Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: August 1973
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Volume ID: VID00088
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II I ,






August 6, 1973



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

J. F. Kelly James Montelaro J. M. Stephens
Chairman Professor Assistant Professor

S. R. Kostewicz J. R. Hicks R. K. Showalter
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: J. M. Stephens, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 73-8


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. -Tank Mixes and Serial Application of Pesticides
B. Mushrooms Information on Production in Florida
C. Preparing Land for Planting Vegetable Crops
D. Graywall in Tomatoes
E. Check Herbicide Equipment Before the Season Starts

II. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Packinghouse Modifications

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Organic Versus Inorganic Plots
B. Results 1973 State 4-H Vegetable Judging Contest
C. Results 1973 State 4-H Horticultural Demonstrations
D. Know Your Vegetables Okeechobee Gourd


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Tank Mixes and Serial Application of Pesticides

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has finally issued a state-
ment which clarifies the agency's thinking on the use of "tank-mixed" pesti-
cides. It is an important statement in that it ends a long period of indecision
by spelling out guidelines under which vegetable growers can use certain "pesti-
cide mixes" for awhile at least with tacit approval of EPA. Vegetable growers
should study these guidelines carefully in order to avoid a disastrous mistake
by using an "illegal pesticide mix." EPA includes "Serial Application" which
they explain as "application of one pesticide immediately or shortly following
the application of another."

The agency divides tank mixes and serial applications into three cate-
gories, presented below with EPA's interpretation following each.

Category 1. Instructions provided for such use on
one or more labels of EPA registered
products.

Tank mixes or serial applications recommended on EPA labels
(Category 1) are obviously consistent with the label and do not
constitute use inconsistent with such label.

Category 2. Such use may be covered by an intra-
state registration.

Intra-state registrations remain valid until replaced by
EPA registrations under Section 3 of the amended Federal Insecti-
cide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). This will occur
generally after October 21, 1974, and will be completed by October,
1976, under the schedule spelled out in the law; or, by special
actions taken by the Administrator in the form of orders bring-
ing products under sole EPA registration at some earlier time.
This latter action will occur primarily with respect to products
containing the same active ingredients and registered intra-state
for the same kinds of uses as the Administrator has cancelled or
suspended in inter-state commerce under the 1947 version of the
FIFRA. The first and only action of this nature taken to date was
the April 10, 1973, order with respect to registration of products
containing DDT.

Therefore, tank mixes and serial applications registered by
a State (Category 2) will not be deemed uses inconsistent with
the label.

Category 3. Various tank mixes and serial applica-
tions have been tested and recommended
by Agricultural Experiment Stations, State
Department of Agriculture or are common
agricultural practices.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Finally, the legislative history of the amended FIFRA
clearly shows that the Congress intended EPA to apply the test
of reasonability in enforcing misuse provisions. From this
point of view, during a transitional period while parties
adjust to the new law, tank mixes and serial applications in
Category 3.will not be deemed uses inconsistent with the label
if:

(a) the products in the mix are applied at a dosage
rate not to exceed the label instructions for use
of any product in the mix used singly for the
same set of insects on the same crop; and

(b) the label on one or more of the products does not
explicitly instruct against such mixture.

Further clarification of EPA's stand of tank-mixes and serial application
of pesticides is given in the following three paragraphs.

It must be recognized under Categories 2 and 3 that EPA
has not reviewed any efficacy or human and environmental safety
data on the combination of products and the user applies them
in this manner at his own risk with respect to effects on crops
and application equipment, applicator safety, environmental
effects and tolerance pre-harvest intervals. The policy of deem-
ing such use not inconsistent with the label must not be con-
strued as EPA approval of the use.

If adverse effects are observed from any particular tank
mix or serial application, EPA may take appropriate action to
rule the use of such specific mix or serial application to be
inconsistent with label instructions on a case-by-case basis.
Regional Offices are requested to be watchful of any adverse
effects and advise the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) of
such through the PASS system, calling special attention to the
causal nature of the event.

This policy will be in effect until modified by further
statements or regulations. It has been reviewed by General
Counsel and is legally acceptable ynder the amended FIFRA and
meets with the acceptance of the Office of Enforcement.

