Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: January 1973
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00081
Source Institution: University of Florida
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January 8, 1973





Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


J. F. Kelly
Chairman

J. M. Stephens
Assistant Professor


James Montelaro
Professor

S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN.VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA


FROM: James Montelaro, Vegetable Crops Specialist


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 73-1


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


I.


"Catface" in Tomatoes
Foam and Foam Use
"Blind Bud" in Vegetable Crop Seedlings
Index to Old Issues of Vegetarian Newsletter


II. VEGETABLE GARDENING


Florida 4-H Vegetable Program Summary
Know Your Vegetables Husk Tomato


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. lJhe,?ver
possible, please give credit to the authors.




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. "Catface" in Tomatoes
Catface is a tomato fruit disorder which may be found from time to
time wherever tomatoes are grown. The blossom end of the fruit is charac-
teristically scarred and rough due to the abnormal development of the
tissues in that area. The disorder should not be confused with blossom end
rot which also affects the blossom end, but has entirely different visual
symptoms and causative factors. The catfaced fruit usually has swollen
areas with bands of scar tissue intermingled between them. There may also
be cavities between the swollen portions that extend into the fruit. The
symptoms may vary in intensity, but in all cases, the fruit is rendered
unmarketable for the fresh market trade.
The precise cause of the disorder has not been completely determined.
The occurrence of catface is apparently genetically modulated in that some
varieties show a greater tendency to catface than others when the proper con-
ditions occur. There are, however, certain conditions which frequently inten-
sify or bring out the appearance of catfacing.
One such condition is inherent size of fruit. Catface is a greater
problem in the large-fruited varieties than in the small. An additional
aspect is that the incidence or percentage of catface varies with season.
Generally, exposure to cool, unseasonable weather increases the likelihood
that catfacing will appear. This has been observed in Florida in the past.
The occurrence of extensive cool fronts sweeping into the State and remaining
static for extended periods during the cropping season is not uncommon. We
have noted substantial catfacing on fruit from second and third clusters on
plants in south Florida, and at the same time from first and second clusters
in north central Florida. The "outbreaks" could be attributed to cool, drizzly
low pressure fronts which covered the entire State for about a week, during
the early stages of development of fruit from the affected clusters. Fruit
from clusters which appeared after the unfavorable weather conditions showed
little catfacing. This pattern of appearance is common for the disorder.
The most common explanation for the cause of the disorder is the
following. During the early stages of development of the flower buds and
most likely through the pollination-fertilization stages of the female portion
of the flowers, any physical injury to the delicate tissues can result in
blossom drop or the production of abnormal fruit. Catfacing is thought to be
caused by low temperature injury to the area near the base of the stylar tissue
where it joins the walls of the ovaries. Subsequent development of the fruit
results in the typical expression of catfacing symptoms described earlier.
(Kostewi cz)


B. Foam and Foam Use
The use of foam materials in agriculture is not an entirely new area.
In the late 1950's, foams for frost protection and herbicide applications
were investigated. Some of this early work was done in Florida. As a result





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


of refinements in equipment and materials, a renewed interest has occurred
within the State. A good deal of the interest has been stimulated by the
increasing concern for the environment and the feeling that foam materials
may offer a means of further minimizing potential undesirable effects of
pesticide applications. The utilization of foaming materials as a means
of controlling "drift" of applied pesticides from target areas is an example
of such application.

Many potential uses have been listed by many sources recently and
include:

1. Frost and freeze protection a thermal "blanket"
2. Pesticide applications as a carrier medium to minimize "drift"
3. Wind protection to prevent:
(a) sand abrasion
(b) dehydration
4. Use in flaming as a Heat Barrier
(a) weeding
(b) thinning
5. Use as a marker
6. Fumigation cover
7. Mulch for moisture control
8. Erosion control
9. Carrier for cleaning materials

Many others have been given and the lists have often only been limited by the
imagination of the writer.

The foams can be referred to as either "thick" or "free-flowing" foams.
This distinction is based upon the method of generation and application more
so than a great difference between the foaming agents.

"Thick" foams are those which are commonly produced by a "generator"
and distributed as foams to the point of application. They are used as a
thick "blanket" type. Stabilizers can be incorporated in varying proportions
to impart the desired length of service, i.e. "long lived" or "short lived."
This type of foam has been emphasized in frost and cold protection work.

"Free-flowing" foams are produced at the point of exit of the spray
by incorporating air into the solution to impart the foam characteristic.
These are short-lived foams and do not have a heavy consistency like shaving
cream, but are rather "frothy" or sloshyy" solutions. These types of materials
are the "drift control" agents for pesticide applications.

A great deal of searching and testing for practical applications and
their effectiveness is underway throughout the country. Time will indicate
whether foams will be of lasting value in agriculture or fade from the picture.

