Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: November 1973
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00091
Source Institution: University of Florida
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I FAS

C.C RSElRCH I i EM SIO,


J. F. Kelly
Chairman


James Montelaro
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Assistant Professor


S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


J. R. Hicks
Assistant Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: J. R. Hicks, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 73-11


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Mole Cricket Control Under Full-Bed Mulch Culture
B. New Vegetable Variety Circular Available
C. Spidermite Control in Strawberries

II. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Shipping Vegetables

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. 1973 Revised List of Recommended Vegetable Varieties
for Florida Gardens
B. Know Your Vegetables Horseradish


NOTE: Anyone is
possible,


free to use the information in this newsletter.
please give credit to the authors.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA. U. S, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. COOPERATING


FLOHIlUA CUOUUEHA 1 IV- EX I -NSIIUN b-RVICEF
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

VEGETABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT

The VEGETARIAN Newsletter



November 5, 1973





Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Whenever







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Mole Cricket Control Under Full-Bed Mulch Culture

A problem that crops up quite often under the ever-increasing full-bed
mulch system of culture for tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, strawberries, etc.,
is serious outbreaks of mole crickets. Damage to young seedlings is severe
enough to require resetting or even complete replanting. Unlike open-culture
systems which permit treatment after an outbreak of mole crickets is observed,
hardly anything can be done under full-bed mulch because the mulch barrier makes
it impossible to reach the pest with insecticides.

A mole cricket infestation can develop even in mulched plantbeds treated
with the multi-purpose fumigants which usually kill most insect pests contacted.
What happens is that mole crickets from untreated areas migrate to the treated
areas under the mulch cover after holes are cut into mulch for seeding or trans-
planting. Judging from the amount of damage observed, it appears that mole
crickets like the moist environment under a mulch-covered bed.

The problem can be solved rather simply by the use of a good insecticide
application just prior to placement of the mulch cover over the plantbed surface.
James Brogdon, Extension Entomologist with the University of Florida, says that
aldrin, chlordane, diazinon and Dylox are generally suggested for use in mole
cricket control. Mr. Brogdon recommends "broadcast aldrin or diazinon at 2 pounds
or chlordane at 4 pounds active ingredient per acre as a spray, dust or granule
or a 2% chlordane or aldrin or 5% Dylox bait evenly on the bed surface just prior
to application of mulch,"

NOTE: Some of the materials listed above are not approved for all crops.
Check the label before using an insecticide.

(Montelaro)

B. New Vegetable Variety Circular Available

Circular 5-223 entitled "Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida
1969-70-71 and Recommended Varieties" was received from the printer last month
and is now available for distribution to people interested in commercial vege-
table production in Florida. Circular S-223, fourth in a series, supersedes
circulars (S-176, S-179 and 5-206) on variety trials and recommendations. The
circular, edited jointly by the Experiment Station and Extension Service, contains
variety trial results from eighteen researchers located at eleven centers through-
out Florida, as well as Extension recommendations for vegetable varieties for the
State.

The purpose of the circular is to give as much information as possible on
vegetable varieties in one publication. It summarizes variety test results for
three years. The most promising varieties are listed in table form with comparison
against standard varieties. Many of the more important horticultural character-
istics are also shown in the table. Anyone looking for information on a variety
is apt to find it in this publication.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Circular S-223 is an excellent reference on commercial vegetable varieties
for the State of Florida. Not only commercial growers, but county extension
agents, seed dealers and other commercial fieldmen dealing with vegetable growers
should certainly obtain a copy. It can be obtained from County Extension Offices
or by writing this office.

(Montelaro)
C. Spidermite Control in Strawberries

The two-spotted spidermite has been a persistent, serious pest on straw-
berries in Florida for many years. Spidermites feed on the underside of the
leaves by sucking out plant juices with their needle-like mouthparts. The injured
foliage turns yellow and then develops into brown blotches as the tissues die. A
heavy infestation of mites feeding on the plant can cause a stunting of the plant's
growth. The stunting, if severe, can result in a drastic reduction in yield.

Dr. S. L. Poe, Assistant Entomologist at the AREC Bradenton, has been
working on management programs for controlling spidermite and insect pests on
strawberries, and has recently summarized some of his findings. He states that
"Effective management of the two-spotted spidermite on strawberries is dependent
upon (1) adequate knowledge of its biology, life history, and population dynamics
relative to the crop and (2) judicious use of miticides (acaracides)."

Spidermites are secretive and hide on the under surface of leaves. All
stages of the life cycle can usually be found concurrently on the plant. Between
egg and adult, there are several stages with an immobile molting phase between
each. During the molting phases, the miticides are not as effective as on the
active stages of the life cycle.

Fruiting plants are excellent hosts for the mites and large populations
are associated with this phase of the plants life cycle versus straight vegeta-
tively growing plants (summer nursery plants). Dr. Poe has listed six key points
to consider on management of spidermite populations.

