Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: October 1972
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00078
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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October 4, 1972


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


V. F. Nettles
Acting Chairman

J. M. Stephens
Assistant Professor


James Montelaro
Professor

S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: J. M. Stephens, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist 4/r -


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 72-10


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


Fruit-Set in Tomatoes
Weed Control on Tomatoes Under Full-Bed Mulch
Culture
Annual Vegetarian Index
Potential for Sweet Potatoes in Florida


II. VEGETABLE GARDENING


Grow A Garden For What It's Worth
Know Your Vegetables Datal Pepper


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Fruit-Set in Tomatoes
Tomato growers are apt to have problems with poor fruit-set any time
during the production season in Florida. The problems may exhibit themselves
as: (1) total or partial failure of any flowers to develop into fruit, or
(2) set of abnormal fruits which may be misshapen or catfaced and generally
not marketable.

The first category is the fruit-set problem experienced most commonly.
It is most prevalent in commercial fields in the earlier plantings which
bloom in August and September. Generally, the most common cause for poor
fruit-set during late summer and early fall is high temperature--either night
or daytime temperatures. Optimum night temperature for fruit-set in tomatoes
is about 680 to 700 Fehrenheit. Temperatures much below or above the 68-700
F. range for several nights may result in heavy blossom drop in tomatoes.
During late August and September, night temperatures may remain above 750 F.
for extended periods of time. Under those conditions, fruit-set may be very
light but may change dramatically with the onset of more favorable night
temperatures. A somewhat similar situation may develop during extended periods
of cold weather. However, under cold weather conditions, the problem may
show up as "blossom drop," but it may be combined with abnormalities in those
fruit which do not abort.
There are many other causes for lack of fruit-set and the development
of malformed fruits. These include:

(1) Unbalanced nutrition including excess or deficiency of some of
the major and minor elements.
(2) Extended periods of warm, windy weather with low humidity.

(3) Extended periods of showery, cool, overcast weather during winter
and early spring.

(4) Insects and diseases.

The problem of poor fruit-set in tomatoes is most prevalent in the large
slicing types commonly produced in Florida. The small cherry and paste types
do not exhibit fruit-set problems to the degree shown by the larger types.

Poor fruit-set can be explained briefly as a failure in the pollination
of the flo':r or in the fertilization of the ovules (potential seeds) in the
ovary (undeveloped fruit). Fortunately, the problem in field-produced tomato
crops is tciiporary in nature and, except for extended periods of abnormal
weather, does not generally affect more than one or two hands oF fruits on
the tomato plant. (Montelaro)

B. Wleed Control on Tomatoes Under Full-Bed Mulch Culture
A serious problem in the production of tomatoes under full-bed mulch
culture is the control of weeds that may grow in the punched-hole area, through





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


the mulch itself and in the water furrows. In a talk presented at the South
Florida Tomato Institute on September 20, 1972, Mr. D. S. Burgis summarized
the research results he obtained in trials conducted in the fall of 1971 and
in the spring of 1972 at the AREC, Bradenton, Florida. This work is being
continued, but is presented here again in view of the urgent need for infor-
mation on this problem.

Treatments used by Mr. Burgis were as follows:

1. Herbicide Treatment In-the-row

Chemical treatments and rates in Ib/A broadcast applied as either
preplant incorporated at time mulch was laid or as a directed spray into the
planting hole immediately after setting were as follows:
A. Check, hand weeded 2 times
B. Tillam 4 Ibs. (10G) preplant incorporated
C. Paarlan 3 lbs., preplant incorporated
D. Planavin 1 lb., preplant incorporated
E. Diphenamid 5 lbs., directed through planting hole,
immediate post-set
F. Diph. + Planavin 5 + 1, directed through planting hole,
immediate post-set

For the fall, 1971 trial, treatments B, C and D were applied on
September 20 and covered immediately. Plants were set and treatments E and F
were applied on September 23.
For the spring, 1972 trial, treatments B, C and D were applied
on March 3, 1972. The beds were fertilized and covered immediately. Holes
were cut and plants were set immediately. Treatments E and F were set at the
same time and treated.

