Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: September 1975
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00113
Source Institution: University of Florida
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IFA
-- --:-\


September 8, 1975




Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


J. F. Kelly
Chairman


James Montelaro
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


J. R. Hicks
Assistant Professor


R. K. Showalter
Professor


G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: James M. Stephens, Extensio 7Vegetabe Specialist


VEGETARIAN NEWS EJR 75-9


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Tomato Growers Institute
B. Vegetable Section Program for FSHS Meetings
C. Results--1975 State Vegetable Judging, Grading and Identification
Contest
D. Results--1975 Horticultural Demonstrations
E. New Vegetable Crops Mimeo Available


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Black Rot Resistance in Cabbage Hybrids
B. Fertilizer and Lime Conversion Factors
C. Cultivation as a Weed Control Tool
D. Muskmelon Quality: What, When and How?

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Better Consumer Quality vs. Increased Costs

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Timely Gardening Topics
B. Know Your Vegetables Mung Bean


NOTE: Anyone
please


is free to use the information in this newsletter.
give credit to the authors.


Whenever possible,


COUPERATIVrL : XTENlION WVORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. LTATE OF FrLORIDA. IrAS, UNIVERSITY
OF 'LCiRIDA. CI P. Di PARTrM::NT Oi AC .l1CULETUPRI: A D C ,OARO3D OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS, COOPERATING


FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSIq ISiBICE
UNIVEI EITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SC:IE NES

VEGETABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT

,....iXL~~IA~~ I): ..... "'




#- -2-

THE VEGETARIAN NEWS I.E TER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Tomato Growers Institute

To save on mailing costs, the program for the Annual Tomato Growers Institute
is attached to this newsletter. Check the program. It includes a variety of topics
which should be of interest to anyone working in tomato production and marketing.
Put the date of September 24, 1975 on your calendar now and plan to attend the meeting.
(Montelaro)

B. Vegetable Section Program for FSHS Meetings

The program for the Vegetable Section of the Florida State Horticultural Society
Meetings to be held November 4-7, 1975 will feature 30 excellent papers. The subject
covers many phases of production and marketing of a number of vegetable crops. This
program is a must for growers, industry representatives and all others serving Florida
vegetable industry one way or another. We hope to see a record turnout for this year's
program.
CMpontelaro)

C. Results--1975 State Vegetable Judging, Grading and Identification Contest


Team Placings
(Total Possible Score 3081)


County
St. Johns
Marion
Polk
Volusia
Escambia
Orange
Martin
Broward


Score
2876
2800
2636
2512
2506
2472
2171
2129


Coach
Jim Dilbeck
Bob Renner
Tom Oswalt
Larry Loadholtz
Martin Weaver
Bruce Barmby
Bob Whitty
Linda Watermolen


(Stephens)


D. Results--1975 Horticultural Demonstrations


County
St. Johns

Lake
Marion
St. Johns
Walton

Broward
Suwannee

Pinellas
Indian River

Pinellas
B rcva rd
Hendry


Name
Sandy Brubaker
Kay Parker
Mike LaRoe
Bruce Hartwell
Keith Fuller
Martha Hollingsworth
Julie Thomson
Robert Griffin
Luther Atkinson

Beth Kemker
Sandy Gollnick
Renea Anderez
Brent Sutton
Matt Chaille
John Wooten
Bob Waters


Title of Demonstration
"Herb Fling"

"Terrariums"
"The Origin of Orchids"
"Vegetables in Containers"
"Terrariums"

"Composting"
"Growing Groceries in Unusual
Areas"
"Sand Terrariums"
"Let's Capture Gardening"

"Budding Citrus"
"Hydroponic Gardening"
"Native Plants of S. Florida"


Placing
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


Placing
1

2
3
4
5

6
7

8
9

10
11
12


Average
Score
96.8

94.2
91.6
91.0
89.6

89.0
88.0

85.4
84.0

83.8
82.4
82.0





iHE VEGETARIAN NEWS LFTTF.
Average
Placing County Name Title of Demonstration Score
13 St. Lucie Ava Schwerer "Using Citrus" 81.2
Kim Bolin
14 Madison Russell Williams "Terrariums" 79.0
15 Osceola Teresa Grathwol "Citrus Pests" 78.6
16 Taylor Robin Gardner "Potting Plants" 77.4
17 Dixie Shelly Futch "Hanging Baskets" 74.4
Shange Futch
18 Marion Martha Priest "Vegetable Gardening" 73.8
19 Broward Don Leddick "Judgjin Potatoes and Carrots" 71.6
20 Okaloosa Rosemary Prine "Successful Citrus" 66.6
Kathy Knoll
21 Wakulla Emory Whaley "Strawberry Barrel" 64.8
22 Manatee Alan Harris "Citrus Pulp" 59.8
Leslie Barr

