• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Main
 Appendix






Title: Vegetarian
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00092
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: December 1973
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00092
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

Vegetarian%201973%20Issue%2073-12 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Appendix
        Page 1
        Page 2
Full Text


IFAS


J. F. Kelly
Chairman


James Montelaro
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Assistant Professor


S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


J. R. Hicks
Assistant Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: J. R. Hicks, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 73-12


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. General Pointers to Efficient Use of Fertilizers
for Vegetables
B. Prevention of Nozzle Stoppage in Spray Operations
C. Seed and Seed Quality

II. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Vegetable Shipping and Shortages

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A.
--_ B.


Know Your Vegetables Yams
Calculating Amount of Fertilizer Per Garden Row


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
possible, please give credit to the authors.


Whenever


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. COOPERATING


r- L-.J) P ILI-JA L.LL..) -r" I= -~ I I V = M.A I C=-IN L) II I t". Vl tIV -
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

VEGETABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT

The VEGETARIAN Newsletter


December 21, 1973





Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists




-2-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. General Pointers to Efficient Use of Fertilizers for Vegetables

Vegetable growers face a real shortage of fertilizer for the first time
in many years. Not only is there a shortage of fertilizer in general, but there
are spot shortages of certain sources necessary for specific crops and soil
conditions. Can growers in Florida live with the shortage and continue to pro-
duce the large quantities of high-quality vegetables they have produced in past
years? In the opinion of the writer, it can be done, but only if growers use
good management practices and common sense in their fertilizer programs.

For many years most vegetable growers have used more fertilizer than
necessary. Too much fertilizer is not only an unnecessary expense, but often
results in lower yields and quality and may unnecessarily add salts to the ground
water. Growers can help overcome the shortage by using just the right amount of
fertilizer at the right time and in the right way. Certainly this is a big order,
but there is considerable technology and experience to help growers establish
efficient fertilization practices. The subject of how to manage a total program
of fertilization will be dealt with in detail in subsequent articles in this
newsletter. This article covers some of the general practices which might be used
to conserve fertilizer.

(1) Use only the best land available for vegetable production. Unpro-
ductive areas of fields which are too low or too high in elevation and which
cannot be managed like the rest of the field should be left unplanted.

(2) Use the good, old proven practices of crop rotation and cover-cropping
to maintain an adequate level of organic matter in the soil. Organic matter
improves soil tilth and aeration, increases beneficial microbiological activity,
moisture and nutrient retention and improves overall plant growth.

(3) Use good seed, proper planting method, good drainage and irrigation,
proper fertilizer placement and all other practices which will help to insure a
good stand, uniform seedling emergence and crop growth.

(4) Use soil tests to help determine rate, sources, timing and possibly
placement of fertilizer.

(a) Preplant soil test This test can be used to determine residual
levels of nutrient elements in the soil as well as pH. Combined with general
guides to fertilization of each crop, it helps to determine approximate needs for
the crop.

(b) Total soluble salt determination This is a simple test avail-
able in many soil laboratories which measures electrical conductivity of the soil
solution. Converted to total soluble salt readings, the test is a good indicator
of the total fertilizer in soil. During the growing season, this test is an
excellent way to determine need for sidedressings.

(5) Timing of fertilizer When general needs have been determined by
preplant soil tests and in the absence of the total soluble salt readings, plan
to apply the fertilizer in split application. The use of split applications tends




-3-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

to lessen seedling injury from excess soluble salts and reduces the chance of leach-
ing large quantities of fertilizer following heavy rains during the growing season.

(6) Mulches Whenever possible, use full-bed or strip mulches to eliminate
or at least reduce leaching of fertilizer nutrients from the soil. Shortages in
these mulching materials may add to the grower's problems in coming seasons.