2. Herbicide Treatment in Row Middles (Water Furrow)

Chemicals were applied as (1) granular material covered by or
mixed with soil on bed shoulder, or (2) directed preemergence sprays to bare
soil along the edge of the newly laid mulch, or (3) as delayed postemergenc:-
sprays at time weeds were 1 to 2 inches high. Chemical treatment, applice-
tion time and rate (gpa or Ib/A) of application were:
A. Check weeds not removed
B. Paraquat 1 qt. + 2 gals. 11E oil applied postemergence
3 times
C. Sencor 1 lb. postemergence
D. Diph. + Planavin 5 + 1 lb. postemergence
E. Vegiben (liquid) 3 Ibs. postemergence
F. Para. + Vegiben 1 qt. + 3 lbs. postemergence
G. Tillam 4 lbs. applied to false bed on edge of plastic
and then covered by regular bed

For the fall, 1971 trial, treatments C, D, E and G were applied
on Septeibr.-r 20, whereas treatments B and F were applied on October 6 after
plantings were evaluated.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


For the spring, 1972 trial, treatments C,
mulch was laid and bedding completed. Treatment
was laid but just prior to the throwing of final
Treatments B and F were delayed until weeds were


D and E applied as soon as
G was applied at time mulch
soil to form shoulder.
1 to 2 inches high.


A summary of his results is reproduced here as presented at the Tomato
Institute. PLEASE note those items that are marked with numbers (1, 2, 3,
etc.) and read explanations and precautions given at the end of the summary.
SUMMARY

Table 1. Two seasons herbicide treatments to tomato plants growing in the row
on mulch covered beds showing yield (Ibs/A)and mean % weed control
Fall 1971 Spring 1972
Var. MH-1 Var. 1723-1
Treatment Yield Weed Control Yield Weed Control
A. Check 163.0 0.0 159.0 0.0
B. Tillam 140.5 92.5 158.7 93.8
C. Paarlan 164.6 91.2 189.2 91.2
D. Planavin 165.5 60.0(a) 160.4 90.0
E. Diphenamid 164.0 93.0 170.0 87.5
F. Planavin + Diph.(1) 167.0 93.8 146.0 83.7
LSD 5% NS NS
(a) Improperly incorporated.

No significant differences in yield were found as a result of herbicide
treatment when growing tomatoes with the full-bed mulch system. The recommended
herbicides produced results comparable to conventional production methods.
Chemicals preplant incorporated into the bed and covered showed no phytotoxicity,
and generally this method would present less of a problem to the grower than
the use of directed postsetting sprays into the planting hole.

Where holes are cut or burned in the mulch, the use of sprays into this
opening around the transplant could be recommended. However, when a plant
setter (machine) that punches an opening is used, the flaps and scraps of paper
around the opening would eliminate this type of herbicide application.

Tillam, Paarlan or Planavin can be efficiently and safely preplant incor-
porated in a band under the paper.

Table 2. Two seasons herbicide treatment to wheel row middles between tomato
plants growing on mulch covered beds showing yield (Ibs/A) and mean
% weed control
Fall 1971 Spri q 1972
Var. MH-1 Var. 1723-1
Treatment Yield Weed Control Yield Weed Control
A. Check 163.0 0.0 207.3 0.0
B. Paraquat (2) 146.8 98.0 202.5 85.0
C. Sencor (2) 173.9 94.0 204.1 95.0
D. Diphenamid + Planavin (1) 165.8 93.8 241.8 85.0
E. Vegiben (liquid) (3) 170.7 60.0 244.7 87.5
F. Paraquat + Vegiben (1,2,3) 157.7 98.0 220.6 95.0
G. Tillam (4) 167.9 93.3 206.2 95.0
LS5D -% NS NS





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


The treatment of row middles (wheelrows) with weed control chemicals
and mixtures of chemicals produced no significant yield reductions. Sencor,
Tillam and the Paraquat + Vegiben mixture gave excellent weed control in
both seasons. Vegiben requires soil moisture for best results and the poor
showing in the fall resulted from an application made to dry soil. (End of
Summary)

(1) Both chemicals approved for use separately. Tank mixes not
approved unless stated on the labels.

