Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00075
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: July 1972
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00075
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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July 3, 1972

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist

James Montelaro

J. M. Stephens
Assistant Professor

S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


FROM: S. R. Kostewicz, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist





A. Jubilee Watermelon Availability of "Registered"
B. Growers Conducted Field Tests
C. Blossom-end Rot of Watermelons
D. Surface Active Agents (Surfactants)
A. Halloween Jack-O'-Lanterns
B. 1972 State 4-H Horticultural Demonstrations
C. Allis-Chalmers Drops 4-H Horticultural Program
D. New Vegetable Gardening Publications
E. Know Your Vegetables Kohlrabi

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.



A. Jubilee Watermelon Availability of "Registered" Seed

Previous issues of this newsletter carried items explaining the loss
of fusarium wilt resistance originally available in the Jubilee variety of
watermelons and our effort to resurrect this valuable wilt resistance by
going back to foundation stock for seed production. Dr. J. M. Crall, the
breeder of Jubilee, Mr. Jack Oswald, Manager of the Florida Seed Foundation,
and the Extension Service have cooperated in this program. Seedsmen who
plant Jubilee foundation seed in the Western states or in Florida can obtain
a "Registered" label for the first generation seed. It is this "Registered"
label seed which will have wilt resistance similar to the original level found
in Jubilee shortly after it was released in 1963. This was well demonstrated
in field tests where we planted the "new" alongside commercial lots of Jubilee
in Marion and Levy Counties. The difference in wilt resistance was very
obvious to anyone who looked at them. Growers were very enthused that now
Jubilee seed would be available with the original level of wilt resistance.

Growers interested in the production of Jubilee watermelon next year
should book their Registered Jubilee watermelon seed as soon as possible.
Remember that certified seed of Jubilee may not be resistant to wilt--it must
have a "Registered" tag. Registered Jubilee seed will cost more than certi-
fied seed since it costs more to produce it.

Seedsmen who bought foundation Jubilee seed for the production of
Registered seed are as follows:

(1) Northrup, King & Company, 1500 Jackson Street, Minneaplis,
Minnesota, 55413

(2) Charter Seed Company, Twin Falls, Idaho, 83301

(3) FMC Corporation, Box 3091, Modesto, California, 95353

(4) S & M Farm Supply, Inc., Mt. Dora, Florida, 32757

(5) Otis S. Twilley, Salisbury, Maryland, 21801

(6) H. M. Taylor Seedsman, Quincy, Florida, 32351

(7) Asgrow Seed Company, P. 0. Box 716, Gonzales, California, 93926

(8) Willhite Melon Seed Farms, Poolville, Texas, 76076

(9) Burrell Seeds, Inc., 405 North Main, Rocky Ford, Colorado, 81067

(10) Hollar and Company, Inc., Rocky Ford, Colorado, 81067




B. Growers Conducted Field Tests

Vegetable growers in Florida are being supplied with large amounts
of technical information on crop varieties, fertilizers, pesticides, cultural
practices, etc. It comes from many well-trained and experienced technicians
working for governmental agencies and private industry. This vast amount
of information is of great benefit to the grower.

In spite of all the help growers receive from the outside, a practice
involving a change in varieties, pesticides, fertilizers and cultural practices
should be evaluated on the farm by the grower. This evaluation does not
require any special skills and does not have to be costly. It can, however,
save the grower from making costly mistakes.

The evaluation or grower test can and should be done in two steps as

(1) When a new practice looks promising from information developed
by research, the grower should test it on a small-scale basis in the beginning.
This does not have to be more than one or two rows or small plots in one or
more locations in a planting where the old standard practice is being used.

(2) When a new practice looks good and is incorporated as a standard
practice, reverse the testing procedure by including one or two rows in one or
more places of the "old practice" for comparison with the "new practice."

The above suggestions should be part of the process of change in a
vegetable farming operation. Some of the best demonstrations observed on
vegetable farms are those conducted purposely by the grower or developed
accidentally through oversight, error, breakdown of equipment, etc.

Some production practices are not easy to evaluate in a vegetable
operation. Some disease control programs fall into this category for the simple
reason that differences are not always readily obvious to the human eye. However,
other production practices lend themselves quite well to grower testing. These
include varieties, fumigants, certain fertilizer sources, rates, placement and
timing, foliar feeding, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, cultivation and
many others.