(7) Use transplants, especially the containerized type, whenever possible.
Transplants are produced in a restricted area where relatively small amounts of
fertilizer are used. Direct seeding to start a crop requires at least partial
fertilization of the whole field for a period of three to six weeks. Fertilizer in
soil during this extra period is subject to leaching during periods of heavy rains.

Growers can no longer afford to fertilize vegetable crops on a "guess basis"
which often results in over-fertilization. They must use the limited supply avail-
able to produce the best yields and most economical returns possible per unit of
fertilizer used.
(Montelaro)

B. Prevention of Nozzle Stoppage in Spray Operations

The primary principle of good insect and disease control is complete cover-
age of all plant surfaces including leaves, stems and fruits. Complete coverage
cannot be obtained from a sprayer operating improperly. One of the more common
problems observed in actual operation of sprayers in Florida vegetable fields is
nozzle stoppage. To correct the problem, inexperienced operators often resort to
cleaning with wire or other thin steel objects. Such a cleaning job is only
temporary and further reduces efficiency of the sprayer by altering orifice size
of the nozzles.

A simple and rather inexpensive modification of the sprayer plus care in
operation can practically eliminate the problem of nozzle stoppage according to
Dr. W. T. Scudder, Horticulturist at the AREC, Sanford, Florida. Dr. Scudder
suggests installation of a line strainer and a quick-action flush valve on the
delivery side of the pump. An.added benefit from a properly installed line strainer
is reduction in wear of nozzles caused by abrasion. The following diagram illus-
trates where line strainer and quick-action flush valve should be placed.
Line Strainer and Quick-Action Flush
Valve Location for Sprayers


Filler Strainer


To Spray Boom




-4-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

The operator must check and properly operate all components of the sprayer
in order to insure success. Dr. Scudder makes the following suggestions which,
if carefully followed, will greatly reduce nozzle wear, prolong the life of thetips
or orifice plates and almost completely eliminate nozzle stoppages.

(1) Use a T or Y-type line strainer with a 50 or 60 mesh screen and
with a capacity equal to that of the pipe or hose leading to the
boom.

(2) Install the line strainer between the regulator and the boom
control valve.

(3) Connect the line strainer so that the inside of the screen is
on the inlet side.

(4) Attach a quick-action flush valve to the clean-out cap of the
line strainer.

(5) Open the quick-action flush valve briefly with the pump
operating each time the tank is filled and whenever the system
is rinsed. This will remove all trapped particles and prevent
loading up and breakage of the line strainer screen.

(6) Individual nozzle strainers, with 50 mesh screens, are also
recommended for each nozzle.
(Montelaro)

C. Seed and Seed Quality

Many factors regulate or affect seed germination and subsequent seedling
growth. Many steps are taken by the grower to provide the proper environment for
germination in his operation. Good soil and seedbed preparation, proper fertiliza-
tion, a pest-free environment and an adequate moisture regime are among usual
practices carefully done by the grower. Poor germination, poor stand, non-uniform
plants, etc., can usually be attributed to mismanagement of one of these steps or
because of weather conditions. The use of poor-quality seed can also result in
similar symptoms.

In the vast majority of cases, seed obtained in normal trade channels can
be relied upon to be of high quality. However, seed quality can change after the
grower has received it depending on how it is handled and stored prior to planting.

What is good seed? A rather simplified definition would be: Seed which
is:

(1) True to type
(2) Has percent germination of proper level (will depend on crop)
(3) Has good vitality (related to vigor of seedling growth after
germination)
(4) Is free of diseases
(5) Is free of weed seeds or debris

These attributes are generally those of concern in state seed laws or regulatory
statutes which may vary from state to state.




-5-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


If we look at seed quality in a somewhat broader sense, we can envision
the seed in a more general scope. A seed is essentially a live plant in a
dormant state, the quality of which is affected by:

(1) Preharvest treatment
(2) Storage and handling
(3) Environmental factors during and following planting

Seed laws generally cover the preharvest aspect and normal production
techniques allow for proper conditions after planting. The intermediate step is
frequently the source in many problem situations.