Awards for Judging Event and Demonstrations

First Place--Trip to National Junior Horticultural Convention,
Biloxi, Mississippi, November 1-3, 1975.
(Stephens)

E. New Vegetable Crops Mimeo Available

"Know Your Vegetables", Extension Vegetable Crops Mimeo Report 75-2, is a compi-
lation of 44 of the "Know Your Vegetables" individual entries from past issues of the
Vegetarian. The mimeo is not available in bulk supply, but agents wishing a copy
should request from this office, 3026 McCarty Hall.
(Stephens)

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Black Rot Resistance in Cabbage Hybrids

Growers have long hoped for black rot resistance in cabbage. They were promised
just that recently when black rot resistance was found in the Japanese cabbage variety
'Early Fuji'. The work, done at the University of Wisconsin, was discussed in detail
by Dr. Williams at an International Cabbage Conference held in Sanford, Florida, a few
years ago. Breeders were invited at that meeting by Dr. Williams to select inbred
lines from his plots which they could use to develop black rot resistant cabbage hybrids

According to Dr. James Strandberg, Plant Pathologist, AREC, Sanford, the work
is being carried on in earnest by commercial and Experiment Station breeders. Some seec
companies have offered Experiment Station hybrids for testing reportedly resistant to
black rot. Dr. Strandberg, who conducts research on cabbage diseases, reports that
none, as yet, appear to be commercially acceptable. More will be forthcoming in the
near future. These will be tested as quickly as possible by research workers in IFAS.
Dr. Strandberg feels that it is only a matter of time before acceptable hybrids with
black rot resistance will be available to Florida growers.

In the meantime, cabbage growers must continue with their regular hybrids. Any
new developments will be called to their attention as soon as possible.
(Montelaro)




-4-
THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

B. Fertilizer and Lime Conversion Factors

Most of research scientists now report fertilizer nutrients in the elemental form
instead of oxides of elements. Potash is reported as potassium (K) and not potassium
oxide (K20) as in the past. All nutrients on fertilizer tags have been listed, his-
torically, in the oxide form except nitrogen (N). Even this will be changed within a
few years. During the transition, some may choose to report fertilizer nutrients both
ways. -

It is a simple matter to convert from one to the other. The table below gives
conversion factors for the more common fertilizer and lime materials. For instance, a
grower applying 100 Ibs/A of K20 is actually applying 82.97 Ibs/A of K. The calculation
is simple--K20 x factor (100 x .8297) equals 82.97 Ibs of K. The conversion factors
for the two timing materials, as footnoted at the bottom of the table, are conversions
relating neutralizing equivalencies. More detailed conversion tables are available in
various handbooks, but this will take care of most of the common ones needed.

Table for Conversion Factors for Common Fertilizer and Lime Materials


convert
r

t
It
T
i
"



T
I
TI
T


1T

I"
i

II


KCI to K70
KCl to C
NaCI to Cl
K20 to KC1
K2SO4 to K20
K20 to K2S04
P205 to P
P to P205
K20 to K
K to K20
MgSO4 to MgO0
'.gO to MgSO4
MgCO3 to CaCO3*
CaCO3 to MgTCO3*
CaCO3 to CaO
MgCO3 to 0gO
Mg0 to NtC03
N to NaN03
N to KNO3
NaNO3 to N
N to (N?4)2S04
(N4) 2S04 to N
SO3 to S
S to S03


multiply
I
Tl

II

TI
II
II
TI
II





11
IT


ft
I
II
II
IT


KC1
KCI
NaC1
K20
K2S04
K20
P205
P
K20
K
MgSO4
MgO
MgC03
CaCO3
CaC03
MgCO3
NgO
N
N
NaNO3
N
(NH4) 2SO4
S03
S


*Relates to neutralizing power.


