Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: June 1973
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00086
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLCFPI)A
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

VEGETABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT


I ''I : I


rTl] f


June 5, 1973




Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


J. F. Kelly
Chai rman

J. M. Stephens
Assistant Professor


James Montelaro
Professor

S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: S. R. Kostewicz, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 73-6


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Chisel Spacing and Fumigant-type Nematicides in
Vegetables
B. Use of Clay to Lessen Sunburn of Tomato Fruits
C. Fertilizer Rates and Sources on Yield of Potatoes
at Hastings
D. Index for the 1972-73 Vegetarian Newsletter

II. VEGETABLE GARDENING


Cucurbit Classification
Know Your Vegetables Cocoyams


NOTE: Anyone is
possible,


free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
please give credit to the authors.


COOPERATIVFr EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICU-ITURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OFP FLORJDA. LFAS. UNIVERSITY
01" L)LORIDA U. S. DIPARTM CNT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUN1 Y COMMISSIONE-RS COOPURAT[NG


lRn n -t.r
I V COD






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Chisel Spacing and Fumigant-type Nematicides in Vegetables
Fumigant-type nematicides used in vegetable crops must be placed
correctly in the soil if effective control in the desired area is to be
expected. Previous articles in this newsletter have stressed the criteria
necessary to provide the proper action of the materials in the soil. Soil
preparation, organic matter, moisture status, surface-sealing measures, and
others have been emphasized. Dr. Don Dickson (Assistant Nematologist,
Department of Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville) reminds us that chisel
spacing and arrangement are equally important and points out that recommen-
dations usually are given for specific arrangements and distances.

A fumigant-type nematicide spreads by diffusion through the soil
from its point of injection in all directions. Under optimal conditions,
control can be relied upon for a certain distance in all directions from
this point. This is illustrated in Figure 1 and is labeled zone of control.
This situation is representative of what occurs on a single chisel, row
application used in many vegetable crops. In this instance, the crop is
planted or the row corresponds to the treated strip in the field.
It is important to consider that the fumigant-type nematicides give
a "kill" of nematodes while they are in the soil. Once the treated area
has been aerated and/or through a lapse of time the material has dissipated,
no residue of the material is left to prevent reinfestation of the treated
area. This reinfestation can come from the "untreated" soil areas, from
infested plants placed in the treated area, or regrowth of the nematode popu-
lation in the treated area.
Figure 2 illustrates a situation in which the chisels are too widely
separated and points out the areas where the nematodes are "uncontrolled" and
can, subsequently, readily serve as sources of infestation for the "treated"
areas. If the planted row corresponds to the uncontrolled areas, as in the
figure, nematode problems will occur. Two-chisel application is occasionally
utilized in unbedded single-row cultural situations, but is more frequently
used where bedding is practiced. The exact spacing under both these con-
ditions will vary with the material used, and generally will be somewhere
between 8 and 12 inches. The important point is to obtain an overlap of the
control zones so that control is effected.
Figure 3 represents the desired situation in a broadcast or overall
application in which very little of the area is left "uncontrolled." This
figure illustrates the desired overlap and resulting control area referred to
in the previous paragraph. Figure 4 represents a full-bed mulch cover appli-
cation in which a multi-purpose fumigant might be used.
Nematicides generally provide control in the treated area which will
be sufficient to prevent nematodes from being a problem during the early
portion of the crop cycle. Once the crop has become firmly established,
regrowth of the nematode population will not be lethal to the plants. Many
factors, some of which were mentioned previously, affect the activity of






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


fumigant-type nematicides in the soil. However, it is equally important
to place the materials in the soil correctly, thus, permitting the maximum
benefit from the materials to occur. Careful attention to recommendations
for chisel spacing and evaluation of "in-field" application equipment
while the material is being applied is important to insure the achievement
of a good nematode control program.


