Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00084
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 1973
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00084
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSIOCr)st4%fV E
UNIVER.31 FY OF FLORIDA


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

VS:-C. TABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT


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April 6, 1973






Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


J. F. Kelly
Chai rman

J. M. Stephens
Assistant Professor


James Montelaro
Professor
S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA


FROM: James Montelaro, Vegetable Crops Specialist


Qt )Val._4Ar


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 73-4

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Select Herbicides by the Weed Problem
B. Old Tomato Fields can be Breeding Grounds for
Pinworms
C. Managing Bees in Vine Crops

II. VEGETABLE GARDENING


Table-stock Potatoes Should be Eaten Not Planted
Know Your Vegetables Corn Salad


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.


COOPERATIVE E.XTF: SI7UN VORIK N AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICf, STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY
OF L.EIDA, I. D P-ARTM NT -F AGRICUL,-TU, E AtND iOAROD3 1 CNTO COUNTY MMISSIONERS, COOPERATING


7I1 Ii




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Select Herbicides by the Weed Problem

The use of herbicides to control weed populations in vegetable crop
production is a valuable tool for the grower. For any individual crop, there
generally are several herbicides from which the grower can select. Many
factors are involved in proper selection of the herbicide, but an important
one is the species of the weeds to be controlled.

The ultimate herbicide would be one which would give control of all
weeds throughout the season and yet not be toxic to the crop itself. Few, if
any, such herbicides are available. Herbicides, characteristically, control
a spectrum of weeds. Proper use of herbicides involves utilizing the control
spectrum of the herbicide to match the weed problems in the production field.
It is important to consider the following point: over a period of years, the
weed problems can change.

In the natural situation, competitive effects between species of plants
result in the domination of the weed population by those weeds which are the
best competitors. When the situation is modified by the use of an herbicide
which controls the dominant species, the following will most likely occur.
For a period of years, weed control will be excellent. Due to the lack of com-
petition from the "controlled" weeds, the "uncontrolled" species will flourish.
At first the numbers will be small and the weeds will probably go unnoticed.
With time, the population increases and suddenly we find that we have a serious
new weed pest to contend with. This new pest may or may not be controlled with
herbicides which are available for the crop.

The avenues of approach open to the grower in such instances usually
make use of one or combinations of the following points.

1. Alternate Herbicides Utilization of a material (labeled for use
on the crop) which will give control of the "new" pest species. This can involve
complete switching to a different herbicide or use of the new material in
addition to the old one. This not only implies tank mixes, but also includes
differential application times such as using one preplant and one postemerge,
for example.

2. Changes in Cultural Practices Occasionally, modifications can be
made in production practices which can result in improved weed control. Fullbed
mulch culture systems can be taken for an example. It is common knowledge that
a mulch offers benefit as a weed control method in itself. In our case, it
can offer little advantage in changing the existing weed species composition.
However, what it does is to move part of the weed problem further away from the
crop row. This offers a benefit in that cultivation can be used to maintain
the row middles relatively weed free. There is a strip of soil which covers
the edges of the mulch material holding it secure. This strip must also be kept
free of weeds, but because of its greater physical separation from the crop row,
the use of shielded, directed sprays using a contact herbicide might be possible.
The weed control problem would still exist, however, "at the hole" where the
crop plant emerges from the mulch material.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


3. Fallow Treatments Control of some perennial weeds may be obtained
by special manipulations during the "off season." This type of program usually
involves one of the following: (a) frequent cultivation--to reduce vigor of
the roots and prevent reproduction and spread of the weed, (b) cultivation
and herbicide--as in (a) plus the benefit of the herbicide translocating to
get a systemic type control, and (c) spot treatment with herbicides--an attempt
to control the weeds where "areas" are infested in the field and prevent their
spread.

4. Alternate Crops This type of approach takes advantage of an
herbicide which is effective for the pest species, but may not be labeled for
the primary crop of interest. Cropping time is important to consider. Some
materials clearly carry precautions on the label which state that soil treated
with the material must not be planted with certain crops for a specified period
of time. This can be a limiting factor for this approach and should be carefully
investigated before use.

Infestation of production fields by weeds can frequently be traced to
poor control of weeds around them, i.e. ditch rows, border rows, fence rows,
etc. Not only do they serve as potential sources of weed seeds, but can serve
as reservoirs for insect and disease problems which in themselves can be hazards.
Many materials are available for use in such areas and when used with due care
and concern offer little hazard to crops and environment.

Ecological change is one of the factors that weed scientists evaluate
and deal with in their endeavors to recommend herbicides and practices to control
weeds. The recommendations developed have taken into consideration many factors
which are extremely important to good weed control. However, in most discussions
where a grower may ask for a recommendation, one will find that the weed scientist
will ask back, "What is your specific weed problem?" This serves to give him
the opportunity to suggest for you a program that will do the job.

(Kostewicz)

B. Old Tomato Fields can be Breeding Grounds for Pinworms

Recently a rather serious outbreak of a new insect pest of tomatoes was
found in Collier County. The "tomato pinworm" was described in the March, 1973
issue of the Vegetarian. Whether or not it will prove to be an isolated case
is yet to be seen. In the meantime, however, growers should watch tomatoes and
other closely related crops carefully for early infestations of pinworms. Early
treatment with the recommended insecticides applied properly will give good
control.