0.6317
.1456
.6065
1.5830
.5405
1.8490
.4366
2.3217
.8297
1.2051
.3349
2.9806
1.1868
.8424
.5603
.4762
2.0915
6.0673
7.2176
.1647
4.7167
.2120
.4004
2.4975


(Montelaro)


C. Cultivation as a Weed Control Tool

Mechanical control of weeds is as old as agriculture itself. Before the advent
of organic and inorganic weed control chemicals, the hoe or cultivator was the sole
weed control agent. Various mechanical devices have been developed through the years
to ease the burden of labor and time required to control weeds. However, even today in
some areas of the world where hand labor is cheap and plentiful, it is used extensively
as the sole means of weed control.

Whatever the mechanical device used, the principle involved is to dislodge the
weeds and either smother them with soil or allow them to remain on the surface and dry




-5-

THE VEGETARIAN ,NEWSLETTER

out. With this in mind, one can readily see that the most effective control is obtained
when conditions are hot and dry and the weeds are small and succulent which permits
them to dry out readily.

Care must be exercised when using this method because crop damage can result if
improperly done. The major problem encountered is when cultivation is done too deeply
and too close to the crop plants. When done in this manner, crop roots can be cut
which results in reduced growth and which can lend to poor crop yield or delay in
maturity. Normally, cultivation should not be more than 1 or 2 inches deep and no closely
than 3 to 4 inches from the row of plants.

This then means thaL weeds close to or in the row can be a problem. With some
crops, growers usually use a sweep which "throws soil in the row." This smothers small
weeds in the row. However, it can be a disadvantage from the standpoint of soil disease!
in some crops.

Particularly hard-to-control perennial weeds such as nutsedge, bermuda grass and
johnsongrass can actually be spread around the field by cultivation increasing the weed
population. This is done by the tools themselves dragging parts of the plant around
the field. These and certain other weeds can produce new plants from pieces of roots,
rhizomes, tubers, stolons, etc., broken off from the mother plant. Thus, cultivating
implements should be cleaned off occasionally to prevent this from occurring, particular:
when moving out of areas of heavy weed infestation.

Some points to remember when considering cultivation as a weed control tool
are:

(1) Cultivate only deep enough to cut or dislodge the weeds. Deep cultivation
can injure crop roots.

(2) It is difficult to control weeds in the row with cultivation. In some crops
and under some conditions, throwing soil to the row can smother small newly emerging
weeds.

(3) Hot, dry weather is best for maximum weed kill.

(4) Plan a cultivation program to stay ahead of the weeds. Missing a cultivation:
coupled with wet weather when you can't get into the field can result in large vigorous
weeds. Control under these conditions can then be difficult.

(5) With no herbicide in the weed control program, weeds can be a problem after
lay-by. Usually late weeds offer a serious problem to harvesting of the crop.

(6) Hard-to-control perennial weeds can be spread around the field by the culti-
vating implements. Clean them periodically.

(7) A freshly-cultivated field can be more susceptible to radiation frost injury
than a non-cultivated field. The freshly worked layer forms a heat barrier which pre-
vents heat from the soil being transferred to the air at night.. This heat movement
under some conditions can be enough to give frost protection.
(Kostewicz)
D. Miskmelon Quality: What, When and How?

Commercial grower-shippers, local market producers and home gardeners are inter-
ested in producing high-quality muskmelons consistently. What are the major components
of muskmelon "quality"? What are some of the major cultural factors which modify these





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


characteristics? What can be done to insure a more consistent crop of high yielding,
high-quality muskmelons? Muskmelons are often referred to as cantaloupes, but this
is a misnomer. The true cantaloupe is a warty, rather unattractive relative of the
muskmelon.

The external characteristics of ripening in the muskmelon are quite well known.
The skin color usually changes from a dark green to a gray green to a yellow green as
maturity approaches. The stem-fruit attachment usually develops a separation scar as
the fruit ripens, known as the abscission or "slip" tissue. A botanically mature
muskmelon may actually "fall off the vine," but this degree of ripeness would be much
too ripe for good eating quality. Most melons are harvested when one-fourth to three-
fourths of the abscission or slip tissue is formed. The development of a surface net
and sutures varies with varieties and is seldom a valid indicator of maturity or quality

When the muskmelon fruit matures under normal conditions, the flesh and juice
sugar content increases, the aromatic flavoring compounds intensify, the flesh tissue
develops a deeper yellow-orange or salmon color, and the flesh begins to soften. The
melon can have soft tissue, good color, and high sugars yet be low in aromatic compounds
which result in poor flavor and quality.

