Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00100
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: August 1974
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00100
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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'.-:ET.-LLE :Fiii"; iiEPARPTMENT

i L L k .IL.

August 5, 1974

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

J. F. Kelly

S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor

James Montelaro

J. R. Hicks
Assistant Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

R. K. Showalter


FROM: James M. Stephens, Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist




Phosphorus Use on Muckland Vegetables
Destruction of Crop and Weed Residues Before
Quality Seed--First Step to Success
Broadcast Versus Banded Herbicide Applications


A. Lettuce


Vegetables Suggested for North
Timely Gardening Topics
Know Your Vegetables Garlic

NOTE: Anyone is

Florida Gardens

free to use the information in this newsletter.
please give credit to the authors.



7i*~ ii




A. Phosphorus Use on Muckland Vegetables

Vegetable growers in Florida are faced with skyrocketing costs for
seed, fuel, pesticides, fertilizer, etc. They realize now more than ever that
they must effect every savings possible in production costs if they are to
survive this period of inflation. Over the past year or so, this newsletter
has suggested ways in which growers might trim fertilizer costs. Considerable
emphasis has been placed on the efficient use of phosphorus which we feel
has been grossly overused for many years. This article summarizes timely
research work on the use of phosphorus on muck soils. The information can be
used as a basis for determining most economical rates of phosphorus to use for
vegetable crops to be grown on the muck soils in the coming season.

On muck soils considered to be low
in residual phosphorus, Dr. Howard Burdine
rates and placement of phosphorus on sweet
in the following table.

(2 Ibs./A of water soluble P205)
at the AREC, Belle Glade, tested
corn. His results are summarized

Effects of phosphorus source, placement, and rate on
yields and ear size of sweet corn

Ear Ear Ear Unfilled
Treatment Yield(l) weight(2) length diameter(3) tip
grams cm cm cm
160 pounds P205
broadcast as 47% 304 195 20.0 4.4 1.4
160 pounds P205
banded as 10-34-0 304 197 20.2 4.4 1.6
120 pounds P205
banded as 10-34-0 311 199 20.3 4.5 1.7
80 pounds P205
banded as 10-34-0 306 199 20.1 4.5 1.5
40 pounds Po05
banded as 10-34-0 294 190 20.5 4.4 2.0
No phosphorus
applied 204 172 20.8 4.2 3.0

Estimated yield (5-dozen crates/acre).
Average husked marketable ear weight.
Measured at base of ear.

There were no significant differences among the first four treatments
shown in the table. The fifth treatment (40 Ibs. P205 banded) was slightly lower
in yield, but ears produced were small and probably of less desirable overall
appearance. Dr. Burdine feels that the threshold level might be slightly lower
than the banded 80 Ibs. P205 treatment. He also observed that the high P205
treatments reduced the uptake of copper and zinc. He concluded from this study
that the amount of phosphorus for sweet corn on the Everglades muck soils can
be decreased by using proper placement techniques.


In another study on Zellwood muck soil, Dr. Richard Forbes of AREC,
Sanford, noted that the best treatment for cabbage was 0 nitrogen, 80 lbs. P205
and 120 lbs. K20 per acre. Here again not more than 80 lbs. of P205 was

Growers should take every measure possible to reduce fertilizer to lowest
possible rates consistent with economical returns. Soil samples should be taken
and the amount of fertilizer applied adjusted according to the residual levels
found in the tests. In the past, we have recommended 120 lbs. of P205 as a
guideline to phosphorus rates for sweet corn on muck soils. These rltes can be
reduced by 1/3 to 2/3 for medium and high levels, respectively, of residue
phosphorus shown in a soil test This same principle can be applied to other
crops in a general way. The redriced level of P205 should be placed in a band in
close proximity to the seed drill for best results, especially in co'd weather.

B. Destruction of Crop and Weed Residues Before Planting

Abandoned fields from spring crops overgrown with weeds can present
serious problems for subsequent crops if they are not turned under in time to
permit almost complete decay of all plant residues. Coarse plant materials can
interfere with fumigation, precision seeding and laying of plastic. Even if it
is not coarse enough to interfere with certain cultural practices, undecayed
plant material can cause serious problems with diseases, insects and nematodes
in subsequent crops.

One of the most common problems encountered by vegetable growers is
Rhizoctonia damp-off disease of seedlings where a crop is planted immediately
following the turning of green plant materials. Many of the diseases of the
previous crop can be transmitted to subsequent crops from inoculants carried
over in the abandoned crop.

