Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: November 1975
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Volume ID: VID00115
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- --- FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE


I FAS

S .. *-m- .. 1


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

VEGETABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT

The VEETARIAN newsletter

November 4, 1975




Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


J. F. Kelly
Chairman


James Montelaro
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


J. R. Hicks
Assistant Professor


R. K. Showalter
Professor


G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA


FROM: James Montelaro, Extension Vegetable Specialist 9


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 75-11


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Abstracts for Papers Presented at FSHS Meetings

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Beehives Supply Available for Pollination Through
"Clearinghous e"
B. Dolomite Overuse and Associated Problems
C. Growing Broccoli and Cauliflower in Florida
D. Field Characteristics of Three Tomato Vascular Wilt Diseases

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Ripening Tomatoes With Ethylene Safely

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING


Timely Gardening Topics
Know Your Vegetables Bamboo


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
please give credit to the authors.


Whenever possible,


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA, 1FAS. UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA. U. 5. DI-PARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISUIONEliRS. COOPERATING


moyru^aA&






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A, Abstracts for Papers Presented at FSHS Meetings

There will be 30 papers presented in the Vegetable Section at the Annual
Meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society to be held on November 4-7, 1975.
Anyone wishing to obtain these abstracts can do so by writing this office.
(Montelaro)

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Beehives -- Supply Available for Pollination Through "Clearinghouse"

Growers of cucurbits (watermelon, cantaloupe, squash and cucumber) who are find-
ing it almost impossible to rent bees for pollination should be interested in a program
developed to aid them in overcoming the problem. It is listing of beekeepers who have
beehives for rent to cucurbit growers. Dr. Fred Johnson, Extension Entomologist, work-
ing with honey producers, is getting an excellent response to his request for listings
from members of this group. He reports that there are several thousand beehives avail-
able for rent to cucurbit growers this season. The list can be obtained by writing or
calling Dr. F. A. Johnson, Entomology & Nematology Department, University of Florida,
214 Newell Hall, Gainesville, Florida, 32611; telephone (904) 392-1939 or by contacting
this office.

Dr. Johnson's services are limited to a program of getting interested parties
together. Detail of arrangements for rental charges, time of delivery, care of bee-
hives, etc., are to be made by cucurbit growers directly with the beekeepers.

Cucurbit growers are urged to work with beekeepers in caring for hives during
the pollination period. They may find that, in doing this, it will work to their
mutual benefit. Beekeepers will be more apt to continue renting bees to growers if
they are returned to him in good shape. By the same token, growers can benefit, not
only from ready availability of strong beehives, but by learning how to handle the bees
most effectively from the beekeeper who is an expert. The advice of the beekeeper can
be invaluable to cucurbit growers.
(Montelaro)

B, Dolomite Overuse and Associated Problems

Over the years, when a need for lime was indicated, vegetable growers were
encouraged to use dolomite as the liming material if magnesium levels were found to be
low. Our guidelines suggest a calcium/magnesium ratio (Ca/Mg) of about 8 to 1 for
vegetable crops in general. Dolomite should be used as the liming material when the
Ca/Mg ratio is 9 to 1 or more. On the other hand, high calcic lime is recommended
to raise pH when the Ca/Mg ratio ranges down to about 4 to 1. In those cases where pH
levels are satisfactory, but magnesium is low in the soil, it can be supplied together
with the fertilizer materials.

Recent experiences indicate that we may have failed to emphasize the danger of
overuse of dolomite. This season alone, we have noted several cases of Ca/Mg ratios
as low as 1 to 1. There are no benefits to be derived from an oversupply of magnesium
in the soil. In fact, the reverse may be true. An overabundance of magnesium may be
antagnostic to calcium and other cations in the soil and, subsequently, may cause
deficiencies of these cations. This, together with the extra cost of dolomite, makes
the overuse of dolomite an uneconomical practice. Vegetable growers should have their






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


soils tested annually. These soil tests should be used to help make decisions on
sources and rates of liming and fertilizer materials.

Failure to monitor every practice carefully, can mean the difference between
success and failure in vegetable production. This is especially true of liming, since
it affects so many biological, chemical and physical properties of the soil.
(Montelaro)
C. Growing Broccoli and Cauliflower in Florida

Growers interested in vegetable production for local sales to consumers on the
retail level are frequently interested in what crops they can grow during the cool
months of the year. For growers willing to try small scale trial plantings and having
the initiative to "learn" a new crop, broccoli and/or cauliflower may provide them
with a rewarding experience.