C. Blossom-end Rot of Watermelons

A rather severe outbreak of blossom-end rot of watermelons in central
and north Florida this season resulted in many calls to the Vegetable Specialists
for information on what could be done to control the problem. Once blossom-end
rotted melons are observed in a field, it is too late to do anything to save
them. However, something can be done to help the remaining crop and to
alleviate the problem in general. First and foremost, the blossom-end rotted
melons should be removed from the vines as soon as possible to lessen the "load"
on the plants. The reason for this recommendation can be found in the following


The exact cause of blossom-end rot in watermelons has not been com-
pletely resolved. Based on our research and experience with this and other
crops affected by this disorder, we can give some suggestions which will
tend to lessen the occurrence and severity of the problem. Briefly stated,
we feel that blossom-end rot of watermelons is associated with:

(1) Temporary deficiency of calcium in the watermelon plant, and

(2) Temporary plant-stress situations caused by: (a) an excess
but more frequently, by a deficiency of water; (b) cool temperatures;
(c) foliar diseases, etc.

Something can certainly be done to lessen the severity of blossom-end
rot of watermelons. Detailed explanation for each suggestion is omitted
for the sake of brevity. Just remember that each in some way is associated
with the two situations listed above. The practices are:

(1) Lime to pH 6.0 to 6.5.

(2) Apply at least two units of nitrate-nitrogen in the basic appli-
cation of fertilizer.

(3) Use low-salt index fertilizer materials.

(4) Use split applicationsof fertilizer to reduce chance of rapid
salt buildup.

(5) Maintain a uniform supply of moisture.

(6) Develop and maintain a good root system through use of rotation,
soil fumigation and other soil pest controls, cultivation, etc.

(7) Control foliar diseases.

(8) Obtain good pollination.

(9) Sidedress with nitrate-nitrogen and calcium depending on rainfall
and needs.

D. Surface Active Agents (Surfactants)

The terminology used by formulation chemists include such items as
surfactants (wetting agents, spreaders, and penetrants), stabilizing agents
dispersantss and emulsifiers), co-solvents (coupling agents), hygroscopic
agents, deposit builders (stickers), and activators. Many of these types of
compounds are only of concern and available to the formulator. However, various
compounds are available to the grower for utilization as tank mixes in com-
bination with pesticides. Most commonly, these materials are all referred to
as "surfactants" whether or not they truly fit the chemists definition.


Generally, these compounds are wetting agents, spreaders, stickers, and
penetrants. Their use is becoming more widespread in an attempt to increase
effectiveness, or in some instances, to decrease the needed effective rates.

The types of surfactants are classified by the nature of the molecules
in solution. The classes are non-ionic, anionic, cationic, and amphoteric.
Non-ionic surfactants do not form charged particles when they are in solution.
The anionic materials have negative charges and the cationic materials positive
charges when in solution. The amphoteric materials are capable of exhibiting
either charge, depending upon the pH of the solution. The non-ionic and the
anionic materials are the most widely used surfactants.

Surfactants are utilized with herbicides primarily as aids in obtaining
penetration of the spray material into the plant tissues. However, there may
be added characteristics such as emulsifying, sticking, activating, or dispersing
abilities which can render some surfactants adaptable to other pesticide

The surfactants generally act by making the spray material more favorable
for transport through the surface tissues of the leaf into the plant or in
some manner alters or breaks down the surface tissues so that penetration is

The use of surfactants is based on the assumption that a general enhance-
ment of activity or effectiveness from the spray material will result. However,
a detrimental effect of reducing the effectiveness or activity of the material
is also a possibility. The surfactant should be selected as carefully as one
selects the spray material to be used. Often, whether or not a surfactant should
be used and what kind and type should be used is given on the label of the spray
material. The label of the surfactant container lists important details on
mixing, compatibility with other chemicals, and information on sensitive plants.
Both should be consulted before using combinations of the two.




A. Halloween Jack-0'-Lanterns

What is the largest vegetable? Probably the pumpkin (squash). Some
have been grown weighing over 300 pounds. To most people, however, the word
pumpkin conjures up visions of pies and jack-o'-lanterns.

Florida gardeners who wish to grow jack-o'-lantern pumpkins must rely
on northern varieties. Most of these are very susceptible to mildew and other
leaf diseases so common in the warm, humid Florida climate. In spite of the
problems, many pumpkins suitable for jack-o'-lanterns are grown down here.
Since most of them are large vining, adequate space must be provided (about
50 square feet per hill).

To be ready to grin on Halloween night, jack-o'-lantern pumpkins must
be planted in the spring, or at least no later than July 4. Many varieties
need 4 months to mature.

The standard variety for years has been, and still is, the Connecticut
Field pumpkin. It is also known by other names such as Big Tom. The size and
color make it just about right for a jack-o'-lantern. Its average weight is
about 20-25 pounds, its diameter is about 14 inches, and its color is bright
orange. Allow 120 days for it to mature.

A huge jack-o'-lantern may be made from the variety Big Max. Excellent
results were obtained with this variety at the Experiment Station Farm at
Gainesville. It will average well over 50 pounds and five feet in girth.
Again, 4 months from seed to maturity should be allowed.

Some folks like smaller jack-o'-lanterns, especially since they double
better for pies than the bigger pumpkins. The leading small-fruit variety is
Small Sugar Pumpkin. It is round, slightly ribbed, and about 6-8 inches in
diameter. It matures in about 100 days.

Other varieties to suggest for trial for jack-o'-lantern making are
Spookie (small, 90 days), Jack-O'-Lantern (medium, 110 days), and Cinderella
(medium, 100 days).

B. 1972 State 4-H Horticultural Demonstrations

The 1972 finals of the State 4-H Horticultural Demonstrations will be
held in Hume Hall (TV Room), University of Florida; Tuesday, July 25, from
8:00 a.m. to 1:30 p.m.

4-H members winning district competition and, thus, eligible to compete
at Gainesville are as follows:


Dis tri ct
















Santa Rosa






St. Johns

St. Johns








St. Lucie


Jed Knoblock

Wesley Crews

Kim Lewis

Marquetta Cowley

Bill Harvey

Angie Brock
Denise Masters

Charlene Foster

Karen Barber

Brian Goodwin

Ricky Avriett
Linda Avriett

Jeff Futch

Doug Guidry

Lucie Conde

Mary Alice Hurley

C. Allis-Chalmers Drops 4-H Horticultural Program

The national awards program in Horticulture, which includes vegetable
gardening, is no longer sponsored by Allis-Chalmers. However, the traditional
trip to Chicago and National 4-H Club Congress will be continued by other
sponsors, at least for this year. Four county level medals will be provided.
Hopefully, some national level sponsor will be found for this very popular
program area. (Stephens)

D. New Vegetable Gardening Publications

Two new and one revised circulars on vegetable gardening have just been
released. The two new ones are: (1) Circular 375, "Organic Vegetable Gardening,"
and (2) Circular 377, "Vegetable Planting Guide." Please note: In responding
to a request for Circular 375, "Organic Vegetable Gardening," please include

Title of Demonstration

Plant Propagation

Home Vegetable Garden

Orchid Culture

Cleft Grafting

How to Make a Jiffy Pot

Growing Herbs


Fruits and Dips

Plant Soil


Roses in My Garden

Plant Propagation

La Deliciosos Viandas

Propagation of Orchids




Circular 377, "Vegetable Planting Guide," as a companion circular. However,
the Planting Guide may be given out independently.

Circular 104H is a June, 1972 revision of the "Vegetable Gardening
Guide"--a conventional guide for vegetable gardeners. All three circulars are
available free upon request from the IFAS Editorial Bulletin Room, McCarty
Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

E. Know Your Vegetables Kohlrabi

Kohlrabi, (Brassica oleracea var. caulo-rapa), is a Cruciferae (cabbage
family). It is grown for the turnip-like enlargement of the stem just above
ground level. Leaves arise from the top of the round, bulb-like stem. The
enlargement is tender and succulent, if rapidly grown and harvested, but
becomes tough and fibrous with age. For eating, the peel is removed, and the
interior diced and boiled.

Propagation is similar to cabbage, with plant spacing about 4 inches.
Kohlrabi matures in about 60 days.


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