A Partial Listing of Foam Equipment and Materials Availablel

Foam Generators

Waukesha generator system '.Waukeshal Foundry Company, Inc. A foam
generator which produces a "thick" foam with a number of available foaimible





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


liquids, but has the capability of producing a "free-flowing" type of foam
with minor changes in the delivery system and foaming agent combination.

Air-Aspirating Nozzle Systems for "Free-Flowing" Applications

Dela-foam Delavan Manufacturing Co. (manf. recommends using "Fomex")
Foam Jet Spray Tips Spraying Systems Company
Foamspray System Service Technology Corp. (manf. recommends using "Foamspray")
Accutrol System Velsicol Chemical Corp. (manf. recommends "Accutrol Spray
Adjuvant")

Foamable Liquids

Agrifoam Laurentian Concentrates
Thermofoam Waukesha Foundry
Fomex Colloidal Products Corporation
Foamspray Service Technology Corporation
Accutrol Spray Adjuvant Velsicol Chemical Corporation

1NOTE: The use of trade names or company names in this publication
is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. It is not a
guarantee or warranty of the products named and does not signify that they
are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable or similar composition.
(Kostewicz)

C. "Blind Bud" in Vegetable Crop Seedlings

Blind bud is a term commonly used to describe a condition in seedlings
where the bud fails to develop. Depending on the crop species, plants affected
by the disorder fail to develop at all or are delayed in growth. Blind bud
can be found occasionally in most broadleaf crops and to a much lesser extent
in the grass family crops like sweet corn.

Blind bud is quite common in bean seedlings. When it affects beans,
it is generally called baldheadd." It has been observed occasionally in
cabbage seedlings growing in the field and in plantbeds. Last fall, it
severely affected some plantings of direct-seeded tomatoes in Dade County.
The first reaction was to blame the seed. However, when seed of the s5a'e lot
was planted in other fields or in the greenhouse, seedlings appeared to be
perfectly normal. Except for beans, blind bud is not usually the fault of the
seed. However, blind bud baldheadd) in beans is caused by physical injury to
the embryo (bud) resulting from hard impacts in threshing and cleaning,
handling bags of seed, seed hoppers, etc.
In most cases, it is impossible to determine the exact cause for blind
bud. Recently, extension workers in California reported that the disorder
in cole crops was definitely proved to be caused by the first instar larva of
the diamond back moth. This conclusion was made after microscopic examinations
revealed eggs and larva to be quite coimnon in the buds of young seedlings in
cabbage and cauliflower fields where blind bud was present.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


We can now be fairly certain of two possible causes for blind bud
in seedlings. Others which we feel are definite possibilities and
should be considered are herbicides and other chemicals, weather factors
including frost, freeze and high temperatures, diseases, other insects, etc.
(Montelaro)

D. Index to Old Issues of Vegetarian Newsletter

The Vegetarian Newsletter has been published by the Vegetable Crops
Department of the University of Florida since 1950. From four to six issues
were prepared annually until last year, when it was changed to a monthly
newsletter. The monthly newsletters are indexed annually to cover the vege-
table production season considered to be July 1 to June 30 in Florida.

Prior to the changeover to a monthly newsletter and annual indexing,
some ninety issues of the Vegetarian Newsletter had been published. A file
copy of each is maintained in our office. Recently, each issue was checked
carefully and those items which are still significant to vegetable production
were indexed for reference purposes. A copy of this index is enclosed as a
separate item with this newsletter.

Single copies of the topics covered in the index can be obtained from
the Vegetable Crops Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Please be selective in your requests, as items will have to be reproduced
by a copying machine from our file copy. (ontearo)
(Montelaro)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Florida 4-H Vegetable Program Summary

Various projects and activities relating to vegetables are available
to 4-H members in the State of Florida. They range in scope from the simple
experience of investigating a lima bean seed in a school classroom to the
sophisticated production of a large acreage of tomatoes. Rarely would we
find a county without at least one 4-H member who could relate to one or more
of these activities.

Here is a summary of the various projects and activities which collec-
tively are considered the Florida 4-H Vegetable Program.

