Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 1975
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00108
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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FLC .- I,--, (
UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF"


' (IT. .. .',L. i-... -' U PAi-;MEIIj r


Il .1.j
Ii -j -


I Ii


April 3, 1975






Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


J. F. Kelly
Chairman

S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


James Montelaro
Professor

J. R. Hicks
Assistant Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

R. K. Showalter
Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA


FROM: Stephen R. Kostewicz, Extension Vegetable Specialist


VEGETARIAN NEI0SLETTER 75-4


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. U. S. Now Entering Metric Age
B. "The Vegetarian Newsletter" How It Should Be Used

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODlUCTlION

A. Fertilizer Placement Effects on Stand and Growth of
Vegetables
B. lialloween Pumpkins

III. IH\RTSTING AND II1.NDIJNG

A. Watermelon Quality Factors

IV. 1VFTT\BLE GARPI:NTNC


Timely Gardening Topics
Know Your Vegetables Asparagus


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSiLN Wi)- RK IN ACRICULJTURtE AND -iOMIl ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS UNIVERSITY
OFi FLI EHDW, LI H- I T;.I T ,.C

IPER TIVi: EX.TENSIO-- SERVICE
OF FLORIDA
FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIoENCl tS


/4'ert^jr


~%tLe~;e





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER
I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. U. S. Now Entering Metric Age


The U. S. Department of Agriculture
may as well start learning about hectares,
will, eventually, take the place of acres,


is entering the metric age, and farmers
quintals, kilograms and kiloliters. They
bushels, pounds and gallons.


In issuing crop reports, the USDA has begun using metric units in addition
to the usual and familiar bushels, pounds, bales and acres. The wheat crop fore-
casts, for instance, were in metric tons in addition to bushels. Acreage for har-
vest was listed in hectares as well as acres.

Despite Congressional rejection of a bill to adopt the metric system this year,
the weight of evidence is that the U. S. is surely moving toward its adoption. Some
food products already are labeled in grams as well as ounces. Some types of bicycles
use metric measurements, the popular Schwinn for one. Ford obtor Company is build-
ing engines according to metric measurements. Imported cars are built on the metric
system.

The move to metrication is evident on road signs in Ohio, with distances
shown both in miles and kilometers. Metric measures are standard in the sciences
and in compounding prescriptions. Public schools in California and Maryland are con-
verting to metric measurements in textbooks. Within a couple of years, all California
science and math books will be solely metric.

Some conversions are going to be easier than others, it appears. A few will
be more difficult. But after the entire metric system is adopted, there will be few
problems since it is a decimal system based on units of 10, like our monetary system
when 10 cents equal a dime and 10 dimes equal a dollar.

From: The Harvester (FFVA) 11(2). 1975.

Rciiember that kilo means "times 1000", so that a kilometer is 1000 meters,
kilogram is 1000 grams; that centi means divided by 100, so that 1 centimeter is 1/100
of a meter; and the milli mea-nslivided by 1000, so that 1 millimeter is 1/1000 of
a meter.
Conversion Factors for English and tetric Units

To convert To convert
column 1 column 2
into column 2, into column 1,
multiply by Column 1 Column 2 multiply by
Length


kilometer, km
meter, m
centimeter, cm


kilmeter2
kilometer ,
kilometer2,
hectare, ha


meter3, m3
hectoliter,
hectoliter,
liter


km2
km2
(0.01


Area


km2)
Volume


mile, mi
yard, yd
inch, in.

,2 -2
mile mi
acre, acre
acre, acre


acre-inch
cubic foot, ft3
bushel, bu
quart (liquid), qt


1.609
0.914
2.540


2.590
0.00405
0.405


102.8
0.2832
0.352
0.946


0.621
1l.94
0.39a


0.386
247.1
2.471


0.00973
3.532
2.838
1.057




-3-
THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Conversion Factors for English and Metric Units (continued)