The best way to maintain seed quality is low temperatures and low relative
humidity. Normal seed packaging in the trade involves a good many light, moisture
and air-tight containers such as cans, foil packs, etc., that do an adequate job
of protecting the seed. When the package or container is opened, the seed then
is subjected to potentially quality degrading factors. Some of the things a
grower can do to protect his seed may be the following:
(1) Reclose opened containers as thoroughly as possible and store at low
temperatures and low humidity.

(2) If planting is delayed by weather, etc., place seed in proper storage
conditions as rapidly as possible. Don't let the seed ride around on the back of
a pick-up for days.
(3) Don't store seed near chemicals or materials which can contaminate
the seed and affect its subsequent germination, etc.

(4) Avoid harsh handling of the seeds at all levels of handling. This is
especially critical for large-seeded crops such as beans. Mechanical damage of
the seeds can reduce the quality of the seed drastically.
(Kostewicz)

II. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Vegetable Shipping and Shortages
Some shippers experienced some shortages last season, particularly with con-
tainers. With the current energy crisis, there will probably be a number of
other items (perhaps including trucks) that will also be in limited supply. As
containers, trucks, etc., become less available (and even if they are plentiful,
they will be more expensive), every effort should be made toward more efficient
use of what is available. This cannot be accomplished by the packer-shipper alone,
but will involve cooperation all the way from the field to the retail outlets.
Since the packer-shipper will have the responsibility for implementing any such
program, it is reasonable that he should initiate the ideas as well as the action.
The following suggestions are very obvious, but they will require some changes
in methods and will also require understanding and cooperation from the entire
marketing chain.

(1) Grading and Sanitation Not grading in order to just make grade but
throwing out everything that will have to be discarded later in the marketing chain.




-6-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Sanitation is also important in that produce may become infected with decay
organisms during the harvesting and packing operations and the problem will not
become apparent until several days later--after the costs of packing and shipping
have been incurred. Maintaining proper chlorine levels (100-150 ppm) in dump
tanks, wash water, etc., can greatly reduce losses after packing. Equipment
should also be sanitized.

(2) Proper Handling No matter how much care is exercised in grading
and packing produce, without proper handling there will still be losses. Handling
damage and the resulting losses come from both physical (such as moving and
stacking cartons) and physiological (such as temperature, humidity, etc.) sources.
Special attention should be given when there is a possibility of chilling damage
(e.g. peppers, tomatoes, beans, cucumbers, etc.). Borderline cases can sometimes
be handled in such a way as to prevent loss if everyone is aware of the problem
and proper temperatures are maintained.

(3) Containers Use the best container available for the produce and do
not bulge-pack. Follow recommended stacking patterns for the container used.
Since most items are repacked before retailing anyway, thought should be given to
bulk containers to facilitate handling and reduce the demand for cartons or crates.
Another possibility is going all the way to the consumer pack at the source which
would eliminate some handling steps and thus some damage.

(4) Trimming Why pay packing and shipping on those portions of the pro-
duce which are going to be discarded before the commodity is displayed on the
retail shelves? The classic example of this is sweet corn--for which the advantages
of trimming have been known for years. There are other commodities (lettuce,
cabbage, etc.) which could and should also be trimmed before shipping.

Although the steps outlined above involve the packer-shipper to a large
extent, the buyers and receivers also have to do their part, which may involve
anything from adopting new handling procedures to paying for extra services.
Changes will not take place overnight and without communication, cooperation
and trust among different industry segments, no changes will occur. We are approach-
ing some serious problems. Why not begin to make adjustments before they become
acute?
(Hicks)

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Know Your Vegetables Yams

Yam is the common name applied to plants of about 500 species of the genus
Dioscorea of the Dioscoreaceae family. Other terms for yam are True Yam, Greater
Yam, Tropical Yam and Name. True yams are climbing perennial vines with heart-
shaped leaves. Underground tubers vary in size and shape, averaging 3 to 8 pounds
but sometimes as large as 60 pounds or more. Aerial tubers are sometimes developed
in the axils of the leaves, especially when vines run on the ground. The species
occur rather abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Several
species occur here in Florida and in temperate regions.