The size and shape of the fruit are greatly influenced by the nitrogen nutrition
of the plant, plant population and adequacy of pollination. Close spacing generally
results in smaller, rounder fruits than wide spacing. Experiments have shown that
muskmelons grown in a medium range of soil nitrogen produced earlier, heavier and sweet
fruits than plants grown in low or very high soil nitrogen.

A well-shaped muskmelon usually contains about 550-600 seeds; if the seed count
falls below 400 seeds per fruit, one may expect a deformed melon. Seed development
depends on adequate pollination which in turn depends on adequate bee activity. Most
modern melon varieties produce approximately 500 male flowers, which produce only pollen
and approximately 50 perfect or hermaphroditic flowers which produce pollen and have
the pistil that develops into a fruit. The perfect flowers are larger, produce more
nectar throughout the day and are visited by bees longer than are the male flowers.
According to the late Dr. L. Mann, University of California, Davis, both kinds of
flowers produce about 8,000-12,000 pollen grains per flower. Flower opening and pollen
release are controlled mainly by temperature. Flowers open earlier on warm mornings,
later on cool mornings. The flowers are open for one day only and perfect flowers not
pollinated that day will drop from the plant.

The importance of honeybees for high yields of well-formed muskmelons is quite
apparent. It is usually noted that about 8-10% of the perfect flowers set fruit, but
it may surprise many growers to find that only about 0.77 to 2.10 melons per vine are
marketed.

Approximately 35-40 days after flower opening anthesiss), the pistil of a perfect
flower under normal growing conditions will have developed into a "half slip" mature
melon. Fruits harvested sooner than 20-25 days after anthesis generally will not ripen
properly. The full slip maturity point generally occurs 38-44 days after anthesis. The
melon continues to increase in size until it separates from the.vine at full slip.

Several days before full slip, the respiration rate of the fruit increases
rapidly, reaches its peak at full slip and then gradually declines for the following 4-1
days as it enters senescence. The senescent period is marked by maximum yellowing of
the flesh and external ground color of the rind, softening of the flesh and fungal deca>

The muskmelon fruit is very sensitive to its environment in the growing period
20-25 days after anthesis. It is during this period that sugars slowly increase,





THE VEGETARIAN NE.'WS l,'lThR

aromatic flavoring compounds are developed, and off-flavor substances may be initiated.
Ethylene and carbon dioxide steadily increase in the fruit during this period, and the
oxygen level slowly decreases.

It has been demonstrated that a wide variety of conditions may influence fruit
quality. Defoliation during this period due to foliar diseases, hail or mechanical
damage can rapidly reduce the quality potential. Leaf pruning experiments have shown
that 40-50% defoliation at anthesis reduced sugar development only 11% as compared to
the control. Defoliation of 40-50% two weeks after anthesis reduced sugar content 16%,
whereas defoliation 4 weeks after anthesis cut the sugar level 21%. Early pruning,
while the plant is growing vigorously, often hastens maturity without significantly
modifying yield and quality.

Melon quality can be altered by almost any factor which interrupts the production
and flow of sugars from the leaves and stems of the plant into the developing fruit.
Soil compaction reduces oxygen and water relations of the root which in turn modifies
sugar transport. Nematode injury, root pruning, stem girdling by insects, plugging
of the conducting tissue by pathogens (such as with gummy stem blight fungus) can
seriously modify fruit quality.

Reduction in the fruit sugar content of muskmelons due to heavy rain or irrigatic
as late as 7-9 days before full slip has been demonstrated. Cloudy, dark periods 8-10
days before full slip can result in poor sugar development, too. It is possible that
a drop in night temperature for several nights can be a contributing factor.

Until muskmelon varieties can be developed which are less sensitive to environ-
mental stress, we must enlist our most effective technology to produce high yielding,
high-quality melons. Full-bed mulch, trickle irrigation, a sound soil fertility
program, an effective disease, nematode and insect control progrnj- from planting to
harvest, an appropriate honeybee supply, and a fair shake from the weather man are some
of the key elements we might use.