Broccoli and cauliflower are cole crops (Brassicas) and are related to cabbage.
This point is important because most of the cultural practices for cabbage can be
adaptable to these two crops. Thus, the general guideline for pesticides and fertili-
zers, etc., given in Circular 117C, "Cabbage Production Guide" can be applied. However,
there are some important cultural differences (note there may be some pesticide usage
limitations also) which set these crops apart from cabbage and must be understood for
successful production.

Both of these crops are less tolerant to cold weather than cabbage. Cauliflower
is the least tolerant of them, but it can withstand light frost. Broccoli can survive
frosts very well and perhaps would be most suitable for periods when the potential
incidence of heavy frost is greatest.

These crops can be either direct-seeded or transplanted in the production area.
The use of direct-seeding might be better in the fall and the use of transplants better
during very early spring or late winter. Generally broccoli can be planted between
August and February in North Florida, but cauliflower should be limited to August-
October and January-February planting dates. In Central and South Florida, a serious
limiting factor is the high temperatures of fall and spring. Thus, while broccoli and
particularly cauliflower can be planted during the winter months, the total range of
planting dates is smaller.

Seeding Dates in Florida

North Central South
Broccoli August-February August-January September-January
Cauliflower January-February September-January September-January
August-October

The mature heads of cauliflower are sensitive to cold weather and for that reason, it
is advisable to avoid having mature cauliflower in the field during our coldest months.
However, realizing that it is a calculated risk, growers may wish to experiment with
limited plantings for harvest during those months when competition may be low and price
may be high.

The cultural requirements of the two crops are somewhat different from several
standpoints. Cauliflower is a single harvest crop in that the marketable product is
a single head from each plant. The edible portion of cauliflower (the curd or head)
is proliferated tissue which develops on the tip of the plant. The normal range from






THE VEGETARIAN NEWS LETTER

seeding to harvest is 55-70 days depending on variety, growing conditions, etc. The
use of transplants generally stretches this time length 7 to 14 days, but shortens
time in the production field. Of the two crops, cauliflower is the more difficult to
grow. It requires a growing situation in which growth can be continuous without any
stresses. A frequent result of stresses is a condition called "buttoning". If the
stress occurs when the plants are young, the head will start to form too early and the
plant will not be of sufficient size to promote the development of a sufficiently large
head. This buttoning can occur at any stage. Thus, providing a continuous favorable
growing environment is critical. Two particularly important aspects to adequately
maintain are water and fertility levels. In addition to providing the proper growing
environment, it is necessary to "blanch" the heads to insure a white color. This may
involve tying the leaves with string or rubber bands to protect the developing heads
from light, which turns them green. This practice is usually done when the heads begin
to form. Following tying, the heads should be inspected every couple of days to
determine the best harvest time. Some of the newer varieties are "self-blanching".
The leaves of these varieties tend to be more upright and provide a protective canopy
over the head eliminating the need to "tie". A desirable head is one which is fully
developed, compact, and clear white. Over-mature heads are less compact and the sur-
face of the head becomes riceyy". When harvesting, the leaves immediately below the
head are left attached (wrapper leaves) to provide protection.

Broccoli is usually harvested more than once. The initial cutting is of the
larger central "head" which develops at the top of the plants. Side shoots or heads
will continue to develop in the leaf axils on the stem. Thus, several cuttings can be
made over a 2-3 week period. The normal range from seeding to first harvest is 70-80+
days. Transplanting again will add 7-14 days depending upon growing conditions. Main-
taining a continuous favorable growing environment is desirable for best production.
Broccoli is harvested by cutting the stem 6 to 8 inches below the head. The "head" of
broccoli is a mass of flower buds which should be harvested before these begin to open.
When open, the yellow color of the flowers appears and the head becomes loose. Both
of these are undesirable because quality broccoli is dark green and compact. In addition
over-mature broccoli becomes woody further reducing its quality. The whole broccoli
plant is edible, even the main stem before it becomes woody. The leaves may be bunched
as greens. These products are not marketable in normal wholesale channels, but they
offer an opportunity for roadside stand operations.

Spacing
Between Rows Between Plants
Cauliflower 24"-30" 20"-24"
Broccoli 30"-36" 16"-22"

Seeding
1 lb. of seed will direct seed 1 acre
1 ounce of seed will produce about 3,000 plants
Seed about 1/4"-1/2" deep

Varieties (For additional varieties, see Experiment Stations Circular S-234 "Vegetable
Variety Trial Results in Florida 1972-73-74 and Recommended Varieties".)