A few of the cultivated species bear edible starchy tubers which resemble
the potato in food value. In some areas, particularly Louisiana, the sweet




-7-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


potato is popularly called "yam." Although resembling each other in many other
respects, the true yam and sweet potato are not related botanically.

Many species of Dioscorea contain sapogenin, a compound having medicinal
value. Dioscorea species have been collected from all parts of the world and
evaluated for steroidal sapogenins. It has been reported that many wild species
contain the poisonous principle dioscorine which makes them inedible'.

In addition to being food and medicinal plants, some species have strikingly
variegated leaves and are of interest as ornamentals.

Some of the edible species and varieties are as follows:

Dioscorea alata L. Chinese yam, white yam, Lisbon yam, pei tsao, bak
chiu and agua yam.

Dioscorea batatas Decne Japanese yam, nago imo, shan yao and shan yuek.

Dioscorea cayenensis Lam. Guinea, a popular white-fleshed variety; Congo
yellow and Guinea Yellow are yellow-fleshed varieties; purple-fleshed varieties
are Purple Ceylon and Mapuey Morado.

Dioscorea aculeata L. Tongo Yam.

Dioscorea rotundata Poir. Guinea Yam

Of the sapogenin-bearing Dioscorea species, four are most prominent:

D. composite Hemsl. Large white tubers (yielded best in Florida trials.)

D. floribunda M & G. Small, yellow, compact, shallow tubers.

D. friedrichsthalii Knuth. White, intermediate, compact tubers.

D. spiculiflora Hemsl. Small, white, compact, shallow tubers.

Others of less importance are the wild yams, Dioscorea bublifera L. or
Rajania cordota L.

Propagation Portions of tubers or whole small tubers are used for seed
pieces. Each seed piece should weigh 4 to 5 ounces. They can be planted 2 to 3
inches deep in 42-inch rows with plants spaced 18 inches apart; or in hill plantings
3 feet apart. Yams do well when planted in a hill filled with compost. In
Florida, tubers should be planted in March-April and harvested 10 to 11 months
later. With the sapogenin-bearing species, propagation from seed is considered
the most reliable method.

Best results are obtained if the vines are supported with some sort of
trellis. Stakes can be used, or yams can be planted along the fence for support.
(Stephens)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

B. Calculating Amount of Fertilizer Per Garden Row

There are many instances in which Florida gardeners, and sometimes even
farmers, need to know how much fertilizer to apply to an individual row, when
all their information is in terms of pounds per acre.

A simple graph has been developed by James E. Garton, Oklahoma Agricultural
Experiment Station Engineer, to simplify the conversion of pounds per acre to
amounts per row. His graph is reproduced here. To use the graph, one must know
the row spacing, row length and the pounds of fertilizer per acre to be applied.
Instructions are on the graph.

Example: The dashed line on the graph indicates the solution of a typical
problem. The rows are spaced 36 inches apart, and they are 60 feet long. The
gardener would like to put on 120 pounds of fertilizer to the acre. How much
fertilizer per row will he need?

To Solve: Locate 36 inches on scale 1 and 60 feet on scale 2. Draw a
line through these points and extend to pivot line 3. From this pivot point, draw
a line to 120 pounds per acre on scale 5. Now, read on scale 4 how much fertilizer
per row is required. The answer is about 8 ounces.