To convert To convert
column 1 column 2
into column 2, into column 1,
multiply by Column 1 Column 2 multiply by
Mass
1.102 ton (metric) ton (English) 0.9072
220.5 quintal, q pound, lb. 0.00454
2.205 kilogram, kg pound, lb. 0.454
Yield or Rate
0.446 ton (metric)/hectare ton (English)/acre 2.242
0.892 kg/ha lb/acre 1.121
0.892 quintal/hectare hundredweight/acre 1.121
Pressure
14.22 kg/cm2 lb/inch2, psi 0.0703
14.50 bar lb/in.2, psi 0.06895
0.9869 bar atmosphere, atm* 1.013
0.9678 kg/cm2 atmosphere, atm* 1.033
14.70 atmosphere, atm* lb/in.2, psi 0.06805
*An "atmosphere" may be specified in metric or English units.
Temperature
1.80C + 32 Celsius, C Fahrenheit, F 0.555(F-32)
Light
0.0929 lux foot-candle, ft-c 10.764

For familiarization, here are the metric equivalent production and hectarage
figures for the leading Florida vegetables for 1973-74.


Beans
Cabbage
Celery
Corn
Cucumbers
Eggplant
liscarole
I lettuce
Peppers
Potatoes
Radishes
Squash
Tomatoes
watermelons
strawberriess


Hectares
Planted Harvested
16,119 14,945
7,938 7,209
4,941 4,212
22,032 20,210
5,710 5,265
749 729
3,200 2,430
3,767 2,835
5,710 5,427
12,676 12,514
12,474 10,773
4,414 4,091
14,378 14,054
20,250 18,022
527 527


Units
Bu. (13.6 kilograms)
Crate (22.7 kilograms)
Crate (27.2 kilograms)
Crate (19 kilograms)
Bu. (21.8 kilograms)
Bu. (15 kilograms)
Crate (11.4 kilograms)
Quintals
Bu. (11.4 kilograms)
Quintals
Carton (5.2 kilograms)
Bu. (19 kilograms)
Carton (13.6 kilograms)
Quintals
Flat (4.7 kilograms)


Yield per
hectare
252
1,186
1,584
586
571
1,589
1,275
185
1,169
201
796
358
1,638
168
3,264


Units sold
(x 1000)
3,757
8,544
6,665
11,845
3,006
1,158
3,096
524
6,336
2,512
8,556
1,463
23,020
3,030
1,717


*If we were to convert to the old British non-metric pounds, shillings and pence,
sold on the metric system--even if not yet ready to use it.


Dollar*
value
(millions)
20.7
17.6
21.3
37.7
14.6
4.2
7.0
7.8
31.0
42.7
11.4
8.5
121.3
21.9
6.7

you'd be


(Kelly)





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

B. "The Vegetarian Newsletter" How It Should Be Used

Frequently, we see costly crop failures in vegetable production which could
have been prevented if the grower had the necessary information at his disposal.
This type of information often can be found in the Vegetarian Newsletter issued
monthly by this department. In it, we attempt to keep extension agents working
in vegetables up-to-date on field day announcements, availability of recently
revised publications, modifications in production and handling practices for com-
mercial growers and general recommendations for vegetable gardening. All extension
agents working with vegetables, be it commercial production or gardening, should
find valuable information in almost every issue.

In planning the format of the monthly newsletter for vegetables, the special-
ists hoped county extension agents would make the best possible use of the informa-
tion. Here are some suggestions we feel might help accomplish this:

(1) Upon receipt of each issue monthly, all agents working in commercial
production or home gardening of vegetables should read it thoroughly.

(2) Decide which articles fit into your programs, the target clientele and
how they are to be used (radio, TV, newspaper, letter, grower meetings, etc.).

(3) Mark the date on your calendar when you plan to use information in the
article. At the designated time, get the information to growers by appropriate means.

(4) File the newsletter for future reference and upon receipt of the annual
index in July, hind the previous twelve issues (July through June) in a permanent
folder.