From the standpoint of facilitating cultural operations and reducing
the hazards of diseases, insects and nematodes, early crop destruction is highly
recommended to vegetable growers. Without necessarily increasing the cost of
land preparation, timely destruction of crop and weed residues can pay dividends
in subsequent crops by eliminating or, at least, lessening the hazards of many
problems often encountered in vegetable production.

C. Quality Seed--First Step to Success

The single most important and least expensive factor in determining the
yield and quality of a crop is the seed. This is not intended to imply that
fertilization, pest control, irrigation and handling can be neglected even when
high-quality seed of the appropriate variety is employed.

In most cases, seed problems can be avoided by purchasing seed of
recommended varieties from reputable seed companies. If the local seed dealer
is not accustomed to dealing with vegetable seeds and is not supplied by a
reliable vegetable seed house, the grower should go elsewhere. I visited a



grower recently who asked his dealer for seed of a long green slicing cucumber.
The dealer gave him seed of 'Long Green Black Spine', a pickling cucumber
specifically for home gardeners and not recommended for Florida.

The buyer of seed must, therefore, be able to specify precisely what
variety or cultivar he wants. He should not accept substitutes unless other
seed sources have been checked. 'California Wonder' pepper is no substitute
for 'Early Calwonder', for example.

Most commercial seed lots are true to type, that is, they are of the
variety or cultivar specified. Occasionally, seed lots become mixed up and
certain lots are not of the variety or strain labeled--more about what to do
about these situations later. The way a plant looks, grows or tastes is called
the phenotype. It is an expression of the genetic makeup (the genotype) under
a particular set of environmental conditions. Many varieties are selected
because of their ability to produce a given phenotype under a broad range of
conditions--perhaps due to presence of several disease resistance genes or
other factors. Some varieties have been developed for particular conditions--
e.g. numerous vegetables are selected for their performance on muck soils.
These varieties cannot be expected to produce the desired phenotype under other
conditions. Even the most widely adapted varieties, planted at the proper time
and handled according to recommended procedures, are often subjected to weather
conditions which bring about atypical phenotypic expression.

Disease-free seed is essential, particularly for certain crops subject
to seed-borne viruses and bacteria. In most cases, these diseases cannot be
eliminated once introduced. Vegetable growers should in no case attempt to
save their own seed. Disease-free seed comes from isolated fields, often in
the Intermountain West, carefully handled from planting through harvest.

Seed treatment to overcome soil-borne diseases and insects is usually
performed by the seedsman. It often spells the difference between a good
stand and no stand.

Viable or living seed is essential and is generally guaranteed by
current germination test as required by state law (Florida Seed Law, Chapter
578 Copy available from Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services,
Tallahassee). In addition to viability, good seed must have high vigor, the
strength to emerge and develop a healthy seedling after sprouting. Most fresh
seed, properly stored and handled, will have sufficient viability and vigor to
produce a crop. However, certain vegetable seeds are subject to rapid
deterioration under poor storage conditions (which may occur after the required
germination test). Many vegetable seeds can now be purchased in hermetically-
sealed cans. If a grower is uncertain of the storage conditions used by his
dealer, he should specify sealed cans or should deal with a supplier using con-
trolled storage conditions. Leftover seed of many crops can be stored by
repackaging in plastic bags and refrigerating. Moisture is the worst enemy of
seed, followed by high temperatures.

Rarely does one get vegetable seed which is not clean, that is, free of
weed seeds (regulated by law) and trash. Weed seeds, of course, increase the
weed problem, and trash can interfere with proper seeding rates.


What does one do when he suspects his seed is of poor quality or is
not true to type. First, contact the seed dealer. If there is agreement and
there is still time to replant, a replacement seed supply can often solve the
problem. Often, however, the seed dealer chooses to refer the problem to
the seedsman. Seedsmen are by and large very fair and fully aware of problems
which arise due to their fault--they may also be in a position to point out
that the grower has done something (e.g. fertilizer too close to the seed)
to injure the seed. Most complaints about seed quality can and should be
settled at this level. When this fails, the grower may present his case to
the Florida Seed Arbitration Council. The grower must register his complaint
(accompanied by $10.00, refundable following the resultant hearing) in
Tallahassee within ten days of the time he first observed his problem. A
copy of the complaint must also be sent to the seed dealer by registered mail.
He should have the field or crop inspected by a third party, and all records
(seed source, lot no., photographs, crop records, etc.) should be retained.
It is not essential to be represented by an attorney at the arbitration council.
Any claims made by a grower should be realistic. Most growers and seedsmen
accept the non-binding rulings of the council. Small claims should not
generally be brought to arbitration because of their expense (time, travel,
attorneys when used, etc.).