1. Seeds and Plants A 4-H Special Interest Project

This SI Project is designed to be taught in the classroom. It
consists of eight exercises, each of which may be conducted by students in a
45-minute session and observed in a later session. The exercises are as follows:
SI 20.1 Introducing a Seed
SI 20.2 Watching Seed Sprout
SI 20.3 Testing Seed Germination
SI 20.4 How Age Affects Seeds
SI 20.5 Planting a Seed in a Peat Pellet
SI 20.6 Plants and Fertilizer
SI 20.7 Depth of Seeding
SI 20.8 Light and Plants
(Literature is available)

2. Beginning Gardening Vegetable Gardening (Unit I)

Those taking this project could participate in various ways:
(a) have their own garden plot, (b) be responsible for part of the family gar-
den, or (c) care for part of a community, group or school garden.
The scope of the member's involvement in this project varies
with each individual, depending on space available, member's age, level of
experience, available time and family situation. (Literature is available.)
3. Beginning Gardening Plant Science Experiments (Unit I)

This project is designed for 4-H members who do not have the
time and space necessary to grow a garden, yet who wish full involvement in
4-H (rather than Special Interest).
Five easy experiments are outlined from which to select. Mem-
bers are required to complete at least three of them. (Literature is available.)
4. Beginning Gardening Growing Vegetables in Containers (Unit I)

This is another project which may be taken without the necessity
for a large amount of space.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Many kinds of containers could be used--bushel baskets, hampers,
drums, gallon cans, or others. The "soil" might not be soil at all, but
something like sawdust, woodshavings, pebbles, or even water. Growing plants
in these kinds of artificial "soils" are usually called soilless culture or
hydroponics.
Three methods have been outlined for members to choose from in
this project area. They are: (1) strawberry barrel; (2) single plant con-
tainers, and (3) water culture. Any one of these three may be selected to
meet the project area requirements. TCTterature is available.)

5. Beginning Gardening Vegetable Identification Workbook (Unit I)
This project fits the needs of both rural and urban youth. It
involves a workbook entitled, "4-H Vegetable Judging, Grading and Identifi-
cation Workbook." It is about garden insects, diseases, weeds, varieties,
seeds, and other gardening topics. Participants in this project must make
drawings, paste pictures, or tape actual specimens in the workbook spaces
provided. (Literature is available.)
6. Advanced Gardening
Participants in this project are entered in the State 4-H Horti-
cultural Awards Program (formerly the Allis-Chalmers National Program) which
entails a trip to National 4-H Congress for the State winner. It differs
from the Beginning Gardening Project mainly in that it is more extensive.
This project includes such vegetable production systems as (1) a
home garden, (2) a market garden, (3) a commercial crop, (4) a hydroponic
unit, (5) a greenhouse crop, or (6) container culture. (Literature is
available.)
7. Vegetable Judging, Grading and Identification Contest
This activity is an educational contest involving (a) the identify
cation of various insects, diseases, weeds, seeds, nutritional disorders, and
kinds and varieties of vegetables, (b) the judging of vegetables for quality,
and (c) the grading of potatoes for quality and grade standards.
4-H teams are encouraged to train at the local and county levels
to compete at all levels, including a state contest and a national contest.
(Literature is available.)
8. Horticultural Demonstrations

Through this competitive event, 4-H members share their skills an,
knowledge learned in the various vegetable projects, and demonstrate their
ability to plan, organize, speak and think "on their feet."
A horticultural demonstration may be given by an individual or a
team of two. Contests are conducted at the local, county, district, state
and national levels. (Literature is available.)







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


9. National Junior Horticultural Association Projects (NJHA)

The NJHA promotes and sponsors an educational program of horti-
cultural projects at the national level. In Florida, these projects overlap
and supplement those conducted within the 4-H framework.
The various projects conducted by NJHA at the national level
are (1) Horticultural Demonstrations, (2) Horticultural Identification,
Knowledge and Information Contest, (3) Achievement and Leadership Recognition,
(4) Experimental Horticulture, (5) Environmental Beautification, (6) Speaking
of Horticulture, and (7) Production and Marketing. (Literature is available.)

For information pertaining to the various projects and activities out-
lined above, please contact either the State 4-H Club Office or Jim Stephens,
Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist. Literature is available from either
the Editorial Department Bulletin Room or the Vegetable Crops Department.
(Stephens)

B. Know Your Vegetables Husk Tomato

The husk tomato, Physalis sp., is also called ground cherry, strawberry
tomato, Chinese lanterns, tomatillo, bladder cherry, aklekengi, and Cape
gooseberry. It is a member of the Solanaceae family.
Husk tomatoes are occasionally found in home gardens in Florida, as it
is sometimes advertised in plant and seed catalogs. It is not a commercial
crop.

Plants are annuals in the north, but some forms are perennial farther
south. Both upright and trailing forms occur. One form is an exotic super-
hardy 2-foot high perennial with heart-shaped leaves. Its small white flowers
in spring are followed by large dense clusters of 1 to 2-inch brilliant orange-
scarlet lantern-shaped fruits in the fall. Each fruit is smooth skinned and
completely enclosed in a thin papery husk, which is free and easily removed.
Each fruit contains many small, inconspicuous seeds.

The whole fruit is used, after husk is removed, mainly in preserves.
Further reports indicate that pies are made from fruits which have dropped
and matured on the ground.
(Stephens)




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