As an example, check the article in this issue on "Fertilizer Placement Effects
on Stand and Growth of Vegetables." The information in this article pertains to all
vegetable crops. Just prior to planting time, see that your vegetable growers are
reminded of the dangers of improper placement of fertilizer. If by calling it to
their attention it keeps one or two growers From making a costly mistake, your efforts
will be worthwhile.
(Montelaro)

II. COMMERCIAL VEGET'IBLE PRODUCTION

A. Fertilizer Placement Effects on Stand and Growth of Vegetables

Within the past few days, the writer visited four vegetable fields in North
Florida where improper fertilizer placement resulted in poor germination and loss of
seedlings. In all cases, growers had placed excessive amounts of fertilizer directly
beneath the seed. These four farms involved about 500 acres of watermelons and
snap beans. Probably, many hundreds of acres more are affected each year which are
not called to our attention. We estimate cost of reworking the land to redistribute
fertilizer and reseeding at $25.00 for watermelons and $90.00 for beans per acre.
This cost does not take into consideration the fact that prices received for later
crops are generally lower than those for early crops.

In each of the four cases in question, the growers recognized their mistake
readily and probably will not repeat it in the near future. The tragedy is that it
had to happen in the first place. The problem of fertilizer burn to seedlings can be
avoided completely (except under plastic mulch). To do so simply involves not placing





THE TVGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


"significant amounts" of soluble fertilizer directly beneath, with or above the
seed drill. This recommendation holds for transplants as well. The only exception
is the use of 10 to 20 pounds of superphosphate in the drill row to supply seedlings
with phosphorus in cold soils.

How much soluble fertilizer is a "significant amount"? As little as 100
pounds of 5-10-10 in the seed drill may hinder germination of snap beans. To be
on the safe side, the fertilizer used at planting should be banded or broadcast
depending on the amount used and crop to be grown. Bands should be no closer than 3
inch's to each side of drill row. For production of watermelons, a modified broad-
cast application of fertilizer is recommended. About one-third to one-half is broad-
cast and mixed in the center third or half of the row. The rest of the fertilizer
should be applied at the edges of the bed three to four weeks later. Many growers
are broadcasting part of the fertilizer and banding the balance with good success
for many vegetable crops.

Growers should be reminded continually of the hazards of improper placement
of fertilizer. When any doubts exist, they should be advised to broadcast and mix
the fertilizer in the top 4 to 6 inches of soil.
(Montelaro)

B. Halloween Pumpkins

Halloween pumpkins are a specialty crop which has potential for Florida growers
in areas near population centers. Each year during October, this commodity is
shipped in from other areas of the country to be sold at local stands and produce
outlets. Frequently, the pumpkins for one reason or another are of relatively poor
quality because of disease blemishes or poor handling practices (scars, punctures,
etc.). We have on occasion received inquiries from people concerning sources of
pumpkins which are of better quality for their sales outlets. A local source would
offer both consumer and producer an opportunity to benefit.

The terminology or nomenclature of cucurbits is confused and there are several
methods or systems for classification. For example, what are commonly called pump-
kins, while belonging to the genus Cucurbita, are spread across several species.
IWhat leads to the confusion is that for a given genus and species, one may find not
only "pumpkins" but also "summer" squash and/or "winter" squash. A recent Vegetarian
(73-6) article dealt with cucurbit classifications in some detail and interested
readers are urged to refer to it.

For the most part, cultural recommendations for squash can be followed for
pumpkins, but there are some differences that should be considered. Some of the
principle production guidelines to follow are:

(1) Timin- of Planting Most pumpkin varieties require 100 to 120 days from
sceding to harvest, but this will depend on the variety selected. Back-calculating
from H.llowcn, one finds that pumpkins for that target date should be planted no
later than the first :wek" in July for a 120-day variety.

(2) Variety Selection Most varieties have been developed or selected in
the more northerly sections of the country. The pest problems and pressures in
those areas are drastically different from ours and some nimpnkin varieties have not
been successfully grown in Florida. Based on research and grower experience,
interested growers may want to look at the following varieties.




- U-


THE VEGETARIAN Ni. ISLETTER

Largo Types
Generally average over 12 inches in diameter and weigh 20-25+
pounds and have fewer disease problems than smaller types.

Connecticut Field (sometimes called Big Tom) yellowish orange
Big Max deep orange color
Mammoth (Mammoth King, King of Mammoth, etc.) slightly lighter
orange color than Big Max, but produces large numbers of
fruit

Small Types
Smaller than above and generally shorter days to maturity (90-110
days). Diseases tend to be more of a problem.