A serious matter that growers should give attention to is danger posed
by old, abandoned tomato fields. Extension specialists for many years have
recommended plowing under all vegetable crops as soon as possible after completion
of harvest. The destruction of old crop residues eliminates a source of inoculum
for viruses, fungi, bacteria and as well as insects which could attack younger
plantings in the area.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


With the introduction of the tomato pinworm and the fact that little
is known about it, everything possible should be done to lessen the danger
of this pest. Therefore, growers are urged to destroy all tomato fields
immediately after harvest. The benefits that may be derived from this simple
practice may far outweigh the minimal costs involved.
(Montelaro)

C. Managing Bees in Vine Crops

Growers of vine crops are well aware of the need for bees for the
pollination of flowers. Good pollination increases set, size and yield as well
as shape of cucumber, watermelon, squash and cantaloupe fruits. The mere place-
ment of honeybee hives in or near a vine crop planting does not assure good
pollination. However, if a few simple precautions are observed in the handling
of bees, growers will reduce the possibility of failures.

These precautions are:

(1) Place enough bees in each field to assure multiple bee visits
to each flower. Research has shown that eight visits from bees are more
effective than four visits. A rule of thumb is at least one good beehive for
every five acres of vine crops. Some growers use one hive for every two or three
acres with good results.

(2) Distribute the hives in and around the edges of the field in a
pattern which will permit even coverage of the field. Bees tend to work in the
areas nearest the beehive. If the distance between hives is too great, some
areas of the field may not be adequately pollinated.

(3) Apply insecticides carefully so as not to kill bees. Bees start
work in the morning when air temperature reaches about 600 F. and continue
until mid to late afternoon. Insecticides should be applied after bees stop
working. Late afternoon and early evening are the best times to apply insecti-
cides. When applying insecticides by ground or air, care should be taken to
avoid spraying or dusting pesticides directly over the beehives. Covering bee-
hives during application is good insurance against a mass kill of bees in the
hives.
(Montelaro)




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THE VEGETARIAN 'IH.'SLETTER


II. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Table-stock Potatoes Should be Eaten Not Planted

Many home gardeners, and :iaybe a few farmers too I suspect, purchase
table-stock potatoes from grocery stores for the purpose of planting as seed
potatoes. Such a practice is generally unsatisfactory for a number of reasons.

First, if the potatoes are newly dug (from South Florida, for instance),
there will be a problem of getting them to sprout when planted. Most potato
varieties undergo a "rest period" for some length of time following harvest.
(Time varies with each variety.) The rest period can be broken by chemical
treatment, using such chemicals as sodium thiocyanate or ethylene chlorohydrin,
but we are not suggesting home gardeners use these materials as they are highly
poisonous.

Secondly, where stored table-stock potatoes are utilized for seed-stock,
problems often arise due to chemicals which may have been applied to inhibit
sprouting in storage. Not only will such treated table-stock potatoes be slow
to emerge if planted, with resulting poor stands, but the vines ofL-.-n exhibit
a condition similar to that which might be attributed to virus infection.
Leaflets and aboveground stems emerge strap-leaved, twisted and distorted in
shape. Should you run across this condition, first check to see if table-stock
had been used as the source of seed.

Maleic hydrazide is one of the growth regulating chemicals which has
been approved by the EPA for inhibiting sprouting. It is applied on the plants
in the field 2 to 4 weeks before harvest. Another chemical sometimes used is
CIPC isopropyll N-3-chlorophenyl)carbanate) which is applied to the potatoes
after harvest for sprouting control during storage and in marketing. TCNB
(tetrachloronitrobenzene) and gamma irradiation are also approved. None of these
treatments is used on seed potatoes as sprouting is either retarded or prevented.

Thirdly, planting table-stock potatoes may lead to poor growth, low
yields and reduced quality due to diseases which quite likely are present in the
uncertified tubers. Many diseases, such as viruses, show no visible signs on
the exterior of the tubers, so may be present in table-stock.

And lastly, a gardener who obtains potatoes off the supermarket counter
usually cannot obtain the variety of potato best suited for planting in his
locality.

In s.iummary, the home gardener should follow the example set by the
commercial grower and use certified seed. Such seed tubers are free from the
effects of a rest period, have not been sprayed with sprout inhibitors, are
relatively free of disease and are true to variety.
(Stephens)
B. Know Your Vegetables Corn Salad

Corn salad (Valerianella olitoria) is also called lamb's lettuce and
fetticus. It is a salad plant, but may also be used as a cooking green. Since







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER



it does not have a sharp distinctive flavor, it is often mixed with other
more tasty greens such as mustard.

Corn salad forms a rather large rosette of leaves which are spoon-shaped
to round, up to 6 inches long. Sometimes the leaves are covered or bunched
together to exclude light for the purpose of blanching.

The vegetable plant is grown in Florida very similarly to endive or
lettuce. It tolerates cool weather, so may be sown from seed in October through
May. Space the rows 12 to 18 inches apart, and the plants about 6 inches.

On sandy soil, prepare the row for planting by broadcasting 2 pounds of
6-6-6 or other common garden fertilizer per 100 square feet of row and roto-
tilling it into the soil. Then, band about 1 pound of fertilizer per 50 feet
of row beside the planting furrow.


(Stephens)




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