Cauliflower
Snowball X, Snowball Y, Snowdrift
Broccoli
Waltham 29, Early Green Sprouting, Atlantic
(Kostewicz)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

D. Field Characteristics of Three Tomato Vascular Wilt Diseases

The full-bed mulch cultural system was designed to create a minimum stress
environment for vegetable crops. The many advantages of the proper use of the system
include higher yields, better quality and more effective management of pests, ferti-
lizers and soil moisture.

In this system, the higher levels of fertility, soil pH and soil moisture
associated with higher yields and more uniform plant growth may also create a more
favorable environment for various plant diseases. Most plant pathologists agree that
higher pH soils favor the development of Verticillium wilt; and most agree that Fusarium
wilt activity is decreased as the soil reaction is brought to neutral or slightly
alkaline conditions.

As with most systems, there are good and bad features upon which alternatives
must be based. The enhancement of Verticillium wilt is an unfortunate side effect of
the system, but the alternative of encouragement of Fusarium wilt may be of greater
potential disaster.

Disease activity may be more noticeable under a full-bed mulch system than the
conventional method because of the more favorable crop growing environment. Research
findings over the past decade have shown that fast growing crops usually express
Fusariun and Verticillium wilt more than those under stress.

Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt and Southern Bacterial wilt have many symptoms
in common, are all serious diseases in Florida tomatoes, and all demand meaningful
disease prevention programs. It should be of value and interest to extension agents,
field men, and growers to compare the field symptoms of these three vascular wilt
diseases.

Resource information for these comparisons was provided by Dr. John Paul Jones,
Department of Plant Pathology, AREC, Bradenton, various textbooks and research monographs
on these three major soil borne wilt producing pathogens. (See pages 6 and 7.)
(Marlowe)

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Ripening Tomatoes With Ethylene Safely

Ethylene gas is extremely flammable and may explode if ignited; also, ethylene
is a gas with a characteristic suffocating, sweetish odor. It is both an anaesthetic
and asphyxiant. High vapor concentrations can cause rapid loss of consciousness and
perhaps death by asphyxiation.

At the recommended concentrations for ripening tomatoes, ethylene possesses
neither of these characteristics. During the past few years in Florida, two ethylene
ripening chambers have been blown-up--WHY?

Optimum concentration for ripening tomatoes with ethylene is 1000 ppm or less.
Room temperature should be maintained at 70-750F and the relative humidity should be
about 90%. The explosive concentrations of ethylene is from 30,000 to 280,000 ppm
or 30 to 280 times the recommended concentration for ripening.

Studies in Florida have shown that ethylene concentrations in ripening rooms
range up to 14,500 ppm. This is substantially below the explosive range but far in
excess of the amount needed.









Field Characteristics of Three Tomato Vascular Wilt Diseases


Characteristic

Organism name



Type of organism

Vegetables attached


Early symptoms




Later symptoms:
General

Leaf appearance



Wilting pattern


Vascular coloration




Affect on yield


Fusarium Wilt

Fusariu oxysporum f. sp.
lycopersici (Sacc)
Snyder & Hansen

Fungus (Fungi imperfecti)

Tomato (only).


Poor growth, yellowing,
wilting of oldest leaves
first, margins curl down-
ward. Evident very early.

Yellowing may affect one side
of plant only. Plant stunted.

Oldest leaves yellow, turn
brown, die and cling to plant.


Permanent wilt common.


Vascular tissue dark brown,
from base of plant to axil of
yellowed leaves.


If serious, no yield.


Verticillium Wilt

Verticillium albo-atrum
Reinke and Berthold


Fungus (Fungi imperfecti)

Tomato, potato, eggplant,
okra, cucumber, watermelon.

Stunting, wilting, yellowing,
leaf margins curl upward.
Usually not noticeable until
time of first harvest.

Yellowing, stunting, fruit
size reduced.

LeavesVee-shaped lesions,
yellow margins. Leaves drop
prematurely.

Permanent wilt infrequent,
usually diurnal wilting.

Vascular tissue usually tan
color, evident in leaf axil
more than base of stem.


Yield usually reduced.


Bacterial Wilt

Pse damonas solanacearum
E. F. Smith


Bacteria (rod shaped)

Tomato, pepper, potato,
eggplant, peanuts, soybeans.