Figure 1


Figure 2


*- Zone of control


Point of
Injection


"uncontrolled"
areas


Figure 3


Figure 4


- -


(Kostewicz)


B. Use of Clay to


Lessen Sunburn of Tomato Fruits


"Sunburn" injury to the fruits of tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers,
watermelons and other vegetable crops is quite common in Florida in late
April, May and June. The injury lowers the packout from heavy cullage and
in severe cases may even result in complete abandonment of a crop. Growers
have used every means at their command to combat this problem with limited
success in the past. Practices varied from lime paste painted by hand on
watermelon fruit surface to limited suckering on staked tomatoes.

For two seasons, growers in south Florida have been applying finely-
ground clay in a spray suspension to non-trellised tomatoes. Clay used for
this purpose is the same material used as a diluent in the formulation of
pesticides. It is an inert ingredient which is exempt from EPA residue
tolerance. The clay residue on fruits appears to wash off easily in the
packing house.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Growers, who have experienced sunburn injury to their tomato
crops for years, report that they are highly pleased with the protection
afforded by the clay treatment. Some of the growers mix clay with
pesticides in the spray tank.. This, however, is not advised by the pro-
fessional fieldmen who developed the technique. They advise applying clay
in a separate operation to avoid stoppage of nozzles.

The first treatment is generally applied 7 to 10 days before the
first harvest. This is the period when tomato plants normally start to
"open up" and expose fruit to the sun. The plants are again treated after
each harvest to protect exposed fruit during the picking operation.

The professional fieldmen suggest using clay at a rate of 18
pounds per 100 gallons of water together with a suitable sticker-spreader.
They suggest strong agitation in the spray tank to keep the clay from
settling out.
Since the use of clay for sunburn protection has not been tested
by scientists of the University of Florida, it cannot be fully recommended
at this time. There is always a possibility of some unforeseen reaction
resulting in injury to a crop. For that reason, growers are best advised
to test the clay treatment on a limited basis.
(Montelaro)

C. Fertilizer Rates and Sources on Yield of Potatoes at Hastings

A 1972 study made by Dr. D. R. Hensel of the Agricultural Research
Center at Hastings, Florida, is quite interesting because it demonstrates
the relationships between rates and sources of fertilizers on yields of
a crop. Dr. Hensel tested three rates of 6-8-8 fertilizer supplemented by
different rates and sources of fertilizers as sidedressings on potatoes.
Data on soluble salts are given in Table I and on yields in Table II.

Table I. Effect of sidedressing on soluble salt readings in soil
with three levels of fertilizer.

Fertilizer applied at planting
Sidedressing lbs. 6-8-8/A
Treatments 1250 1875 2500
ppm soluble salts

1. Check 1978 2293 3098
2. 20-0-20 NaNO + KC1 2590* 3098 3535
3. 20-0-20 Ca(N63)2 + K2S04 2433* 2923 3115
4. 20-0-20 NH4NO3 + K2S04 2450* 2940 3168
5. 40-0-40 NaNO + KC1 2275* 3203 3220
6. 40-0-40 Ca(N 3)2 + K2SO4 2240* 2660 2940
7. 40-0-40 NH4NO3 + K2SO4 2640* 2765 3413
*The treatments received two applications of sidedressings.




-5-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Table II.


Yield of potatoes from
combinations.


different sidedressing and fertilizer


Fertilizer applied at planting
Sidedressing lbs. 6-8-8/A
Treatments 1250 1875 2500 Ave.
cwt/A
1. Check 134 159 186 160
2. 20-0-20 NaNO + KC1 145* 179 174 166
3. 20-0-20 Ca(N63)2 + K2S04 179* 185 174 180
4. 20-0-20 NH4NO3 + K2SO4 177* 189 179 182
5. 40-0-40 NaNO + KC1 159* 180 161 167
6. 40-0-40 Ca(Nu3)2 + K SO4 177* 204 171 184
7. 40-0-40 NH4NO3 + K2S64 179* 192 188 186

*The treatments received two applications of sidedressings.

The information in Table I is interesting in that it shows in a general
way the effects of rates and sources of fertilizer materials on soluble salts.
The sodium nitrate (NaN03) + potassium chloride (KC1) source tended to increase
soluble levels more than the other sources of nitrogen and potash. As rates
of fertilizer application increased, soluble salts generally increased, also.