The terminology used may be somewhat technical, but we felt it best to
present it as published by EPA. Anyone having any questions may contact the
writer or Mr. James E. Brogdon, who in addition to his duties as Extension
Entomologist is also Pesticide Coordinator for the University of Florida with
officials in Washington.
(Montelaro)
B. Mushrooms Information on Production in Florida

Even though Florida is not considered an important producer of mushrooms,
we often get requests for information on the production of this crop. Up-to-
date publications on mushrooms have not been generally available for distribution






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

to anyone interested in this crop. Since 1971, we have had available a report
entitled "Mushroom Information." It was prepared by Jim Stephens of our Depart-
ment. It includes abstracts of articles, papers, bulletins, etc. Even though
much of the information is out-of-date, it contains much that is useful for
the producer of mushrooms in the home or commercially. One of the bulletins
abstracted was."Growing Mushrooms in the United States," Farmers Bulletin No.
1875, U. S. Department of Agriculture. We have a limited supply of this publica-
tion for distribution. This bulletin as well as the report, VC 71-3 dated
March, 1971, can be obtained by writing this office.

Vegetable Crops Report VC 73-1 entitled "Producing Mushrooms in Florida"
was authored by Dr. G. J. Stout and Dr. D. E. Buffington of the University of
Florida. Both professors have had experience in the mushroom industry. County
Extension Directors and other County Extension Agents with horticultural
responsibilities are being sent one copy for their files. Anyone else wanting
a copy of VC 73-1 can obtain it from the Vegetable Crops Department.
(Montelaro)

C. Preparing Land for Planting Vegetable Crops

The spring season is just over and vegetable growers in Florida are
already preparing land for the fall season. Land preparation is probably one
of the most'important operations in vegetable production. One mistake made in
preparation of the soil for planting can mean partial or even total crop failure.
Following are some pointers that growers should check carefully in order to avoid
costly mistakes.

(1) Land Selection Select land that is uniform, level, relatively free
of hard-to-control weeds and other soil pests and relatively easy to manage from
the standpoint of irrigation and drainage.

(2) Plowing and Disking Prepare land early enough to obtain good decay
of organic matter and a fine, firm seedbed.

(3) Land Leveling Level land before planting to avoid excessively low
or high spots and to facilitate irrigation and drainage.

(4) Ditching Design and develop adequate main and secondary ditches to
facilitate irrigation or removal of excess water after heavy rain.

(5) Liming Have soil tested and add the right amount and type of lime
needed. Lime should be applied 2 to 3 months before planting, but can be any
time before planting.

(6) Fertilizer Rate and Sources From soil test data, determine the
amounts and sources of N-P-K, secondary and minor elements needed.

(7) Fertilizer Placement Place fertilizer so as to minimize salt injury.
Never place large amounts of fertilizer directly below or above seed.

(8) Soil Pest Control Treat for nematodes, soil insects, soil diseases
and/or weed seeds, if needed.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

The eight points listed above are presented here primarily as a check-
list. They cover a wide range of technologies and for that reason cannot be
discussed in detail here. Information is available for each area from the
County Extension offices.

(Montelaro)

D. Graywall in Tomatoes

Tomato fruit are subject to a disorder known as graywall. Blotchy
ripening, vascular browning, and cloud are other names often given to the dis-
order. Some, however, feel that they are distinct maladies and others feel
that they are stages or manifestations of graywall. The disorder is of world-
wide occurrence and has been the subject of numerous investigations designed
to find the cause for the disorder.

Dr. R. A. Conover described the symptoms in an article he published in
1949 as to the malady in Dade County tomatoes. "Vascular browning (graywall)
appears externally on the fruit as a grayish-brown discoloration... In mildly
affected fruit, only the vascular bundle is discolored; more severely affected
fruit show a lateral extension of browned tissue which, in some cases, involves
the entire fruit wall. Fruit of all sizes larger than one-half inch may be
affected."

Many observations of the occurrence of the disorder in Florida have
indicated that graywall has tended to show up on (1) fruit shaded on vigorously
growing plants, (2) on plants growing in spray rows (where soil has been com-
pacted), (3) on plants in portions of fields with higher soil moisture, and
(4) on plants in areas following periods of cloudy, cool weather.

Tomato losses in Florida have been reported as 10 to 20 percent and as
high as 70 percent in some isolated instances. Appearance of the disorder has
been sporadic from year to year and often within the same season differences
have been noted.