Every effort should be made to avoid settlement of seed cases through
the courts.

D. Broadcast Versus Banded Herbicide Applications

Herbicides can be applied to the soil in several ways. Many growers
recognize that there is a distinct difference among the methods in the amount
of material needed. The methods most frequently used are broadcast and band

Florida recommendations are given in pounds of active ingredient per acre
on a broadcast basis. Broadcast application refers to a complete coverage or
spraying of the crop area (in rows and between rows). A band application of
herbicide refers to placing a swath of herbicide spray or granules in a
restricted area with untreated areas between treated areas. Examples of this
would be spraying the bed surface but not between beds or water furrow area
(middles), spraying a limited area on either side of a crop row or spraying the
"shoulder" area of a full-bed mulch cover crop.

In these cases, the crop area (row and between rows) is not fully covered
so that the amount of herbicide material used compared to the broadcast method
is less. If only 1/3 of the area is sprayed, then the recommended rate which
is on a broadcast basis for a sprayed acre will cover three acres instead of

The first impression is that band applications would save money by allow-
ing less material to cover more area. One must consider, however, that weeds
will grow in the untreated area and some means (cultivation) will be required to
control them. The energy shortage has dictated that unnecessary trips in the


field be eliminated. Thus, it may prove to be more economical to broadcast-
treat the area (especially in open culture situations), thereby reducing the
number of cultivars required.


A. Lettuce

Lettuce is one of the more perishable commodities--particularly if
not handled properly. Temperature and relative humidity are important factors
in handling and transporting most fresh vegetables, but for lettuce they are
critical. This crop has a large surface to volume ratio, which makes it very
vulnerable to water loss and wilting if the relative humidity is not maintained
at 95% or above. It can be held twice as long at 320 F as at 380 F, but the
freezing point is 31.70 F--which means that 320 F is the absolute minimum and
perhaps 33-340 F would be safer and more practical.

There are a number of other problems associated with the postharvest
handling of lettuce. It is susceptible to attack by a number of pathogens
(including soft rot) and yet there are no suitable decay control treatments
available. Chlorine, which is widely used for decay control of vegetables,
should not be used on lettuce. It is effective against decay organisms, but
reacts with the lettuce and the treatment may be worse than the problem.

Another potential problem that should be kept in mind when storing or
shipping lettuce is a physiological one. All fresh fruits and vegetables
respire, which means they utilize oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. Lettuce
is sensitive to carbon dioxide which may accumulate to toxic levels during
long shipment in the newer, tighter trucks and rail cars. The level which
will produce damage depends upon a number of factors including variety, maturity,
oxygen level, time exposed and temperature. Ethylene may also cause problems
if lettuce is stored or shipped with a commodity which produces high levels
of this volatile.

The best method of maintaining quality and freshness is by careful
handling and accurate temperature control. Bruising provides free moisture
and points of entry for decay organisms. Both bruising and decay increase the
rate of respiration which increases the utilization of oxygen and the production
of carbon dioxide. One of the reasons that adequate precooling is so critical
is because quick cooling means a quick reduction in the respiration rate, growth
of decay organisms and transpiration (see Vegetarian 72-1 and 72-3). Since
the respiration rate is greatly reduced by cooler temperatures, the chances of
carbon dioxide build-up and oxygen depletion are reduced. Without chemicals to
protect against postharvest decay, temperature control is the primary safeguard
against bacterial soft rot and other pathogens.

An Illustrated Guide to the Identification of Some Market Disorders of
Head Lettuce Marketing Research Report No. 950, by ARS, USDA, describes
(with color photos) a number of problems which may be encountered during storage
or transport of lettuce. We have a limited supply of these reports which we
will be happy to share--as lonq as they last.



A. Vegetables Suggested for North Florida Gardens


Most vegetables have a peak period of the year where optimum growth
and least pests combine to produce the best crop possible. This peak period
varies with each vegetable. However, to obtain maximum year-round production
from a garden plot, vegetables must be grown outside of, as well as during,
these peak periods.