(Stephens)















100-
90-
80-

70-

60-


S50-
c
- 44-
r 40-
36-
39 32-
30-

. 25-
o :


0:


15-




10-
I-


Instructions:


AMOUNT OF

Z


*4-
(D
a,
LL
-42 c
-38
-4------ -_
-34 -


0


FERTILIZER


-10


-20


-30

-40
-50
:-- 60
- 70
-80
-90
-100

-150

- 200
-250
-300


Draw a line from your row spacing on scale 1
length on scale 2 to pivot line 3.
From this pivot point: on line 3, draw a line
fertilizer per acre on scale 5.
Read amount per row on scale 4.


PER

(D


ROW FOR


GARDENS


I-


(-

LL

-4-
o -
0


E





,through your row

to the pounds of


(Garton/Stephens:Vegetarian 73-12)


- I oz.




- 2-oz.



-4-oz.

66-02.
-6-oz.

" 8- OZ.
- 0- oz.
-12-oz.
14-oz.
f- -lb.


(D


0

L
-o




Q-


a)




N
4-

a)
IL
------~~CD




^-
i^
ML


F- 30


---+u


-50

-60

-70

-80
-90
-100




-15.0



-200




300



-400


-500

600

700


-2-1 bs.


--3-lbs.

-4-Ibs.
-5-1 bs.
-6-lbs.
- 7-lbs.
- 8- Ibs.
-9-lbs.
-10-lbs.




The Vegetarian Newsletter
December 21, 1973


A. Know Your Vegetables Yams

Yam is the common name applied to plants of about 500 species of genus
Dioscorea of the Dioscoreaceae family. Other terms for yam are True Yam, Greater
Yam, Tropical Yam and Name. True yams are climbing perennial vines with heart-
shaped leaves. Underground tubers vary in size and shape, averaging 3 to 8 pounds
but sometimes as large as 60 pounds or more. Aerial tubers are sometimes developed
in the axils of the leaves, especially when vines run on the ground. The species
occur rather abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Several
species occur here in Florida and in temperate regions.

A few of the cultivated species bear edible starchy tubers which resemble
the potato in food value. In some areas, particularly Louisiana, the sweet
potato is popularly called "yam". Although resembling each other in many other
respects, the true yam and sweet potato are not related botanically.

Many species of Dioscorea contain sapogenin, a compound having medicinal
value. Dioscorea species have been collected from all parts of the world and
evaluated for steroidal sapogenins. It has been reported that many wild species
contain the poisonous principle dioscorine which makes them inedible.

In addition to being food and medicinal plants, some species have strikingly
variegated leaves and are of interest as ornamentals.

Some of the edible species and varieties are as follows:

Dioscorea alata L. Chinese yam, white yam, Lisbon yam, pei tsao, bak
chiu and agua yam.

Dioscorea batatas Decne Japanese yam, nago imo, shan yao and shan yuek.

Dioscorea cayenesis Lam. Guinea, a popular white-fleshed variety; Congo
yellow and Guinea Yellow are yellow-fleshed varieties; purple-fleshed varieties
are Purple Ceylon and Mapuey Morado.

Dioscorea aculeata L. Tongo Yam

Of the sapogenin-bearing Dioscorea species, four are most prominent:

D. composite Hemsl. Large white tubers (yielded best in Florida trials).

D. floribunda M & G Small, yellow, compact, shallow tubers.

D. friedrichsthalii Knuth. White, intermediate, compact tubers.

D. spiculiflora Hemsl. Small, white, compact, shallow tubers.

Others of less importance are the wild yams, Dioscorea bublifera L. or
Rajania cordota L.

Propagation Portions of tubers or whole small tubers are used for seed
pieces. Each seed piece should weigh 4 to 5 ounces. They can be planted 2 to 3
inches deep in 42-inch rows with plants spaced 18 inches apart; or in hill plantings
3 feet apart. Yams do well when planted in a hill filled with compost. In Florida
tubers should be planted in March-April and harvested 10 to 11 months later.






2

With the sapogenin-bearing species, propagation from seed is considered the most
reliable method.

Best results are obtained if the vines are supported with some sort of
trellis. Stakes can be used, or yams can be planted along the fence for support.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs