Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: August 1972
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00076
Source Institution: University of Florida
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August 1, 1972



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


V. F. Nettles James Montelaro
Acting Chairman Professor

J. M. Stephens S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor



TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: J. M. Stephens, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 72-8


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Blossom Blight of Vegetables
B. Fertilization of Tomatoes, Peppers and Eggplant
Under Full-Bed Mulch
C. Research Results of Interest to Vegetable Growers
(1) Injury to Tomato Fruit From Pesticidal Spray
Combinations
(2) Effect of Temperature on Effectiveness of
Parathion
D. Caution! Using Empty Drums for Culverts Can Be Dangerous
II. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Results 1972 State 4-H Vegetable Judging Contest
B. Results 1972 State 4-H Horticultural Demonstrations
C. Horticultural Production Project Winner
D. Some Gardening Books of Interest
E. Know Your Vegetables Leek

;OTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Blossom Blight of Vegetables

Blossom blight is a rather common disease attacking many vegetable
crops in Florida. It is a disease that is not often recognized by growers
and for that reason, the problem is attributed to nutrition, variety, etc.
The disease attacks a wide variety of crops, but is most common on okra,
squash and cucumbers. It is less often seen on peppers, eggplant, tomatoes,
watermelons, beans and possibly others.

When the disease attacks, it may prevent few, if any, fruits from
setting. The causal organism (Choanephora cucurbitarium) is a fungus which
is considered to be weakly parasitic. It attacks the flower petals first
and then invades the developing ovary causing it to rot and die. As the
flower starts to fade after opening, it is covered by a white fungal growth
which turns black with age.

Blossom blight may or may not attack a susceptible crop depending on
a certain set of conditions which are not fully known. A crop can be attacked
at any stage of development after the start of flowering, and even without
control measures, the disease can disappear just as quickly as it developed.

It is felt by some plant scientists that the Choanephora fungus is
almost secondary in causing blossom blight. By this we mean that certain con-
ditions within and without the plant predispose the flower and ovary to attack
by this fungus. It is thought that the primary internal condition is related
to poor pollination and fruit set. Poor pollination can result from many factors
such as:

(1) immature or overmature pollen
(2) low humidity
(3) lack of pollinating activity by bees
(4) heavy rains
(5) extremes in temperature
(6) nutritional imbalances, etc.

There are no sound, economical methods for the control of blossom blight.
On low-value crops, growers may best be advised to "wait until the disease
disappears on its own." On the other hand, growers may wish to apply a good
fungicide often to cover flower petals and ovaries on high-value crops. Fungi-
cides are effective for controlling the fungus, but since most crops produce
flowers lasting only a day, complete control with fungicides would require
daily spraying.

Anything the vegetable grower can do to improve pollination will, also,
tend to reduce incidence and severity of blossom blight. This includes proper
use and management of bees, good plant nutrition, water control, etc.


(Montelaro)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Fertilization of Tomatoes, Peppers and Eggplant Under Full-Bed Mulch

The use of full-bed mulch culture is increasing rapidly in vegetable
production in Florida. Until recently, full-bed mulches were used primarily
on strawberries and trellised tomatoes. For the past two years, some growers
have experimented with this method of culture on peppers and eggplant with
good results. The 1972-73 season will see considerably more peppers and
eggplant grown under full-bed plastic mulch.

Production of vegetable crops under this type of culture is quite
complicated. The crop must essentially be supplied with all of its soil
environmental requirements (lime, nutrients, soil pesticides, soil preparation,
bed shape, etc.) before the mulch is applied. It is almost impossible to
correct any deficiency of the above factors after the mulch has been applied.

Fertilization is probably the most complicated of all the problems
listed. Consideration must be given to amounts and sources of required nutrients
and placement of these materials. Research on fertilization for vegetables
under full-bed mulch culture is being rapidly expanded by IFAS workers. The
question of sources, rates and placement has not as yet been worked out to
everyone's satisfaction. The following suggestions are those arrived at by
the writer from review of research results and grower trials. Fortunately,
vegetable crops are sufficiently flexible in their requirements so as to permit
fairly successful production even with some variations from suggested practices.

For Peppers and Eggplant Under Full-Bed Mulch Culture

(1) Lime soil with dolomite (or high calcic limestone if magnesium is
already high in soil) to pH 6.5 for peppers and 6.0 to 6.2 for eggplant.
(Note: Eggplant may develop Verticillium wilt at high pH.)

(2) Broadcast and disk in
(a) Superphosphate at rate of 1,000 or more Ibs. per acre
before fumigation. (Vary amount depending on residual
P205.)
(b) Minor elements from mix of oxides and salts or 20
to 30 Ibs. FTE 503 per acre.

(c) Mixed fertilizer 500 Ibs. or more of 5-10-10 or
6-12-12 as a "starter." (Note: Alternative is to
broadcast the starter fertilizer on the surface just
prior to applying mulch cover.)

(3) Apply the balance of fertilizer in two broad bands on each side
of a one-row bed or in one broad band on a two-row bed. A total of 1,500 to
1,800 lbs. of an 18-0-25 mixture can be used here.




-I+-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


(4) Total major elements suggested per acre.

N P205 K 0
250 to 350 lbs. "100 to 200 Ibs. (old land) 400 to 500 Ibs.
200 to 300 Ibs. (new land)

(5) Nitrogen in all mixes should come primarily from a nitrate source.
Suggestion is 70% nitrate-nitrogen and 30% ammonia-nitrogen. Some natural
organic can be added. But, remember in fumigated soils they will not readily
convert until soil is re-inoculated with the nitrifiers.

Go easy on the use of ammoniated superphosphate and diammonium
phosphate until more is learned about their availability to these crops.
.For Tomatoes Under Full-Bed Mulch Culture

(1) Lime to pH 6.5 to 6.8 with dolomite plus high calcic limestone.

(2) Same as above for peppers and eggplant.

(3) Same as above for peppers and eggplant, except increase amount
of 18-0-25 to a range of 1,800 to 2,300 lbs.

(4) Total major elements suggested per acre.

N P205 K20
350 to 450 Ibs. 150 lbs. (old land) 550 to 650 lbs.
300 lbs. (new land)

(5) Same as above for peppers and eggplant.

The above are suggested guidelines which can be modified within limits
without greatly increasing risk of failure. In the past, we have observed
cases where crops under full-bed mulches "ran out" of fertilizers toward end
of the season. This is especially true on the long-season crops which are
in the field for six or more months. Growers should anticipate this problem
and make plans to introduce more fertilizer under mulch when and if it is
needed.
(Montelaro)

C. Research Results of Interest to Vegetable Growers

(1) Injury to Tomato Fruit From Pesticidal Spray Combinations

This newsletter on several occasions in the past has called
attention to research and observations on injury to vegetable crops from com-
binations of materials in the spray tank. In some recent research, Dr. S. L.
Poe and Dr. J. P. Jones, working at the Agricultural Research & Education
Center at Bradenton, noted that severe tomato fruit injury resulted from spray
combinations of Difolatan and Parathion + TDE. The fruit injury was characterized
by shallow, darkened pits on the surface. More than 50% of the tomato fruits
were unmarketable as a result of the injury. Without TDE, the Difolatan and




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Parathion mixture caused no fruit injury. These results should serve again
to warn growers not to mix materials in the spray tank indiscriminately.
Leave out the major element fertilizer materials and use only those insecti-
cides and fungicides deemed to be absolutely necessary.
(2) Effect of Temperature on Effectiveness of Parathion
Growers have observed periods when an insecticide failed to con-
trol pests as well as expected. This is especially true with the parathions.
Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbarger tested methyl-ethyl parathion under controlled con-
ditions on aphids infesting young potato plants. His results showed that aphid
mortality from parathion was directly related to temperature. He obtained only
67% kill at 450 F., 80% at 500 F., 90% at 630 F., and 95% at 770 F.
Based on this and previous work, vegetable growers should make
every effort to avoid using the parathions and certain other insecticides at
low temperatures. If possible, these materials are best applied at air
temperatures of 750 F. to 800 F. (ontearo)
(M~ontel aro)

D. Caution! Using Empty Drums for Culverts Can Be Dangerous
Vegetable growers are quite adept at improvising needed equipment from
materials on hand. One such example of this has been observed to be hazardous
and needs some attention from a safety standpoint. It is the practice of making
drainage culverts from several old used drums (30-gallon pesticide, etc.). The
tops and bottoms are cut out with a welding torch, then the drums are welded
together.
We in the Cooperative Extension Service feel that this practice is
hazardous in many respects and can be extremely dangerous to the worker who must
cut and weld the drums together. First, we suggest that other materials designed
specifically for culvert usage be utilized wherever possible and that pesticide
(or other chemical) drums not be used for this purpose, for the following reasons:

(1) Drums have been known to explode when touched with the torch or weld-
ing rod (not all of them explode, but the occasional one that does is dangerous).

(2) Chemicals (many times unknown) may vaporize under the extreme heat
and may cause respiratory injury.