(2) Not labeled for use on tomatoes in Florida.

(3) Vegiben granular only labeled for use on tomatoes.

(4) Tillam will suppress nutsedge (nutgrass).

NOTE: Growers are advised to check the labels carefully to be sure
that materials are labeled for use on tomatoes.
(Montelaro)

C. Annual Vegetarian Index

The Annual Vegetarian Index has been initiated with the enclosed index
for the 1971-72 production year. Now an easy means of locating a desired
"article" is available for your use. It should prevent a loss of valuable
time by eliminating the issue-by-.issue scanning previously required to locate
a desired article.

The index is arranged in a cross-referenced style so that an article
is listed by both crop and specific topic. For example, if one were
interested in pinworms on tomatoes, by checking the index under Section I -
Crop: Solanaceous (tomato, potato, pepper and eggplant) or in Section II -
Specific Topic: Pests and Control; we would find that in issue 72-3 (1972 -
March) there was the article on "Pinworm on Tomatoes."

An additional characteristic is the use of (Commercial) and (Gardening)
following the title of the article and issue number. These words are self-
explanatory and serve to help the index user to categorize the slant of the
article. Thus, for example, if we find the item Poultry Manure for Vegetable
Crops 72-3 (Gardening) listed in the index, it indicates that the article
is perhaps written more toward home gardener applications than commercial;
hc.;iever, this is not always a clear-cut distinction. In some cases, these
terms would more aptly refer to where in the specific issue of the "levsletter"
the article is located, i.e., the Coinimercial Section versus the Gardening
Section.

The format of the index is based on the production year in Florida which
is ass.jum,,:l to be July 1 to June 30 of the next year. Thus, the normal content
of a year's index will be the July issue through the June issue of the follow-
ing year. However, the present "reference" type format for the newsletter was
instituted with the August issue of 1971. It is for this reason that the
initial index will contain listings from the August, 1971 issue through the
June issue of 1972. Issues prior to August, 1971 were devele;.2d on an irregular





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


basis and followed no set issuance pattern. At the present time, an
index for these early newsletters is being developed and will be forwarded
at the appropriate time. Only articles of a lasting reference value will
be included in that index.

It is suggested that the issues covered by each index be filed
together or be held in a looseleaf notebook to facilitate rapid retrieval
of desired information.
(Kostewicz, Montelaro, Stephens)

D. Potential for Sweet Potatoes in Florida

The production of sweet potatoes has declined somewhat steadily in
Florida over the years. The estimated acreage has dwindled from 24,000 in
1943 to an estimated 2,000 acres at the present time. This downward trend
in acreage is not shown by Florida alone, but is reflected in the decreased
total acreage on the national level as use and demand have dropped. Several
of the southeastern states have recently been able to hold their acreages
steady and, in some cases, have increased their acreages.

Florida markets provide a large outlet for sweet potato producers of
these neighboring states. For example, in 1970, 193 truck loads of sweet
potatoes were handled in the Miami market. Of these, 3 truck loads were from
Florida and 169 were from two of the southeastern states. While statistics
for other market cities in the State might not show this volume or steady
increase in volume that Miami has, there is little doubt that the volume in
those cities is being filled by these neighboring states. A potential thus
exists for Florida producers to compete for these markets within their own
state. However, the competition will indeed be keen and only top-quality
sweet potatoes will be able to make any inroad into established marketing
arrangements.