Here are lists of vegetables grouped according to season when they might
be planted for satisfactory results under average conditions in North Florida.

Keep in mind that severe cold weather, which occasionally occurs in
North Florida, could injure or kill some of the vegetables listed for the winter
garden; also, vegetables planted in the summer require more care than usual due
to greater abundance of problems related to hot, humid weather (such as insects,
diseases, weeds, nematodes and physiological). Quality, as well as yields, may
be reduced in the summer.

Selecting the Crops

Plant vegetables in your garden that are liked by your family and will
grow in your area. This list may be limited by the size of the garden space.
The size will not only limit the number of kinds of vegetables that may be grown,
but it also limits the choice of these kinds. Large-growing crops in a small
garden limit the number of kinds that can be planted.

If some of the garden produce is to be frozen, make certain that you
select varieties adaptable for freezing. Also, choose varieties recommended
for your area. The Florida Vegetable Garden Production Guide lists recommended

Make a Plan

It is a good idea to make a plan of the garden. Obtain seed catalogs
and variety recommendations and then plan the garden on paper. The plan should
include the kind of vegetables to be planted, distance between rows, distance
between plants, and time of planting. This and other useful information are
included in the Florida Vegetable Garden Production Guide. The plan is of utmost
importance to a successful garden and will help you to carry out the various
jobs on time.

Place long-season crops such as strawberries to one side of the garden
so they will not interfere with the preparation of the rest of the garden each

Plant tall-growing crops on the north side of the garden so they will
not shade other plants.

Arrange the rows according to the planting dates of the various crops.
By doing this, only a narrow strip is prepared for the early plants and the rest
of the garden can be prepared as needed.


Plan to keep the garden space fully occupied throughout the year. It
is possible to have vegetables growing throughout every month of the year. By
intercropping, it is possible to plant another kind of vegetable between the
rows of an earlier-maturing kind where space is a factor. Crops that are trans-
planted to the garden after danger of frost has passed are frequently planted
between rows of early peas, lettuce, spinach, etc. During the summer months,
plant a cover crop on areas not planted to other crops.

Succession plantings every 10 to 14 days of radishes, snap beans, turnips,
cabbage, sweet corn, and other crops will provide vegetables for a longer season.

A similar effect will result from planting at the same time two or more
varieties with different maturity dates.
I. Fall Garden

Planted: July-September
Harvested: October-November, or later

Beans, Bush Snap (A-S)*
Beans, Pole (A-S)
Beans, Lima (A)
Beets (S)
Broccoli (S)
Cabbage (S)
Carrots (S)
Cauliflower (S)
Celery (S)
Collards (S)
Sweet Corn (A)
Cucumbers (A-S)
Eggplant (J)
Endive-Escarole (S)

Lettuce (S)
Mustard (S)
Okra (J)
Onions (for spring bulbing) (S)
Onions (green) (S)
Onions (multipliers) (S)
Southern Peas (A)
Peppers (J)
Radish (S)
Squash, summer (A-S)
Strawberry (for spring harvest) (S)
Tomatoes, large fruited (A)
Tomatoes, small fruited (A)
Turnips (S)

*Best month to plant for fall.
II. Winter Garden
Planted: October-December
Harvested: December-February, or later

Beets (0-N)*
Broccoli (0-N)
Cabbage (0-N)
Carrots (0-N)
Cauliflower (0-N)
Celery (0-N)
Chinese cabbage (0-N)
Collards (0-N)
Endive-Escarole (0)
Kale (0-N)
Kohlrabi (0)
Lettuce (0-N)
*Best time to plant for winter.

Mustard (0-N)
Onions (0)
Leek (0)
Chives (0)
Shallots (0)
Parsley (0-N)
Peas, English (0)
Radish (0-N)
Rutabaga (0)
Spinach (0-N)
Strawberry (Oct. for spring harvest)
Turnips (0)


III. Spring Garden
Planted: February-April
Harvested: March-June, or later

Beans, Snap (M)*
Beans, Pole (M)
Beans, Lima (M)
Beets (F-M)
Broccoli (F)
Cabbage (F)
Carrots (F)
Cauliflower (F)
Celery (F-M)
Chinese Cabbage
Collards (F-M)
Corn, Sweet (M)
Cantaloupes (M)
Cucumber (M)
Eggplant (M)
Kohlrabi (F-M)
Lettuce (F)
Mustard (F-M)