"1. Since mite populations build up quickly in
fruiting fields but not in summer nurseries, the plants set
into the field in October should be mite-free. A few mites
on these plants in the beginning can lead to large popula-
tions and serious problems by mid-December."

"2. Where large populations of mites are present, back-
to-back sprays 4 days apart should be instituted to "wipe out"
the populations. More time is required for a few mites to
reach damaging population levels than for many mites to attain
the same level, therefore, maintain the population at a low
level at all times."

"3. A spray schedule should be based on close observa-
tions and remedial action taken at once when needed. A new
material, Omite, is now available; however, its use should be
governed by common sense and sound judgment.







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

(a) Obtain thorough coverage of the entire plant;
wet upper and lower leaf surfaces with the
toxicant. If necessary, add a sticker and
increase gallonage per acre.

(b) Base spray practices upon need and do not
delay application.

(c) Keep foliage of plants open when possible
through plant spacing and avoid dense, heavy
mats of foliage to facilitate application."

"4. Do not rely exclusive on one acaricide for popula-
tion suppression. Frequently, use of one material alternately
followed by a second or a third will result in better population
management than any one material alone. This will also avoid
maintaining a heavy selection pressure against a single compound.
Alternate sprays of Omite, naled and dicofol should provide
adequate control."

"5. Do not set strawberries in fields adjacent to garden
crops or on lands cleared of such ideal mite hosts as eggplant,
since mites readily move from one crop to another."

"6. Use acaricides only according to label recommenda-
tions."


Below are listed the recommended materials for use
in Florida strawberry production.


for spidermite control


Min. Days
Insect Spray (Pounds Material Per Acre) To Harvest

Spidermites dicofol (Kelthane 35% WP, 2-3 Ibs.) 2
(Kelthane 4E, 1 qt.) 2
-- Omite 30% WP, 2-3 lbs. 3
naled (Dibrom 8 EC, 1 pt.) 1


The use of trade names in
providing specific information.
ducts named and does not signify
others of suitable composition.


this publication is solely for the purpose of
It is not a guarantee or warranty of the pro-
that they are recommended to the exclusion of


(Kostewicz)

II. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Shipping Vegetables

Since Florida is beginning a new shipping season, now would be a good time
to review some of the shipping practices. Even though some of the commodities
are shipped singly, many are in mixed loads. Usually load mixing is done for




-5-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

buyer or receiver convenience and allows buying in quantities smaller than truck
load lots. Probably the most serious problem created by mixing loads is that of
temperature incompatibility. Many vegetables are subject to chilling injury at
temperatures well above freezing. A partial list of these crops together with
recommended temperatures and chilling injury symptoms was published in the
February, 1972 Vegetarian. These crops should not be stored or shipped with
vegetables which have a recommended temperature of around 320 F. The optimum
temperatures for the two types of vegetables differ so widely that quality dete-
riorates in one or both of the commodities if shipped in a mixed load.

Any commodity being shipped should be at the desired shipping temperature
when loaded into the vehicle. Most refrigerated trucks or rail cars have adequate
refrigeration to maintain the desired temperature, but these units were not
designed for precooling and should not be used to do the initial cooling. Proper
loading temperature will become even more critical as the industry moves into
palletized (or unitized) loads. More and more receivers are realizing that they
cannot afford the cost of unloading by hand. Eventually, shippers are going to
be forced either by economics at their end or by receivers to go to unitized
loading. Now would be a good time to approach the problems and, along with your
customers, begin to look for a solution.

Vehicles should be loaded as rapidly as possible to prevent warming of
the produce. Those loads which are shipped under top ice should be iced either
as the loading progresses or immediately after loading is completed. In addition
to the obvious benefits of refrigeration, ice tends to reduce water loss from the
produce.

Proper temperature during transit is the responsibility of the transporter,
providing he was given proper instructions by the shipper or receiver and pro-
viding the commodity was at a reasonable temperature when loaded. However, it
might be worthwhile to remember that it is the packer's name on the carton or
box, and whatever happens to the commodity in that container (regardless of who
was at fault) will probably reflect on the packer. It would only take a few
minutes to instruct the truck driver on temperature requirements for the load
and thereby insuring arrival of the produce in good condition at the terminal.

