three articles dealing with root injury in vegetable crops.
The series will cover the following items: (1) factors contributing to root injury,
(2) how to prevent root injury, and (3) how to correct root injury.

In a general way, the main causes of root injury are: (1) attack from soil nema-
todes, insects and diseases, (2) salt injury, (3) improper fertilizer placement, (4)
misuse of irrigation, (5) poor soil environment, (6) mechanical damage, and (7) chemical
damage. Many of the above factors interact to intensify root injury and to further
complicate diagnosis. For instance, a plant might survive a moderate nematode attack
or salt injury separately but not both at the same time.

It is not possible in a series of three short articles to discuss causitive
factors, methods of prevention and corrective measures in great detail. It is hoped
that these brief remarks will encourage crop production managers to search out more
detailed information from bulletins, textbooks, manuals and other publications which
describe symptoms, conditions and tests which can be helpful in handling root injury
problems.

Three of the most damaging nematodes in vegetable crops are root-knot, sting and
stubby. As can be seen, the names are quite descriptive of the type of damage each
exhibits. Soil insects attack crops from seeding to maturity. The type of injury varies
from destruction of roots from feeding to upheaval of seedlings. Some of the more common
soil insects are wireworms, cutworms, mole crickets and cucumber beetle larvae. llie
most common soil disease is damping-off of seedlings. The fungi causing damping-ofl,
like Rhizoctonia and Pythium can cause root injuries even at the more advanced stages
of growth. In addition to these, there are the wilts--Fusarium, Verticillium and bacterial.

Salt injury is a common problem which is often overlooked because there may be
no visible root symptoms unless the injury is quite severe. Furthermore, salt injury
is rather erratic in occurrence. It can be intensified or reduced quickly by rainfall






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

and irrigation patterns, drought, fertilizer sidedressings and other factors. Improper
fertilizer placement may not only contribute to salt injury but to shallow root develop-
ment also. Plants with shallow roots are much more susceptible to injury from droughts
than otherwise.

Soil environmental factors affecting root development include lack of oxygen,
high level of carbon dioxide, poor soil aggregation, soil compaction, excessive or
deficient moisture supply and excessively low or high temperature. Each of these factors
can retard development to some degree. The injury may be minor in the case of low
soil temperatures (above freezing) for a short period of time, but serious if seedlings
are subjected to heaving as a result of freezing of the surface soil.

Mechanical and chemical damage encompasses a range of factors too numerous to
list here. The most common mechanical damage results from actual destruction of roots
from deep cultivation, injection of fertilizer, wind and rodents. Chemical damage may
result from pesticides applied to the soil at any time. Almost any chemical applied
to a soil can cause root injury under certain conditions. The list is long if the native
chemicals in the soil and those supplied in fertilizers are also considered.

From this brief discussion, it can be seen that many factors can contribute to
root injury. Many of these problems can be prevented if good cultural practices are
used in growing the crop. The next article will discuss steps that can be taken to
avoid root injury in vegetable crops.
(Montelaro)

B. The Increasing Role of F1 Hybrids in Modern Vegetable Crop Production

A brief look at a modern vegetable seed catalog reflects the growing interest and
availability of F1 hybrid varieties. The advantages often listed for these new hybrids
include (a) greater uniformity of:
(1) seed germination
(2) emergence of seedlings
(3) stand
(4) growth and development
(5) fruit set and fruit size
(b) increased earliness and (c) for many vegetables, higher yields than inbred or pure
lines.

anotherr distinct advantage to a seed company is the control of seed production and
availability of the hybrid. Plant breeders generally feel that these hybrids can result
in highly desirable combinations in less time than by the traditional breeding approaches

The main disadvantage of F1 hybrids is their higher cost. It costs more to pro-
duce these hybrids because of the greater labor involved in emasculation, crossing, record<
keeping and handling. Some F1 hybrid seed costs 5 to 10 times that of standard varieties,
New techniques being developed to help reduce these costly processes include chemical
modification of the sex ratios and development of male sterile parents.