The demand and price for good quality melons indicate that our efforts would be
justified.
(Marlowe)

III. ARWESTING AND HANDLING

A. Better Consumer Quality vs. Increased Costs

The average American family of 4 persons eats about 2.5 tons of food per year,
including 1,154 pounds of vegetables and 598 pounds of fruit according to the USDA.
This food supply is pictured in the May-June issue of the DuPont magazine along with
a similar photo taken in 1951. While the quantity consumed remained about the imue,
the variety, quality and labeling information improved and today's average food bill
is only 17% of disposable income vs. 23% in 1951 (25 years ago). With modern technology
the supermarket shelves remain well-stocked with as many as 5,000 items for today's 211
million consumers (60 million more than 25 years ago). However, rapidly increasing
retail food prices over the past couple of years have greatly increased public concern
about the level of food costs and supposedly enormous grower profits.

New consumer advocate groups have been formed with membership in the thousands,
and they are finding that part of the uproar is due to misunderstanding and tremendous
lack of knowledge surrounding the harvesting, grading, packaging, transportation,
wholesaling and retailing of fresh fruits and vegetables. For example, how do vegetable





THE VF(RTARIAN NEWSLETTER

get from producer to consumer? Many people may be familiar with the short, direct route
such as a roadside market. Few people are familiar with details of the long, indirect
route where produce passes from the grower to packer, shi'pecr, wholesaler and retailer
before it reaches the consumer.

Marketing charges for moving food from the farm to the consumer rose an extra-
ordinary amount in 1974. This was the principal cause of a 14% increase in retail prices
of foods from U. S. farms. Marketing charges for 1974 averaged 2:1:(, higher than in 1973,
and this increase was 3 times greater than any previous annual increase. Consunmrs
spent $154 billion for foods in 1974 and the returns to farmers amounted to only $54
billion. The marketing bill of $100 billion represents the charges for transporting,
handling, packaging and merchandising. Fuel, power and light costs went up 45,. and
packaging materials increased 23%. It is remarkal-ile that food is still a bargain in
the U. S. when based on higher costs for comparable items in other countries. Food
prices have increased 105% in Denmark and 95% in Ireland since 1963, cr-mpared with only
55% in the U. S.

Besides price, quality is the other determining factor in buying and selling vege-
tables. You hear buying brokers looking for quality at a discount price on truck loads
of tomatoes or sweet corn. The shopper in the supermarket is also looking for better
quality at a reasonable price and complains that industry is guilty of sacrificing taste
and texture in favor of cosmetic considerations or to facilitate shipping and merchand-
ising. The University of Florida, through our research and extension activities, has
stressed quality all the way from the breeding of a new variety to the consumer's T:llie.

At present, the University is having problems with industry acceptance of the
red-ripe tomato, 1N-1, and the high-sugar sweet corn, Florida Sweet. After the quality
advantages of these vegetables were described at a recent convention of supermarket
executives, it was pointed out that added production and handling costs would probably
require higher retail prices. A lady in the audience said, "The impression I get from
the speaker is that there is a demand for better tasting products and a willignnss to
pay the price for it. But is there sufficient market now for more expensive kinds of
produce when the trend has been to cheaper, hasn't it?" She received this reply from
the audience, "Yes, there is a market developing for this type of product, but to say
it is more expensive may not be right because the tomato she buys now may not be eaten
and she throws it out."

Another audience member: "In answer to that lady's question about there being a
market for more expensive produce, we currently sell 12% of our produce at an ave-rage
of 15% higher price than other chain stores in the area. People come here knowing they
are going to get the best quality and there is definitely a market for this."

Another comment from the audience: "This question is all about value. The con-
sumer is not going to emphasize price alone, but what is the value?"

Considerable demand has developed for red-ripe tomatoes marketed in Florida close
to the production area, but none is packed for that long indirect route to distant
markets. In the last few years, the Florida tomato industry has shifted away from vine
ripe harvests to less frequent picking of green fruit. If consumers are willing to
pay for better flavor, the trade needs to move in this direction. Florida growers
believe the price differential is insufficient to cover the added costs of production,
harvesting and packing vine ripes, or that you can't ship a tomato to New York and
expect it to be ripe and ready to eat. Many issues involving the fruit and vegetable
industry are extremely complicated and more information is needed to assist the transition
toward higher quality produce.
(Showalter)





THE E\ [E TARIAN :in'S1.ilTER

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENINGG

A. Timely Gardening Topics

These questions and answers are suggested for agents' use in developing periodic
(weekly) radio or newspaper briefs. They are based on letters of inquiry from Florida
gardeners.