(Hicks)

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. 1973 Revised List of Recommended Vegetable Varieties for Florida Gardens

Beans: Lima Bush Fordhook 242, Concentrated, Henderson, Jackson Wonder,
Dixie Butterpea
Lima Pole Florida Butter
Snap Bush Extender, Contender, Harvester, Provider, Wade, Cherokee
(Wax), Kinghorn Wax
Snap Pole Dade, McCaslan, Kentucky Wonder 191, Blue Lake
Green Shell French Horticultural

Beets: Early Wonder, Detroit Dark Red


Broccoli: Early Green Sprouting, Waltham 29, Atlantic







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Cabbage: Copenhagen Market, Marion Market, Badger Market, Glory of Enkhuizen,
Red Acre, Chieftain Savoy

Cabbage, Chinese: Michihli, Wong Bok

Cantaloupes: Smith's Perfect, Seminole, Edisto 47, Gulf Stream, Planters Jumbo

Carrots: Imperator, Gold Spike, Chantenay, Nantes, Waltham Hicolor, Gold Pak

Cauliflower: Snowball (many strains), Improved Holland Erfurt, Snowdrift

Celery: Utah 52-70, Florida Pascal

Collard Greens: Georgia, Vates, Louisiana Sweet

Corn, Sweet: White Silver Queen
Yellow Gold Cup, Golden Security, Seneca Chief, lobelle

Cucumbers: Pickling Ohio MR-17, SMR 18, Pixie
Slicing Poinsett, Ashley
Greenhouse Fertila, Femspot

Eggplant: Florida Market, Florida Beauty

Endive: Ruffec

Escarole: Full Heart Batavian, Florida Deep Heart

Kohlrabi: Early White Vienna

Lettuce: Crisp Premier, Great Lake Types, Fulton
Butterhead Bibb, Matchless, Sweetheart, Boston
Leaf Prize Head, Ruby, Salad Bowl, Black-Seeded Simpson
Romaine Parris Island Cos, Dark Green Cos

Mustard Greens: Southern Giant Curled, Florida Broadleaf

Okra: Clemson Spineless, Perkins Long Green, Emerald, White Velvet, Louisiana
Green Velvet

Onions: Bulbing Excel, Texas Grano, Granex, White Granex, Tropicana Red
Green White Portugal (or any white varieties), Beltsville Bunching,
Shallots (a multipling type)

Parsley: Moss Curled, Perfection

Peas: Garden Little Marvel, Dark Skinned Perfection, Laxton's Progress
Southern Blackeye, Brown Crowder, Bush Conch, Producer, Floricream,
Snapea, Zipper Cream, Purple Hull Pinkeye

Peppers: Hot Hungarian Wax, Anaheim Chili
Bell California Wonder, Yolo Wonder, World Beater, Florida Giant
Special Cubanelle




-7-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Potatoes, Irish: Sebago, Red Pontiac, Kennebec, Red LaSoda

Radishes: Cherry Belle, Red Prince, Comet, Early Scarlet Globe, Sparkler (white
tipped), White Icicle

Spinach: Virginia Savoy, Dixie Market, Hybrid 7, Bloomsdale Longstanding

Spinach, Summer: New Zealand

Squash: Summer Early Prolific Straightneck, Early Summer Crookneck, Cocozelle,
Zucchini, Patty Pan
Winter Alagold, Table Queen, Butternut

Strawberries: Florida 90, Dabreak, Torrey, Sequoia, Tioga

Sweet Potatoes: Porto Rico, Georgia Red, Goldrush, Nugget, Centennial, Coastal
Sweet

Tomatoes: Manalucie, Homestead 24, Indian River, Floradel, Tropic, Walter,
Florida MH-1, Large Cherry, Roma (paste)

Turnips: Japanese Foliage (Shogoin), Purple Top White Globe

Watermelons: Large Charleston Gray, Congo, Jubilee, Crimson Sweet
Small New Hampshire Midget, Petite Sweet, Sugar Baby
Seedless Tri-X 317

(Stephens)

B. Know Your Vegetables Horseradish

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a hardy perennial usually grown as
an annual for the pungent roots. These roots contain an oil which gives the
roots a hot, biting, pungent taste. This sharp taste makes horseradish valuable
as a condiment.

Horseradish does not grow well in Florida. It grows best in the northern
section of the country, and at the higher elevations of the tropics.

Where horseradish is grown, two types are usually found--the "common"
and the 'Bohemian." The common type has broad, crinkled leaves and high quality
roots. The Bohemian type has narrow, smooth leaves, with root quality somewhat
less than that for the "common" type.

Propagation is by vegetative means, utilizing side-root cuttings called
"sets." Seeds are not used. The side-roots (sets) are removed from the main
central root when it is harvested. All small, slender root sets between 8 and
14 inches long and about the thickness of a pencil are removed, trimmed, and
stored in a moist, cool place until time for planting in early spring.

Rows are spaced 30 inches apart and plants are spaced 2 feet apart in
the row. A furrow 3 to 5 inches deep is dug in each bed. The "sets" are placed
horizontally in the bottom of the furrow and a little soil is placed on the
bottom end of the root, leaving the top portion uncovered.




-8-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

A special practice is utilized by horseradish growers to obtain top
quality roots. When the largest leaves reach 8 inches long, the soil is dug
away from the top end of the main root. While the lower end is left undis-
turbed, the top and middle portions are stripped of any small roots. Then the
soil is replaced. A few weeks later, the practice of stripping is repeated.
The result is a smooth root with few, if any, side roots to mar the appearance.

(Stephens)




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