Spookie deep orange, 6-8 pounds, deep globe shape
Jack-O-Lantern bright orange, 10-12 pounds, blocky shaped
Cinderella bright orange, 7-8 pounds
Small Sugar deep orange, 6-8 pounds, round flattened at ends

(3) Fertilization A basic application of 1000 pounds of a 6-8-8 fertilizer
on unirrigated mineral soils can be used. Because production is during our normally
rainy season, supplemental fertilizer may have to be put out after heavy rains to
keep the plants growing.

(4) Spacing Pumpkins produce a good deal of vine and foliage. A good rule
of thumb is to provide about 50 square feet of area per hill. Thus, a row spacing of
8 feet and an in-the-row spacing of 6 feet between hills would be a good starting
point. Two to three seeds can be placed in the hill.

(5) Disease Control Downy mildew has proven to be the most limiting factor
to production during the humid sulmmner months. An effective spray program is a require-
ment if success is to be achieved. Many materials can do the job if used and applied
properly. Most of the materials cleared for downy mildew control on squash can be
used on pumpkins, but be sure to check the labels before using.

(6) Other Cultural Practices, Insecticides, Herbicides and Bee Pollination -
This information can be obtained from the recommendations in the "Squash Production
Guide" (Extension Circular 103C). (Ko
(Kostewicz)

III. IHRVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Watermelon Quality Factors

Florida, the leading watermelon producing state, has started harvesting the
1975 crop with prices at 10 cents per pound. Watermelons have been among the most
important vegetables grown in Florida with annual values of 22 to 24 million dollars
in recent years. However, per capital consumption has declined steadily (19% since
1950), and the watermelon industry is interested in what can be done to improve
handling, marketing and consumer demand.

Significant increases in yield of high-quality melons have resulted from
grower use of research aimed at better production methods. However, during harvest
and marketing, watermelons are still handled individually and without the protection
of a container. Mechanized handling and packaging techniques have been developed




-I-


THE I-GETARIAN N n.WSIETTPR

for many fruits and vegetables, but any resistance to watermelon breakage must come
from the melon itself. Watermelons may be classified as having good or poor shipping
qualities on the basis of rind thickness or touglmuess. 'Charleston Gray', the
predominant shipping variety, has a thinner rind than the round 'Cannonball' and
thus a higher proportion of edible flesh. The rinds of 'Charleston Gray' melons are
somewhat flexible and resistant to cracking, but internal bruising of the flesh
from rough handling is one of the most serious problems in maintaining quality after
harvest.

Rinds on the blossom ends of 'Charleston Gray' and 'Congo' melons are much
thinner than on the sides and stem end; therefore, greater care should be exercised
in handling to avoid pressure or impacts in the thin rind area. When watermelons
are dropped as little as 8 inches, severe internal damage results, even in immature
melons or those with thick rinds, and yet there may be no external evidence of
damage. Many internally bruised melons reach the consumer, and disappointment from
their pu rchase usually leads to buying fewer watermelons. Cartons with 2 to 5 melons
and pallet bins with 1,000 pound capacity have been evaluated to some extent for
Florida shipments, but extra costs have limited their use.

Handling problems and grade standards were principal discussion topics at
the recent, annual convention of the National Watermelon Growers and Distributors
Association in Orlando, March 3-5. A marketing research and development committee
headed by John D. Stiles, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
surveyed watermelon receivers this year to determine some of the watermelon charac-
teristics they preferred to buy. The response was:
Preferred size

18 24 pounds 50%
25 30 pounds 31%
Over 30 pounds 15%

Preferred rind color

Gray 35% Light green 15%
Strip 23% Dark green 120

Preferred seed color

Dark 77% No difference 23%

The 'Charleston Gray' is noted for its gray rind and dark red flesh with
high sugar content. For any variety to have good eating quality, the flesh must be
firm, crisp, juicy and sweet. These quality factors are not found in immature or
over-mature melons. Watermelons harvested when the flesh is pale red will develop
a good red color after harvest, but total sugars do not increase after removal from
the vine. It is very difficult for a shopper to judge the maturity and internal
quality of an uncut watermelon, and retailers have found increased sales by dis-
playing cut sections so that the eating quality is more apparent. Stores indicate
that 75% of watermelon sales are cut rather than whole melons. Seed color is a
varietal characteristic and dark-colored seeds are not an indication of eating
quality as has been reported in some produce buying guides.

Growers and shippers in Florida and other southern states have discontinued
grading melons according to the U. S. Standards before shipment and are not concerned
about receivers using the maturity requirements of the Grade Standards to reject





T11FE Vl'T;ET;ARIAN NEWSLETTERR


poor-quality melons. The grade requirements for mature melons are based on sub-
jective estimates of sweetness and color. The Growers and Distributors Association
would like to base maturity on percent soluble solids. However, sufficient infor-
mation must first be obtained on existing levels at various locations.

The Association adopted resolutions at their Orlando meeting to encourage
research and seek solutions such as: "Whereas, there is a continuing problem of
poor-quality watermelons in the nation's marketplace, which has a depressing effect
on the industry,.....

'Whereas, there has been a decline in per capital consumption of watermelons
in recent years,.....

Therefore, be it resolved that the National Watermelon Growers and Distributors
Association:

(1) Encourage the development of the industry with programs to control the
quality of watermelons moving into channels of trade and work for market expansion
programs.

(2) Encourage watermelon breeding programs to develop varieties which have
shipping qualities, size, eating qualities and insect and disease resistance.

(3) Request that the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences continue research to improve and maintain postharvest
quality of watenrmelons which will benefit both the domestic and export trade."
(Showalter)

IV. V\i-'.TA'IE GARDENING

A. Timely Gardening Topics

lliese questions and answers are provided for your use in developing periodic
(weekly) radio or nei-.spaper briefs. .They are based on letters of inquiry received
from Florida gardeners.

(1) Timely Topic for week of April 13-19.

OLues tion

W\'h do some seed companies charge more than others for the same kind of
garden voe:ctable seed?

Reply

A look at the listings of sweet corn seed in three seed company catalogs shows
the following range in prices: $2.25 per pound from company X; $2.50 per pound from
company Y; and $3.65 per pound from company Z. Since all of the three seed companies
are reputable, the quality of the seed would in all likelihood be equal. Certifica-
tion seed laws dictate certain quality standards, such as germination limits, to
which each company must adhere. Prices vary due to several factors, such as: (1)
supply and demand as perceived by each company; (2) efficiency in production and
sales of the seed; and (3) amount of profit demanded by each company. A consumer
should certainly shop around for savings on cost of seeds for home gardens, but be
sure to compare only seeds for the same variety of any one vegetable. Seeds of
lhybrid and scarce varieties generally cost more.





'TE IATETARIAN NEWSLETTER

(2) Timely Topic for week of April 20-26.

ues tion

Should I use the liquid or the granular form of Nemagon for my home vegetable
garden?

Reply

Where fresh material is obtained and applied properly soon after purchase,
good 1re-ults can be obtained with both forms of the nematicide. The granular formu-
lation is perhaps easier to apply for most gardeners, but it can lose its effective-
ness if not properly used. It must be placed into a 6-inch deep furrow and covered
quickly for maximum effectiveness. Application to the soil surface and followed by
watering to move it into the soil is not a good practice. Avoid prolonged storage,
as the granules lose their strength. Buy fresh material and apply soon thereafter.

(3) Timely Topic for week of April 27-May 3.

Question

What is the difference between the "dry" sweet potatoes and the "moist" sweet
potatoes?

Reply

Sweet potato varieties are often designated "dry-flesh" or "moist-flesh"
according to the feel sensation in the mouth while eating the cooked or baked sweet
potatoes. The terms do not refer to the percentages or proportions of water in
the roots of the two types. Studies have shown that the moisture content of freshly
harvested roots of a dry-flesh variety such as 'Big Stem Jersey' is often higher
than that of roots of a moist-flesh variety such as 'Porto Rico' produced similarly.
Varieties that convert most of their starch to sugars are referred to in the trade
as moist-flesh or "yam" types; those that are firmer and not so sweet are referred
to as dry-flesh. Some varieties are intermediate.

(4) Timely Topic for week of May 4-10.

Oluestion

What can I do to my Brussels sprouts to get them to form nice big round sprout'?



Be sure to plant in September, October and November, so that the sprouts are
maturing in the coolest part of the year. Even then, Brussels sprouts in Florida
grow only fairly well. The plant grows and looks fine, except that the sprouts
develop small. The problem involves weather that is too mild. A longer period of
time of cooler weather than is normal throughout the state is required for good sprout
production.

Pinching out the growing tip in early winter has been suggested as a way to
make the sprouts mature more evenly; however, while this may be tried, climatic
influence prevails to such an extent that plump sprouts are seldom produced in most
gardens.




_L


TIE 1E'lTARIAN NEWSLETTER

(5) Timely Topic for week of May 11-17.

Oh est ion

I always put my left-over garden seeds in the freezer for storage. No pro-
blems so far. Am I doing right?

Reply

Most garden vegetable seeds may be stored at below freezing temperatures (such
as in the free-_eri), but such storage is generally no better than in the refrigerator.
In any case, humidity or moisture content of the seeds must be low (10-14%). Storage
at room temperature is possible, but if so, moisture content of seeds should be even
lower (5 to 10%) for best results. Since moisture content of the seeds is related
to the relative humidity of the storage container, one must store in air at around
50% relative humidity for best results or in an air-tight container at 50% R. 11.
In moist air (80% R. H.), seeds usually will exceed 14% moisture content and will
lose viability rapidly.
(Stephens)
B. Know Your Veetables Asparagus

Asparagus asparaguss officinalis) is also known in colloquial terms as spara-
grass, sparrowgrass, and amon' larger growers of the crop, just "grass". While
not well adaptc-d to Florida, it is an important commercial and garden crop through-
out many i.'r1ts of the IT. S. Four states--California, New Jersey, Washington and
r-Is1: cl1ih:-tts--grow over 90 percent of the asparagus shipped to fresh markets in the
U. S.

Aspara.'T:us plants are perennials. The underground portion consists of stems
or rbi.-nie:,e, and the edible aerial stems (spears) grow upward from them. Young
"crowns" consisting of roots and rhizomes are grown from seed and planted in beds,
and under best conditions (not in Florida) remain productive for 30 years or more.
The tender succulent aerial stems, resembling ferns, are cut back while the spears
are emerging in the spring for 2 or.3 months; then, the greenery is allowed to grow
to nourish the undcrgroiund part for the following year's crop. Asparagus has both
male and female plants. The female plants have the little red seed bearing fruits.

Asparagus varieties are of two types, based on the color of the spears. The
more important group produces dark-green sprouts when grown in sunlight and includes
'Ma.ry u'.'lshiton', 'Martha Washington', 'Reading Giant' and 'Palmetto'. The less
important group, which includes such varieties as 'Conover's Colossal' and 'Mammoth
White', produces light-green or whitish spears.

\As;'rai-:us is not well adapted to Florida due to our environment (mainly
temperature). For good asparagus spear production, a dormant period is required.
Such dormancy is usually brought about by cold weather or drought. Since Florida
has neither, growth is more or less continuous resulting in weak, spindly spears.

For those gardeners who might wish to try asparagus, secure one or two-year
old crowns or plants for setting out in the spring, or plant the seed. Plant seeds
three-fourths to one inch deep, and about 4 inches apart in 6-inch deep furrows
spaced 5 feet apart. Fill the furrow as you cultivate, until a level bed is obtained.
Seed take about 2 to 6 weeks to germinate. If crowns are used, set them 6 to 8 incl
deep and 12 inches apart. Fertilize at planting time with 6 to 8 pounds of 10-10-10.
Use manure if available at a rate of 15 to 25 pounds per 100 square feet of row.
Generally, established asparagus tolerates salty soils better than most other
v eg tb1l es. (Stephens)




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