Research studies have taken several paths attempting to solve or find the
basic cause of the disorder. Nutritional-environmental and pathological (viral
and bacterial) studies have shown some relationships, but no consistent conclusive
evidence as to the basic cause of the disorder has developed.

Nutritional studies have found that low potassium, the N:K ratio (high
N, low K) and the P:K ratio (high P, low K) conditions are involved. These ccn-
ditions were found to increase or emphasize graywall symptoms in numerous studies.
However, the researchers were unable to consistently reproduce graywall with
these conditions from year to year. Most workers have implied that nutritional
status, while influencing the occurrence of graywall, is not the prime causal
agent in the disorder, but a part of a complex set of conditions leading to its
appearance.

Pathological studies have dealt with viruses, primarily Tobacco Mosaic
Virus (TMV), as the suspected causal agent in graywall. While this area is still
under scrutiny as a possible causal factor, many workers feel that TMV may act as
an agent which predisposes the plant to be susceptible to graywall and is not
the causal agent.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


In other pathological studies, research workers in Florida have found
that bacteria of several genera were capable of inducing graywall symptoms in
tomato fruits following a chilling treatment. This aspect was brought to the
forefront following the isolation of bacteria from graywall affected fruit.
While the.exact causal agent or factors responsible for graywall are
elusive at the moment, there are two operations that can be performed by the
grower to reduce potential losses. These are not foolproof measures; however,
they can reduce the incidence and intensity of graywall.

(1) Proper Varieties Perhaps the most important method is to utilize
a variety which has a tolerance for the disorder. Recent variety introductions
generally have a greater tolerance to graywall than older standard varieties
such as 'Homestead'. For example, 'Floradel', 'Florida MH-1', and 'Walter'
have a greater tolerance to graywall than most older varieties.

(2) Fertilize Properly Follow recommended fertilizer practices and
rates developed through soil tests and reference to research developed for
your area. Avoid over or under-fertilization, but take measures to insure an
adequate level of potassium is available for the crop.
(Kostewicz)

E. Check Herbicide Equipment Before the Season Starts

Success with herbicides starts with proper rate of application and placing
it in the desired area. These are among the essentials for good weed control.
Too frequently herbicide application equipment is used, problems noted and left
to be repaired (if they are not too serious) or remedied in the off-season. The
new season often finds the equipment in the same condition as when it was "put
up for the year" and thus, the cycle continues until major overhaul is required.
Often, this ends in frantic trips and searches to find parts and results in wasted
time and delays in application. A few hours checking the rig out, well in advance
of the season, will result in fewer headaches and will insure proper herbicide
application.

An outline to follow might be:

I. Sprayers

A. Check power source function

1. Time and/or adjust the engine.
2. Insure the PTO drive mechanism is functioning properly.

B. Check the pump

1. Replace leaking bushings or seals.
2. Make certain pump output is proper for its rating.
3. Check the pressure regulator for accuracy and function.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


C. Check the delivery system

1. Clean all filters and strainers of debris.
2. Insure By-Pass is operating correctly.
3. Check agitation system for broken paddles, vanes, etc.
4. Replace worn or frayed hoses.
5. Check connections for leaks--tighten or replace as
required.

D. Critical application areas to do

1. New nozzle tips and strainers.
2. Adjust booms and drop pipes.
3. Adjust and set pattern.
4. CALIBRATE

II. Granular Applicators

A. Make certain hoppers are clean and free of unwanted holes.
B. Check drive mechanism for proper operation.
C. Check mixing or "de-clodding" apparatus to make certain it
is operating properly.
D. Clear dropping or delivery tubes of debris or blockages.
E. CALIBRATE


(Kostewicz)







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Packinghouse Modifications

This is the time of year when the management of Florida vegetable packing-
houses reflects on the past year's efforts in terms of profit and loss, as well
as trouble spots which may have contributed to the loss column. This is also the
time of year to make any modifications in the packinghouse which may be necessary.
Any packinghouse not equipped for palletized handling may wish to consider this
change. It might also be wise to consider type and availability of shipping
containers.