Younger leaves wilt first,
slight yellowing of older
leaves, and collapse of stem
tips.

Wilting and death usually
very sudden and general.

Wilting and death seldom
accompanied by yellowing.


Wilting diurnal at first,
later permanent.

Vascular tissue and pith
becomes brown, then pith
decays as yellow-grey ooze
develops.

If serious, no yield.


(Marlowe)


(Continued)






Field Characteristics of Three Tomato Vascular Wilt Diseases (continued)


Characteristic

Stage of crop growth
disease most likely to
appear.

Soil type in which
pathogen is most
active.

Soil pH in which patho-
gen is most active.

Soil temperature in
which pathogen is most
active.

Soil nutrient level in
which pathogen is most
active.



Climatic conditions in
which pathogen is
most active.

Usual means of trans-
mission.


Method of overwinter-
ing or survival.


Key control features,
field culture.


Fusarium Wilt

Any period in which condi-
tions are favorable for
pathogen.

Light sandy soils.



Mildly acid soils, acti-
vity low in alkaline soils.

Optimum approx. 820F (280C).



High K, low N, decreases
activity. Low K, high N,
increases activity. Nitrate
N decreases, NH4-N in-
creases activity.

Wide range of climatic
conditions.


Infection occurs through
the young roots, vascular
parasite.

Soil saprophyte, survives
as thick-walled cells dur-
ing adverse conditions.

Area avoidance, long rota-
tion, soil fumigation, sani-
tation, resistant varieties.


Verticillium Wilt

Any period of stress on crop
usually at fruit sizing
period.

Wide range of poorly-drained
soils.


Neutral to alkaline, acti-
vity very low in acid soils.

Optimum approx. 750F (220C).



High nitrate favors, high
ammonium N decreases
activity.



Cool, dry periods.


Infection occurs through
root system, vascular
parasite.

Soil saprophyte, survives
as dessication resistant
structure.

Area avoidance, long rota-
tion, soil fumigation, sanita-
tion, resistant varieties.


Bacterial Wilt

Any period in which condi-
tions are favorable for
pathogen.

Wide range of poorly-drained
soils.


Mildly acid soils with high
soil moisture.

Optimum approx. 880F (310C).



High phosp, low N favors
development. High salt levels
in warm periods decrease
activity.


Warm, wet periods.


Entry of root wounds, caused
by cultivation, nematodes,
abrasion.

Moist organic matter and in
weed hosts.


Area avoidance, long rotation.
Weed control of host plants.
Resistant varieties not avail-
able at this time.


(Marlowe)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWS LETTER

Method of "gassing" ripening rooms is the crux of the problem. Most gassing
rooms operate on the principle of "pounds of ethylene gas per room"; injection is on
a weight basis. Modern gas ripening rooms are constructed with an injection port but
"experienced operators" do not like to use these ports. At the maximum rate of gassing,
these ports freeze up. "Why take 5 minutes when 15 seconds will do?"

As pure ethylene gas leaves the tank, an interface is established with the
room air. Within this interface an explosive concentration is established. The more
rapid the discharge from the ethylene tank, the greater is the area of this interface.

For maximum safety and economy, ripen tomatoes with ethylene using one or more
of the following:

(1) Use only the recommended maximum concentration of 1000 ppm (this is 1.25
ounces of ethylene gas per 1000 cu. ft. of ripening room). Maintain air circulation
within the room.

(2) Introduce ethylene gas into the room slowly, through external "injection
ports".

(3) Use ethylene gas generators which have been designed specifically for this
purpose.

(4) Use "measuring tanks" for slow release of ethylene gas into the ripening
rooms after the doors have been closed and room secured.

(5) Establish a "trickle system" whereby ethylene is introduced at the desired
concentration and carbon dioxide is prevented from accumulating (high concentrations
of carbon dioxide interfere with the ripening process and counteract the effect of
ethylene).

(6) Within the ripening room, avoid open flame, sparks and use only explosion-
proof motors.
(Gull)
NOTE: This article was prepared by Dr. D. D. Gull, Associate Professor, Vegetable Crops
Department, University of Florida, Gainesville.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Timely Gardening Tonics

These questions and answers are suggested for agents' use in developing periodic
(weekly) radio or newspaper briefs. They are based on letters of inquiry from Florida
gardeners.

(1) Timely Topic for week of November 16-22.

Question

What should I do to my endive plants to keep them from being bitter?