The data in Table II show that yield of potatoes was generally lower
in the NaN03 + KC1 plots than in plots receiving the other two sidedress com-
binations. In addition, as the rate of fertilization increased above certain
levels, yields failed to go up correspondingly.

Since the study is not completed, the results shown here are not to
be construed as recommendations. However, they are valuable in that the
general principles demonstrated can be applied to modify fertilizer programs
for many crops when supported by experience and basic knowledge.
(Montelaro)

D. Index for the 1972-73 Vegetarian Newsletter
The index for the Vegetarian Newsletters issued during the 1972-73
production season is included with this issue. For referral purposes, the
index should be placed in a folder with the twelve issues it covers. Each
issue of the newsletter is indexed by year and month of issue. For example,
the 72-11 issue was published in November of 1972. Anyone wanting any back
issues of the newsletter can obtain them by writing this office.


(Montelaro)




-6-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Cucurbit Classification

The following orderly grouping of the many kinds and varieties of
vegetables which we collectively call cucurbits is offered to ease some of
the difficulty in determining the relationship of one type with another.
Generally, groupings are made based on reproductive and vegetative botanical
characteristics. Since probably most confusing of the groups are the
pumpkins and squashes, these have been further detailed with respect to
their probable occurrence in Florida. Please note This outline does not
necessarily agree with all classifications made by taxonomists, as some
differences of opinion have established conflicting groupings.

Cucurbitaceae (Plant family usually called the Cucurbits has five tribes
(groupings) of which Cucurbiteae will be outlined further.)

Tribe I. Fevilleae (few, if any, vegetables)
Tribe II. Melothrieae (few, if any, vegetables)
Tribe III. Cucurbiteae (many important vegetables)
Tribe IV. Sicyoideae (only chayote of which is important)
Tribe V. Cyclanthereae (only one Peruvian variety worthy of note)

Cucurbiteae (Tribe III which includes many important vegetables)

Genus A. Trichosanthes (About 50 species known, one mentioned here)

Species 1. Trichosanthes anguina Snake gourd

Genus B. Lagenaria (Only one species known)

Species 1. Lagenaria siceraria White flowered, assorted shapes and
sizes of most of the club, bottle and other gourds.

Genus C. Momordica (Contains over 60 species, only two mentioned here)

Species 1. Momordica balsamina Balsam apple
Species 2. Momordica charantia Balsam pear

Genus D. Luffa (Eight species known, one mentioned here, others not too
important)

Species 1. Luffa cylindrica Rag gourd

Genus E. Benincasa (Only one species known)

Species 1. Benincasa hispida Chinese melon or wax gourd

Genus F. Citrullus (Has only four species, but only the following important)

Species 1. Citrullus vulgaris Watermelon
Citrullus vulgaris var. citroides Citron






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Genus G. Cucumis (Has nearly 40 species)

Species 1'. Cucumis anguria Bur gherkin
Species 2. Cucumis sativus Cucumber
Species 3. Cucumis dipsaceus Teasel gourd
Species 4. Cucumis melo Melons, including cantaloupes, Persian
melons, nutmeg melons, honeydews, cassabas, snake melon
and mango melon

Genus H. Sicana (Has only one well-known species)

Species 1. Sicana odifera Curuba or cassabanana

Genus I. Cucurbita (Has several species, but only the three major ones
are mentioned here)

Species 1. Cucurbita moschata

Pumpkin Varieties or Types

Cushaws (large, about 15 pounds, colors range from white, to
golden, to green-white striped, crooknecked, sometimes
seen in Florida fairs)
Japanese Pie (deep green, crooknecked, 10 pounds, vining, not
popular)
Large Cheese (often seen in Florida fairs, 10 pounds, round fruits
flattened and ribbed, buff colored, vining)
Tennessee Sweet Potato (creamy white, bell shaped, not common,
vining)

Winter Squash Varieties or Types

Butternut (common in Florida, buff colored, bell shaped, vining)