Many different causes have been attributed as being the most responsible
factor for the decline of the Florida industry. Perhaps the single most
mentioned aspect has been the sweet potato weevil. The weevil, at one time or
another, has been a serious pest of sweet potatoes in many of the southeastern
states. Federal and State programs have combated this pest by using control
measures and quarantines to prevent spread to uninfested areas of the south-
east. The State of Florida has a set of rules entitled, "Florida Sweet Potato
Weevil Regulations," and they are administered by the Division of Plant
Industry of the Florida Department of Agriculture. The Florida regulations
are very specific in terms of what must be done to comply with the regulations.
The point to be stressed, however, is the fact that the regulations do state,
'".JLvil-free potatoes may be grown and shipped within the state by following
the control recommendations as prescribed."

Previous descriptions of potentials of vegetable production in north
and west Florida have suggested sweet potatoes as a crop with good potential
for some areas. Then as now, the importance of the grower's willinuncss and
ability to practice up-to-date cultural recommendations including insect and
disease controls, a willingness and ability to assemble the product at a central
assembly or packing point, and a willingness to grade and pack a standard high-






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


quality product in a sufficient marketing volume for an experienced mar-
keting man to sell are critical. There is a market for quality sweet
potatoes throughout the State at all seasons of the year. If the pro-
duction know-how and technology available are used, sweet potato production
in Florida can be turned from potential to reality.

Traditionally, the "early" market for sweet potatoes has been the
time when prices are generally the highest. This high-price market ranges
from about May through part of July. It is at this time that the quality
of the stored crop from other areas is reduced making the new supply of
harvested potatoes more attractive and able to bring the premium prices.
It is for this market that the central and south Florida areas have good
potential for marketing sweet potatoes in the State.
The north and west areas of the State don't have the advantage of
an earlier season and would be better suited toward fall or late production
of sweet potatoes. The competitive advantage available to these areas is
one of nearness to the marketing areas. This, of course, would be variable
depending upon area, but certainly worthy of investigation for many areas.
Reiterating a point stressed before, only top-quality sweet potatoes
will be able to make any inroad into established marketing arrangements.
Any attempt to just get by may yield only temporary gains and certainly
hinder the long-term development of the marketing channel. In future articles,
topics of importance will be dealt with in an attempt to update our store-
house of knowledge on sweet potato production.


(Kostewicz)





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


II. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Grow A Garden For What It's Worth

According to some observers, we may be seeing the replacement of the
"Victory Gardens" of the 40's by the "Survival Gardens" of the 70's. This
isn't meant to imply that our state and national economy is in that dire
shape, but possibilities for stretching the food dollar a bit are getting
close scrutiny these days.

To show how it can be done, here is an account of a survey made in a
well-known Florida farming community. Of course, gardening is not restricted
to just rural people, but is practiced by everyone, city folks included,
having a suitable plot of ground.

The study was conducted on 33 farms in the Hastings, Florida area.
Each farmer and his wife were interviewed and the information recorded. The
records were taken from the farmers as the interviewer came to them. Four
black farmers and 29 white ones were included in the survey. The average size
of the farms was 60 acres. The principal cash crop was early potatoes.

Garden Products: Thirty-one of the 33 farms had gardens. Of the gar-
den products grown in the community, 17 different vegetables were found in
more than 20 percent of the gardens, with 50 percent of all the gardens having
9 or more kinds of vegetables. .Green beans, turnips, beets, tomatoes, mustard
and onions were the only garden products grown on 60 percent or more of the
farms. Of the 31 gardens, two furnished 15 products, 9 furnished from 11 to
14 products, and 19 furnished from 6 to 10 garden products each.

Now a table is given to show the pattern of production from the various
family gardens (see Table 1).

An attempt was made to find the season of the year that each product
was most commonly used. The time as given in the last column of the table
includes from 80 to 90 percent of all reports. This time does not mean that
each farm having the product had it for the full period, but that the vege-
table was used fresh every month covered by this period by one or more families.
Collards were the only vegetable used the year round. The fact is that only
one farmer reported using collards every month of the year, but the season
covered on the other farms varied considerably from farm to farm, so that every
month in the year was included by two or more farms.