(3) Irrigation and drainage water flowing through such culverts could
become contaminated.
Certain Precautions

For growers who do not heed the warnings and insist on using the drums
for culverts, here are a few suggestions which might reduce the dangers (but not
eliminate them completely):
(1) First, use the decontamination procedures as outlined in the Insect
Control Guide (includes washing, rinsing and draining).
(2) Open all bungs and lids before cutting.
(3) Make sure the drum is filled with water while cutting out the top end.
(4) Use only drums which are labeled to have contained only safe pesti-
cides (unlabeled drums contain unknown chemicals).
(Stephens)




-6-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


II. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Results 1972 State 4-H Vegetable Judging Contest

State 4-H Club Congress has just concluded at the University of
Florida where the State 4-H Vegetable Judging Contest was held. Contestants
identified insects, diseases, weeds, seeds, nutritional disorders, defects,
and vegetable varieties. They judged vegetables and graded 100 Irish
potatoes for quality.

Eight county teams participated. The winning team was from St. Johns
County, followed by Liberty, Okaloosa, Orange, Columbia, Suwannee, Dade and
Martin.

The St. Johns County team will represent Florida in the national contest
in Columbus, Ohio, in December. The trip is co-sponsored by the Florida Power
Corporation, Florida Power and Light Company, and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services.
(Stephens)


B. Results 1972 State 4-H Horticultural Demonstrations


Ten demonstrations on horticultural practices were presented during State
4-H Congress. The results are as'follows:


P1 acing


St. Johns

St. Johns
Brevard
Pasco

Lee
Pasco
Wakulla
Lake
Liberty
Santa Rosa


Name


Angie Brock
Denise Masters
Charlene Foster
Karen Barber
Ricky Avriett
Linda Avriett
Doug Guidry
Jeff Futch
Bill Harvey
Brian Goodwin
Wesley Crews
Jed Knoblock


The winning demonstration will be presented
Colombus, also.


Title of Demonstration

"Growing Herbs"

"Gladiolus"
"Fruits and Dips"
"Garnishes"

"Plant Propagation"
"Roses In My Garden"
"How To Make A Jiffy Pot"
"Plant Soil"
"Home Vegetable Garden"
"Plant Propagation"

in national competition at


(Stephens)

C. Horticultural Production Project Winner

Jimmy Browning, 18 year old 4-H member from Elkton, Florida, has been
recognized for having the most outstanding Horticultural Project in Florida
for 1972. He will attend the National 4-H Congress in Chicago in November,
courtesy of the Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association. Jimmy was further
honored by being elected State 4-H Club President for the 1972-73 year.


(Stephens)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


D. Some Gardening Books of Interest

In addition to our own University circulars and bulletins, many
good booklets on gardening (vegetable, fruit, and ornamental) are on the
market. The following are some examples of such manuals.

(1) Vegetable Gardening, by the Progressive Farmer Book Division,
Birmingham, Alabama. This attractive, well-illustrated booklet covers the
production of vegetables, berries, grapes, and herbs in the Southern states.

(2) Organic Gardening and Farming, by Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
This monthly periodical is much used by those gardeners who attempt to avoid
"conventional" methods of gardening. Information and testimonials presented
reflect the "organic" philosophy.

(3) Handbook for Vegetable Growers, by J. E. Knott, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., New York. Although not profusely illustrated, this handbook con-
tains in ready reference form many facts and figures relating to the production
of vegetables, both in the garden and in large commercial fields.

(4) The Maxwell Series of Horticultural Books, available from Lewis S.
Maxwell, 6230 Travis Boulevard, Tampa, Florida. All in the Maxwell Series are
extremely well illustrated. The series includes (1) "Florida Lawns and
Gardens," (2) "Florida Plant Selector," (3) "Florida Insects," (4) "Florida
Fruit," and (5) "Florida Flowers (Annuals and Bulbs)."

(5) Vegetable Gardening, by Sunset Books and Sunset Magazine, Lane
Books, Menlo Park, California. This is an illustrated guide to growing vege-
tables in the garden and landscape.

(6) Gardening, the Boy Scouts of America Merit Badge Series, by Paul
Work, New Brunswick, New Jersey. A concise manual on vegetable gardening
fundamentals.
(Stephens)

E. Know Your Vegetables Leek

The leek (Allium porrum) is a biennial that is grown as an annual for
its long blanched or unblanched stems. It forms a thick, fleshy structure like
a large green onion plant without a bulb. It is attractive in appearance with
its silvery base and green top. The leaves are flat, in contrast to the round
ones of the onion. The thick leaf bases and slightly developed bulb are eaten
as a cooked vegetable or raw with or without attached leaves. The green leaves
may be eaten and have a pungent odor and acrid taste. They are used more for
flavoring in salads and cookery.
Leeks should be started from seed in the fall in Florida and grown very
much like the common onion.
(Stephens)




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