Reply

With early varieties of endive, it was usually necessary to bunch the outer
leaves together and gently tie with light cord in order to blanch green color from the
interior and prevent bitterness. With today's tight-leaved varieties, however, such






THE VETFTARIAN NFWSI.FTTER

bunching and tying procedures are unnecessary. Light is excluded naturally from the
interior section, leaving the central heart leaves white, tender and relatively sweet.

(2) Timely Topic for week of November 23-29.

Question

There seem to be many hundreds of varieties of garden vegetables. What dis-
tinguishes one variety from another?

Reply

To warrant a new varietal name, a newly introduced plant should be different in
one or more easily recognized or easily determined characters and preferably should
contain some characteristic of superiority over existing varieties. Just a mere
difference in a minor character is not considered sufficient reason for a new name.
On the other hand, a new and distinct improvement should be recognized as such with a
new name rather than by confusingly substituting it under the name of a standard
variety. Differences among varieties can be both in non-edible parts, such as bean
leaves, and in edible products, such as bean pods.

(3) Timely Topic for week of November 30-December 6.

Question

It seems to me most of the vegetables one can grow in the fall and winter are
leaf crops. Rhat are the main things to consider in growing this kind of vegetable?

Reply
Most of these are cool-season crop, and as such need cool weather for best
growth. For example, 'Red Crosby' beets were shown to produce twice the yield of
foliage at 60F than at 700F, although leaves were longer and more slender at the
higher temperature.

Since leaves are succulent and contain a lot of water, ample soil moisture is
also important. Fertilizer, mainly nitrogen, is needed in adequate amounts to produce
abundant foliage. One final factor to consider is spacing. Too close spacing causes
spindly, slender leaves and reduced yields per plants. Too great a spacing maximizes
size of each plant, but reduces yield per space.

(4) Timely Topic for week of December 7-13.

Question

I have been canning beets and have seen some roots with poor color. Any idea
what has caused this?

Reply
Certainly the appeal of your final product will be greatly enhanced by the deep
red glow of your beets. Of course, zones of darker color and lighter color are natural
in beets, but white is undesirable. Cooler temperatures (50-600F) produce better
colored beets than warier temperatures (700+). In general, fall and winter grown
beets are darker colored than those grown later in the spring. Small roots usually
have better color than the largest roots.
(Stephens)




-10-


THE VEGETARIAN M\LVSL.S l .i [

B. Know Your Vegetables Bamboo

Bamboo is useful in many ways, but its value as a "vegetable" should at least
be briefly mentioned. Bamboos are woody stemmed perennial grasses, usually evergreen
where adapted. There are 700 or more species of bamboo, ranging in height from a foot
to 100 feet or more. In the IJ. S., only two species occur naturally (Arundinaria
:nigantea and A. tecta). Neither of these two are used for human food.

A bamboo plant consists of two somewhat distinct parts: aboveground jointed
stem (called a culn), and the underground jointed rhizome bearing true roots.

Propagation is almost entirely done by vegetative means, generally by cuttings
made from the underground rhizomes. Make cuttings 12 inches long, plant end-to-end 6
inches deep. Do not let the rhizomes dry out. Plant January to Iarch.

The young sprouts, or undeveloped stem shoots, of the hardy Chinese and Japanese
bamboos (genus Phy.lo stachys) are practically all edible. The sprouting season is
usually short (3 to 4 weeks). Sprouts are crisp in texture and without pronounced
flavor. Some kinds taste bitter, but bitterness is usually removed by hoili.ne in
water twice. To get good edible bamboo shoots, try mounding up soil over the base of
the clumps to exclude sunlight from the young sprouts.

A typical food sprout properly dug is somewhat cylindrical in shape, resembling
an ear of sweet corn in configuration. It has a small, rooted, woody basal part,
increasing in diameter upward for a short distance to a point, and is covered with Ian
enveloping sheath. Shoots should be dug when the tips are just emerging from the sur-
face of the soil or very soon thereafter. Tissues at the base become increasingly
woody as the shoots elongate after emergence.

To prepare the shoots for cooking: (a) remove the sheath covering, (b) cut ofl-
and discard tough basal part, (c) cut up tender middle and upper parts into thin slices
or according to recipe.

Bamboo sprouts are used with good results as an ingredient in mi:ny ordinary
dishes of various vegetables and meats. Sometimes they are served alone after hoiling
for about 20 minutes. Also, the most tender parts of non-bitter shoots can be used
raw in mixed salads.


(Stephen i'




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