The Japanese vegetable breeders are credited with the first development and test-
ing of F1 hybrid vegetables. As early as 1927 an Fl hybrid eggplant was observed com-
mercially in Japan. By 1930, F1 hybrid seed production for eggplant and watermelon was
well established in Japan.

In the early 1930's, hybrid field corn was being developed in the United States.
The rate of adoption was most rapid in areas where corn production was most important.
An essentially complete transition from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids was effected






THE ITGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

in Iowa and Illinois in about 10 years, for the rest of the Corn Belt in about 20
years, and for the rest of the U.S. in about 30 years. By 1963, 95% of the field corn
grown was hybrid.

The impact of hybrids on yields has been significant for some vegetables, but
their singular contribution is difficult to assess because of the great improvements in
fertilizer use, soil fumigation, soil moisture control, pest control, and other cultural
practices.


In Japan, techniques for producing F1 hybrid cucumbers
and tomatoes in 1940. Soon after World War II, the U. S. and
listing Fl hybrids of cucumber, tomato, muskmelon, squash and
almost 40", of the varieties of tomato, eggplant, cucumber and
were F1 hybrids.

A brief tally of five current U. S. seed catalogues to
F1 hybrids may be of interest (% of total).


Vegetable
Crop


Seed
Co. "A"


Broccoli
Brus. Sprts.
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Corn, Sw.
Cucumbers, S
Eggplant
Muskmelon
Onions
Peppers
Squash, S.
Tomato
1Watermelon


Seed
Co. "B"

20
0
40
0
20
30
0
0
60
9
44
0
0


Seed
Co. "C"

0
0
0
0
0
100
100
100
0
10
100
25
0


See
Co.

50
50
30
15
33
70
75
62
23
11
83
52
28


were reported in 1933
European seed houses were
watermelon. By 1955,
watermelon listed in J:apan


assess the availability of


*d Seed
"D" Co. "E"

33
75
25
0
80
33
0
0
41
0
14
0
0


The F1 hybrid has earned its rightful
factors vital to modern successful vegetable


place in the
production.


increasingly complex array of

(Marlowe)


III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Control of Bean Molds

Winter weather that limited grocery shopping in northern cities has reduced the
sale of large volumes of snap beans from Florida in recent weeks. This, coupled with
cloudy, wet conditions in the production areas of Florida, has resulted in a lowering
of quality from mold and end rot according to Market News Reports. Two fungus diseases
known as cottony leak (from Pythium) and watery soft rot (from Sclerotinia) may develop
rapidly after harvest. Cottony leak usually starts where pods touch the soil, and the
area becomes dark green, soft and water soaked. In shipping containers, a white, fluffy
mold develops and binds the pods together, usually in the center of the container.

Watery soft rot also produces watersoaked areas that may occur anywhere on the
pods with or without previous injury. This soil fungus grows rapidly under moist con-
ditions at 600 to 800 F and spreads from pod to pod, holding them together in so-called
nests that are similar to those infected with cottony leak.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Control measures for both diseases include harvesting only when pods are dry.
Suitable harvest periods may be shortened by dew, fog and rainy or cloudy weather.
All pods with watersoakced spots should be discarded and precautions taken to keep pods
cool during harvesting and packing. If the fungi are present in the field, rapid
sorting, precooling and shipping under desirable temperatures (45o-500) will do much
to control the disease. Air cooling, not hydrocooling, and rapid movement through
market channels are recommended. If beans warm after cooling and moisture condenses
on the pods, conditions are ideal for mold development. Beans should not be cooled
below 450 because of chilling injury.

(Niofl.: This article was prepared by Mr. R. K. Showalter, Professor, Vegetable Crops
Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Timely Gardening Topics

These questions and answers are suggested here for your use in developing
periodic (weekly) radio or newspaper shorts. They are based on letters of inquiry
from gardeners around the state.

(1) Timely Topic for Week of January 9-15

Question

I plan to plant three or four rows of Irish potatoes in my garden next month.
Are there any precautions I should take with my seed potatoes?