Packinghouse sanitation was discussed in last month's Vegetarian. It is
mentioned again this month only because it is so important both to efficient
operation of a packinghouse and to the reputation of that house for quality
produce. Any revamping or modification of existing packinghouses should certainly
include the sanitation aspects as an integral part of the overall plan.

The importance of precooling was discussed in the January 1972 edition of
the Vegetarian. That discussion lists some of the effects of precooling on the
maintenance of vegetable quality. Many vegetables are shipped without precooling
because low temperatures are not needed for maintaining quality. For those
vegetables that require low temperatures, precooling is probably the most critical
operation in the packinghouse.

Inadequate facilities We all know that occasionally there are peak periods
of harvest, usually brought on by weather conditions and an interruption in harvest
plans based on scheduled plantings, where none of the packinghouse facilities are
adequate to really handle the volume coming in. Scheduled planting and cooperation
among growers using common packinghouse facilities could alleviate much of the
problem. A packinghouse is built to handle a particular volume and precoolers
should be designed and constructed to handle the maximum output from the packing-
house. It must be remembered that rush periods usually occur during warm or hot
weather which hastens maturity, and the need for fast and adequate precooling is
very critical under these conditions.

Misused facilities This occurs infrequently, but still too often. Some-
times it is merely an oversight and at other times it is actually a result of
overloading. It is most often reflected in produce not being cooled down to the
desired temperature because of inadequate time in the cooler. At other times,
the cold air or water is simply not cold enough.

Mishandling produce Much too often vegetables are packed in the field
and allowed to remain in the sun for periods of time before precooling. This
increases the temperature of the commodity and makes precooling a harder job
because there is more heat to remove. Sometimes it is necessary to hold produce
for a short time (the shorter the better) before precooling. For example, if
several field trucks arrive simultaneously, every effort should be made to get
them out of the sun. Provisions should also be made for shading vegetables such




-9-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


as tomatoes, which are not ordinarily precooled. An even worse situation occurs
when vegetables that have already been precooled are allowed to remain for several
hours without refrigeration before shipping. The commodity has been precooled,
but much of the effect is lost.

Some problems can be dealt with to a certain extent in existing packing-
houses without major modification. However, the most opportune time to really
correct problems of sanitation, precooling, and storage facilities is when a new
packinghouse is being built or an old one remodeled.

(Hicks and Showalter)




-10-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Organic Versus Inorganic Plots

This spring afforded observers a good opportunity to compare organic
gardening techniques with conventional practices. While University of Florida
students were busy tending 25 "conventional" gardens on one side of the campus,
other gardeners were busily going about mulching, composting, and manuring some
100 plus "organic" plots on another part of the campus.

The conventional gardens were part of a vegetable gardening course taught
by Dr. V. F. Nettles of the Vegetable Crops Department. The course was popular
with the girls as well as the men on the campus, and students represented many
areas of study. The "organic" project was sponsored through a student body
function referred to as the Environmental Action Group (EAG). For a small fee
($10.00), each person taking the project got a small 10 X 25 foot plot and some
basic materials for cultivating it. The project was open to students, staff,
and others.

While direct comparisons cannot be made due to variations in such treat-
ments as planting dates, location, soil type, etc., some general observations
were apparent.

Throughout the month of May, while students were tending their gardens,
the conventional plots were outstanding. Plant vigor was excellent, showing
that inorganic 6-8-8 fertilizer could really do the job when applied in proper
amounts at the right time. Vegetable "fruits" such as bean pods and squash were
setting on the plants in abundance. On the other hand, the organic plots looked
erratic, with some plants appearing to be over-fed while others were starved.
The compost and manures were slow to release needed nutrients in some plots,
while contributing to lush vegetative growth with few "fruits" setting in other
plots.

The most obvious differences were observed with insect damage. Dusting
with sevin and malathion was keeping the foliage clean in the conventional plots.
Almost every organic plot was "protected" by a cup of praying mantis eggs
dangling with a string from a bamboo pole, and marigold plants guarded each row.
Leaves in the organic plots were riddled, especially the bean leaves (pole, bush,
and lima) and the crucifers. However, many of the other vegetables were yet
unbothered from insects. One gardener was spraying Bacillus thuringiensis on
everything in his garden. He listed several insects which he expected to kill
with it. He was extremely proud of the abundant working population of lady bird
beetles in his and surrounding plots. He was careful not to spray any of them.
He showed disbelief when it was pointed out that instead of lady bird beetles
they were Mexican bean beetles. Neither the Bacillus thuringiensis nor the
rotenone and pyrethrin dusts were controlling them.