The months of March, April and May were the months furnishing the
greatest variety of vegetables. As many as 12 different garden crops were
furnished on some of the farms for all three months. February, January,
December and June were the next months of importance in the order nailed.
Collards, okra and onions were the only garden crops harvested in August and
September, collards for October and cabbage and collards for flo'cr:[l'r.

It should not be inferred that it was impossible to have any of these
vegetables outside of the time included, but it is evident that a large
majority of the families interviewed did not consider it worthwhile.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Table 1. Distribution of Family Living from the Garden
33 Farms Hastings Area, Florida


Kind of Farms Furnishing Amount of Product Season
Vegetable Number Percent Per Family Using Furnished


From Garden:
Beans (Green)
Turnips
Beets
Mustard
Tomatoes
Onions
Cabbage
Okra
Lettuce
Collards
Cucumbers
Peas (English)
Radishes
Rutabagas
Strawberries
Carrots
Squash
Peppers
Miscel aneous
Spinach
Beans (Lima)
From Field:
Potatoes (Irish)
Corn (Sweet)
Peas (Southern)
Potatoes (Sweet)
Watermelons
Cantaloupes
Beans (Green)
Cucumbers
Peas (English)


76
73
70
64
64
60
58
58
54
48
36
33
: 33
33
33
33
30
24
21
15
12
9


2
74
70
79
2
2
111
2
66
71
2
2
15
46
49
65
80
66


Bushels
Pounds
Pounds
Pounds
Bushels
Bushels
Heads
Bushels
Heads
Pounds
Bushels
Bushels
Pounds
Pounds
Quarts
Pounds
Pounds
Pods

Pounds
Bushel

Bushels
Dozen
Bushels
Bushels
Melons
Melons
Bushels
Bushels
Bushel


Apr. -May
Dec.-May
Mar.-May
Jan.-Mar.
Apr. -July
Mar.-Sept.
Nov.-May
May-Sept.
Dec. -Apr.
All Year
Apr.-May
Dec. -Mar.
Mar.-Apr.
Dec. -May
Jan. -May
Dec.-May
May-June
June-July

Feb.-Mar.
Apr.-June

Apr.-Oct.
May-July
June-Au.g
All Year
June-Aug.
May-July
Apr. -May
June
March






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


In addition to those vegetables coming from the garden, many families
obtained fresh vegetables and strawberries from their own fields. The
use of these vegetables by the families is also included in the table. All
of the 33 farm families had fresh potatoes to eat, but it is significant
to note that on the farms where sweet potatoes were grown, nearly three times
as many sweet potatoes were used by the families. Almost half of the farms
provided potatoes, sweet corn, sweet potatoes, and Southern peas for home
use. Seven farms furnished cantaloupes and ten farms had watermelons. One-
third of the families had fresh strawberries from their own plots.

By the way, the survey was conducted in 1927 covering the year 1926,
by former Florida Agricultural Extension Economists, J. E. Turlington and
D. E. Timmons. Would such a survey show a similar pattern today?
(Stephens)

B. Know Your Vegetables Datal Pepper

A distinctly different small hot pepper called Datal has been grown
in the St. Augustine area for some time by gardeners. There is some indica-
tion that Datal pepper belongs to Capsicum sinense Jacques, although common
names are sometimes misleading. This species is most readily distinguished
by the 3-5 flowers at each node, the drooping pedicels, and the circular
constriction at the base of the fruit "cap." The plants are 1 to 2 feet
high; the fruits are from 1 to 12 cm. long, varying in shape from spherical
to oblong. Most of the other hot varieties of pepper are usually either
Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens.

Occasionally, seed of Datal will appear for sale in the Florida Market
Bulletin. Otherwise, such seed is not always easy to obtain.


(Stephens)




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