Rep ly
Briefly, here are the steps you should take to insure a good stand of potatoes
in your garden.
(a) Buy clean, certified seed potatoes. Table stock potatoes do
not perform well.
(b) Cut tubers into blocky two-ounce seed pieces with at least one
eye each. Tubers already near this size may be planted whole.
(c) Place cut seed pieces in a moist burlap bag. Keep the bag
moist and cool (at 600 if possible, but room temperature if
not). This helps heal the cut surface to reduce decay.
After 6 to 10 days curing, plant seed pieces 3 to 4 inches
deep and about 12 inches apart.
(d) Further protection from rotting may be obtained by dusting seed
pieces with captain or Dithane M-45 just before planting.

(2) Timely Topic for Week of January 16-22

Question

I am planning on having a spring vegetable garden. Being new to Florida, what
should I plant?

Reply
Chances are most of the vegetables you and your family like to eat can be grown
successfully down here when planted in January, February, March and April. This is the





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

best planting time for just about all of the warm-season vegetables. In addition,
many of the cool-season crops do well when planted in the early spring. Some of the
warm-season crops for this time of the year are: tomato, pepper, eggplant, okra, cucumber,
squash, cantaloupe, watermelon, bean (lima, pole, bush), southern pea, sweet corn,
and sweet potato. Some of the cool-season crops still suitable for early spring plant-
ing are: green onion, beets, collard, endive, leaf lettuce, bibb lettuce, radish, mus-
tard, cabbage, carrot, turnip, potato and English peas. Crops which must be started
in the fall rather than now are: strawberry, bulbing onion, cauliflower, garlic, spinach,
and head lettuce. Crops not well suited for Florida are: globe artichoke, asparagus,
and rhubarb.

(3) Timely Topic for Week of January 23-29

Question

Sometimes I see tomato plants for sale which already have small fruits on them.
Are these plants still suitable for putting out in my garden?

Reply

Wherever possible, buy younger plants. A tomato plant which has from five to
seven true leaves (also from five to seven weeks old) is at the best stage for trans-
planting. The first flower cluster may be visible but not yet open. A plant bearing
fruit is slow to recover and resume growth following transplanting and seldom produces
a normal crop. Even a plant smaller than the ideal size would be a better choice than
the older plant. If you have no alternative, you may remove the fruits to improve early
plant growth.

(4) Timely Topic for Week of January 30-February 5

Question

What kind of dust or spray may I use on the soil in my vegetable garden to control
ants and cutworms?

Reply

For many years, the gardener's stand-by for such soil-inhabiting insects has been
chlordane. Today, due to restrictions placed on the use of chlordane, gardeners must
turn to diazinon as its chief substitute. As a dust or spray directed to the soil at the
base of the vegetable plants, diazinon is a fairly effective control for such soil-
frequenting insects as wireworms, crickets, cutworms, ants, and white grubs.
(Stephens)

B. Know Your Vegetables Sea Kale

Sea kale (Crambe maritima L.) is also called sea-colewort, scurvy grass, and
halmyrides. It is a hardy perennial grown in manner similar to asparagus. The plant
grows to 2 feet, with large, heavy, glossy green leaves that are fringed or curled on
the edges. The edible, young, tender, whitened shoots arise from the roots each spring
in areas where it is adapted. Also like asparagus, Sea kale is not adapted to Florida.
It requires a cool, moist climate. It grows wild abundantly on the West European sea-
board, especially in the British Isles.




-7-

THE VEGETARIAN NE-SLETTER


Its name comes from its use on long
form aboard ship, then fed it to the crews
cooked and used like asparagus. The young


sea voyages. The Romans stored it in pickles
to prevent scurvy. In fresh form, it is
shoots and very small leaves are eaten.


To produce the crop, seeds or cuttings are planted in beds; thereafter, roots ar(
maintained for several years. As the young shoots emerge from the roots upon resumption
of favorable growing conditions each spring, they are "blanched" (whitened) by heaping
soil upon them or by covering with a suitable device such as a pot to exclude light.
Young shoots are harvested when 4 to 5 inches long while crisp and tender before leaves
start to expand.
(Stephens)




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