At harvest time, all plots yielded some vegetables, whether grown organ-
ically or otherwise. Although a heavy hail storm had riddled the organic plots,
tomato fruit worm holes could still be seen among the hail scars on the tomato
fruits. Overall, the plant condition in the organic plots was improving, with
a fair amount of edible produce in evidence. Bean pods were produced in spite
of the broad damage inflicted by the bean beetles. Very few good crucifers were
produced, but a goodly amount of lettuce, especially leaf and bibb, was grown.




-11-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Most all of the produce in the conventional plots was in good condition.
Bean rust and wilt fusariumm and bacterial) in the tomatoes was most evident
there with some scalteri- late blight.


Then the
stopped, and no
to go backwards
proliferated.


students went home. The water was turned off, the
one was there to weed out the conventional plots.
in a hurry. The dark green color disappeared, and


spraying was
They seemed
insects


Now, the organic plots began to compare favorably. The dark green color
continued as the compost and manure kept the nutrients supplied. Weeds were
healthy, too, and insects were having a field day. But where mulching had been
well applied, the weeds were sparse and the plants looked well fertilized.

The main lesson to pass on is that both systems of gardening have some-
thing of value to offer the observing gardener. One would be wise to employ the
best practices from either system in order to produce better vegetables for
himself and his family.
(Stephens)

B. Results 1973 State 4-H Vegetable Judging Contest

The contest was held during State 4-H Club Congress at Gainesville. Con-
testants identified insects, diseases, weeds, seeds, nutrient disorders, defect:
and varieties, in addition to judging and grading vegetables.

Eleven teams participated. The winning team was from St. Johns County,
followed by Marion, Escambia, Volusia, Orange, Okaloosa, Martin, Columbia,
Suwannee, Dade, and Polk. St. Johns is to represent Florida in the National
Contest in Oklahoma City in November (NJHA Convention). The trip is co-spon.ored
by the Florida investor-owned power companies and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer services.
(Stephens)

C. Results 1973 State 4-H Horticultural Demonstrations

Eleven demonstrations on horticulture were presented during State 4-H C'ub
Congress. The results are as follows:


Placing


Name


Title of Demonstration


St. Johns

St. Johns
Brevard
iHrdee
Orange
Pasco

Lee
adere
Okaloosa

Wakulla
Broward


Cindy Brubaker
Sharon Griffis
Ann McGraw
Peggy Wassmuth
Ricky Stephens
Robin Turner
Kathy r'awlin
Jeff Futch
Luther Atkinson
Larry Crosby
Karen Blair
Linda Rader
Eill Harvey
Robert Gammons


"Potatoes"

"Terrariums"
"Edible Centerpiece"
"Orchid Culture"
"Methods of Propagation"
"Indoor-Outdoor Flowers"

"Farming in a Flower Pot"
"Potting an Orchid"
"Fondue"

"Indoor Vegetable Garde ing"
"Good Eating"




-12-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


The winning demonstration will be presented at Oklahoma City in November,
courtesy of the same co-sponsors as for vegetable judging.
(Stephens)

D. Know Your Vegetables Okeechobee Gourd

Florida has many unique distinctions, one of which is that it is home of
the Okeechobee gourd, Cucurbita okeechobeensis Bailey.

According to L. H. Bailey, it is an annual climbing vine, growing abundantly
in heavy tangled woods along the southeastern shore of Lake Okeechobee. It uses
its tendrils to climb into tall trees.

The gourd plant has grape-like foliage of shallowly-lobed (5-7 angle-lobed)
leaves. The gourd fruits hang conspicuously from trees long after the annual vine
is dead. The flowers are cream-color or nearly white rather than bright yellow,
with very small sharp calyx lobes and 3-inches long corolla. The gourds (fruits)
are nearly globular, long-stemmed, 3 to 3 inches in diameter. They are hard-
shelled and durable, light green with faint longitudinal lines of lighter color
and sometimes having rather definite marks of yellowish-green.

Since accounts of its edibility are not clear, it should be considered
inedible until further clarification.


(Stephens)




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