(1) Timely Topic for week of September 14-20.

Question

What vegetables can I grow in small containers such as gallon cans?

Reply

Most any transplantable vegetable such as tanatoes, peppers, eggplant, lettuce,
cabbage, and collards can be started in gallon cans, but many of these should be trans-
ferred to larger containers for final growth. A container should be large enough to
hold the plant at maturity. Here are some quick c:ex:imples of iimtchin:; containers to
vegetables.

Pots, cans, milk jugs--chives, green onions, herbs, radishes, lettuce,
parsley, strawberries.
Concrete hollow blocks--bush beans, parsley, herbs, lettuce.
Plastic bags--depending on size, most all vegetables.
Bushel baskets and trash-cans--tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, cucumbers,
and smaller vegetables.
Barrels and drums--strawberries.

(2) Timely Topic for week of September 21-27.

Question

I have heard much about trickle irrigation for my garden, what are the advantages?

Reply
Trickle or drip irrigation is appealing to most right now due to its water conser-
vation aspects. Some estimates show crops can be raised with trickle on just 20% of
the water used by other means such as overhead sprinkling.

In addition to saving water, trickle has these good features: (1) plant tops
stay dry, reducing chance for disease; (2) dust and spray not washed off leaves; (3)
only the root zone of the plant is watered, thus weeds are not watered in the middles;
(4) one can work in a garden while it is being irrigated; (5) once installed, a trickle
systan is easy to operate; and (6) additives such as fertilizer are possible through a
trickle system.

(3) Timely Topic for week of September 28-October 4.

Question

I have heard recently about a new strawberry for Florida. What are the details?

Reply
The new strawberry, variety you probably heard about has 'een named Florida Belle.
It was developed by researchers at Dover, Florida, and was released for grower usage




-10-


THE VEGETARIAN NEW_ LETTER

this year. In many ways, Florida Belle may be better than the old standard varieties--
Florida 90 and Tioga. The new variety has good disease resistance, yields high and pro-
duces large, smooth, attractive deep red (sometimes white shouldered) sweet berries.
Obtaining plants may be the biggest problem gardeners will face with this new variety.
It is so new that not many plant nurseries and garden supply stores will have it this
fall.

(4) Timely Topic for week of October 5-11.

Question

What particular value do compost shredders offer home gardeners?

Reply

Machines called shredder-grinders offer a number of advantages to home vegetable
gardeners. They come in many shapes and sizes, and vary quite a bit in optional per-
formance capabilities. Probably the most popular use made by average gardeners is to
grind up organic materials such as leaves, straw, hedge clippings and fodder. The ground
material can then be used as mulch or compost. Many models are also capable of grinding
bones and soft rock for addition to compost piles. Some are used to mix potting soil.
There are even models which pick up leaves and loose vegetation from the soil surface,
grind it up and deposit the ground material into bags for storage or a multiple of
uses. While many are gasoline powered, others are electric and others turned by hand.

(Note to agents only--A partial list of shredder manufacturers is available from
Jim Stephens upon request.) (Stephens)

B. Know Your Vegetables Mung Bean

Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus R.), also called green gram, lutou, look dou, moyashi-
mame, is the principal crop from which edible bean sprouts are produced.

The 12 to 24 inch tall plants produce slender, 3 to 4 inch long, blackish pods
with very small brown seeds. The plants are grown as dry beans, thus are not especially
well adapted to Florida's humid climate. Those wishing to try the bean in the garden
should use the same cultural practices found successful with green bush beans, except
that pods should be left on the bush as long as needed for the beans to dry.

Most of the U. S. commercial mung bean production is centered in the Southwest,
with Oklahoma and Texas producing over 23 million pounds of the raw beans (few, if any,
exported). Add to this the 8 million pounds imported, and it can be estimated that
30 million pounds were available for sprout production. Since 1 pound of seed makes
roughly 6 pounds of sprouts, about 180 million pounds of sprouts (at 16 cents per pound,
total value of 30 million dollars) were produced in the U. S. in 1971.

The germinated seed yield bean sprouts, which is the main edible part. Sprouts
are germinated at 65 to 700F for 4 to 5 days in special germinating containers, with
seeds being wet every 4 to 5 hours.
(Stephens)




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