Species 2. Cucurbita maxima

Pumpkin Varieties or Types

Mammoth (very large type for exhibition, vining)
Big Max (very large, orange skinned, slightly ribbed, vining)
Winter Squash Varieties or Types

Banana (long, banana shaped, grows on a vine)
Boston marrow (top shaped, 8 pounds, vining)
Buttercup (bowl shaped, green color, with blue navel, vining)
Delicious (top shaped, 8 pounds, orange, vining)
Hubbard (large, 15 pounds, pointed, warted, vining)
Turban (bowl shaped, warted, gray striped, button, vining)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Species 3. Cucurbita pepo

Pumpkin Varieties or Types
Cheyenne Bush (3 pounds, orange, pie pumpkin, bush)
Connecticut Field (large, jack-o-lantern, 10-15 pounds, vining)
Dickinson (often seen in Florida fairs, buff colored, ribbed,
smooth, long watermelon shaped, vining)
Small Sugar (pie pumpkin, flat, ribbed, bright orange, vining)
Winter Luxury (like Small Sugar, but has netting, vining)

Summer Squashes

Caserta (vegetable marrow type, long, green splotched, bush)
Cocozelle (striped, dark-light green, marrow, bush)
Cozini (black-green, long, marrow, bush)
Zucchini (popular, black-green, gray, smooth, marrow, bush)
Crookneck (popular, yellow, smooth, but warted when mature,
bush)
Straightneck (popular, yellow, smooth straightneck, bush)
Scallop (popular, round, flat, scalloped, white, bush)

Winter Squashes

Fordhook Vine (cream colored, ridged, tapers to stem end, small,
vining)
Spaghetti (tan, oblong, 2 pound novelty, inside looks like
spaghetti, vining)
Acorn (Table Queen, widely grown, acorn shaped, ribbed, vining)
(Stephens)

B. Know Your Vegetables Cocoyams

Cocoyam is a general name applying to several species of Xanthosoma.
This vegetable is similar to the dasheen (taro) in many ways, yet its
differences are distinct.

Cocoyam is widely grown and used in the tropics. In southern Florida,
it has been grown in small patches for many years, and on a limited commercial
scale since 1963 to meet the needs of Latin Americans living here.

It is known by many other names, the most common being yautia and
malanga.

Description Generally, cocoyam resembles elephant-ear plants, with
large green leaves about 2 feet wide by 2h feet long. The upper leaf sur-
face is rather smooth and sometimes waxy, with the lower surface being ribbed.
The main difference in leaf shape between dasheen and cocoyam is that the
dasheen's petiole (leaf stem) joins the leaf blade away from the edge of the
leaf, whereas the cocoyam's petiole attaches at the notched edge of the leaf
much like in the "V" of a heart. The plant may attain a height of 5 feet or
more.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


.Edible tubers are formed in the soil at the base of the leaf stems.
Usually a central large tuber is formed, with a protrusion of grayish-
brown to black lateral tubers around it.

Culture In Florida, the crop should be started in the spring as
the crop matures in 9 to 10 months. It is injured by frosts. It can be
propagated by planting the (1) plant top (head), (2) whole main tuber, (3)
main tuber cut into pieces, or (4) individual secondary tubers. Tubers or
pieces should be set 3 to 5 inches below the surface. In Florida, plantings
have been successful on low-lying marl and rockland soils. Other soil types
might also be utilized as long as the moisture requirement, along with good
drainage, is met.

Storage Harvested cocoyams can be kept in good condition at room
temperature (790 F.) and humidity (76%) for 9 weeks. They remain in good
condition for 18 weeks or more if refrigerated at 450 F.
Use Tender cocoyams are washed and peeled before cooking. Some
are so hard that cooking is required before peeling. They may be baked,
mashed, fried or otherwise used as potatoes. Leaves are also eaten as greens.
NOTE This summarizes the detailed report on cocoyams given by
Julia F. orFton (University of Miami), Proceedings of the Florida State
Horticultural Society, Volume 85, 1972.
(Stephens)




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