Okra (M)
Onions (other than bulbing) (F-M)
Leek, Chives, Shallots (F-M)
Parsley (F-M)
Peas, English (F)
Peas, Southern (M)
Pepper (M)
Potatoes, Irish (F)
Potatoes, Sweet (M)
Radish (F-M)
New Zealand Spinach (M)
Squash, Summer (M)
Squash, Winter (M)
Swiss Chard (M)
Pumpkins (M)
Gourds (M)
Tomatoes (M)
Turnips (F-M)
Watermelons (M)


*Best time to plant for spring.
Note: Best time to experiment with new kinds and varieties.

IV. Summer Garden
Planted: May-June
Harvested: July-September, or later

Beans, Snap (M)*
Beans, Pole (M)
Beans, Lima (M)
Collards (M)
Corn, Sweet (M)
Cucumbers (M)
Eggplant (M)
Mustard (M)
*Best time to plant for summer.

Lettuce, Leaf & Summer Bibb (M)
Okra (M)
Southern Peas (M)
Pepper (M)
Sweet Potatoes (M)
New Zealand Spinach (M)
Squash, summer (M)
Tomatoes, small fruited (M)


B. Timely Gardening Topics

These questions and answers are provided for your use in developing
periodic (weekly) radio or newspaper briefs. They are based on letters of
inquiry from Florida gardeners.

(1) Timely Topic for Week of August 18-24.

Is it true that the larger vegetable seeds produce a better plant than
the smaller seeds?



Yes, in general, this is true, although for many crops there may be
little advantage in selecting seed size. For many vegetables, the heavier
the seed, the greater the yields from the resulting plant. Of course, the
genetic makeup of the seed has more to do with actual plant response than does
seed size. However, where genetic makeup is similar, seed size does have an

(2) Timely Topic for Week of August 25-31.


Should I cut off part of the foliage when I transplant my vegetables?


Since the foliage contains carbohydrates needed by the plant for growth
and development, the foliage should not be removed even in part. Early yield
in particular would be reduced.

(3) Timely Topic for Week of September 1-7.


I have access to a large quantity of sawdust. Would it be beneficial
to apply liberal amounts to my garden soil?


In tests where up to 40 tons of sawdust have been added per acre, yields
were not increased. In fact, heavy applications of such carbonaceous material
as sawdust tend to reduce yields due to increased competition of micro-
organisms for nitrates. When well decomposed, sawdust is beneficial to increase
organic content of the soil. Thus, the soil's structure and ability to hold
water and minerals are improved. However, sufficient additions of fertilizer
(particularly nitrogen and calcium) must accompany such additions of sawdust,
and ample time allowed for decomposition.

(4) Timely Topic for Week of September 8-14.


Should I plant melons in my Florida fall garden?


Generally, watermelons, cantaloupes and honeydews planted for fall and
early winter harvest in Florida result in poor-quality fruits. This is due
primarily to the fruits being formed as the days become shorter. Since melon
quality is associated with sugar content, among other things, short days tend
to reduce sugar content of melons. Furthermore, since melons require at least
4 months to mature, they would have to be planted in the hot, humid month of
July in many parts of Florida to avoid frost in November.

- I I .


C. Know Your Vegetables Garlic

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is similar to onion, except instead of
producing a single bulbous stem or large bulb, it produces a compound bulb
consisting of groups of white or purplish scales. Each qroup is referred
to as a clove, and the bulb is enclosed in a purplish membraneous bag. The
leaves reach 12 inches in height, are narrow, but not hollow.

In Florida, garlic is grown almost exclusively in home gardens. Its
culture is similar to that for onions, thus the soil is prepared in the same
manner. Suggested planting dates are October through January. The young
plants withstand cold weather, so there is no danger from freezing.

Since garlic does not produce seed, it is propagated by division of
the cloves and planting each as a "set." Following harvest of the bulbs for
seed purposes, the bulbs are stored for about 9 months at 500 F. If stored at
higher temperatures, they fail to bulb when planted.

While there are several strains or selections of garlic being grown,
there are few varieties. The major varieties cultivated are 'Creole', 'Italian',
'Tahiti', 'California Late', and 'California Early'.

Garlic must be well dried and cured after harvest before storing. This
can be accomplished outdoors if no rain occurs, or indoors in a dry shed.

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