Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 1972
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00072
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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IFAS
IIP^


April 5, 1972



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


George A. Marlowe, Jr.
Chairman


James Montelaro
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Assistant Professor


J. R. Hicks
Assistant Professor


S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


R. K. Showalter
Professor


D. D. Gull
Associate Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: James Montelaro, Vegetable Crops Specialist\.2'/
,4
VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 72-4


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Fertilization of Direct-Seeded Cabbage on Sandy
Soils
B. Salt Injury to Vegetable Crop Seedlings Growing
in Plastic
C. Pick-Your-Own Vegetables--A Success Story
D. Irrigation: Almost A Necessity
II. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Book Review "Vegetable Gardening" by the Progressive
Farmer
B. Mimeographs Available from the Vegetable Crops Department
C. Know Your Vegetables New Zealand Spinach


NOTE: Anyone is
possible,


free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
please give credit to the authors.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. COOPERATING


I- LL.)hIL.A- LVVLt-tl_ I I=I NV tI_/ 1 __.I I,-JI N rj =-_ J ii
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

VEGETABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT

The VEGETARIAN Newsletter




-2-

THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Fertilization of Direct-Seeded Cabbage on Sandy Soils

This is a summary of two years' research on methods of fertilization
for direct-seeded cabbage. The work was done by Dr. Dale Hensel at the
Agricultural Research Center at Hastings. It is presented here because it
applies to many direct-seeded crops and to crop production in general.
The results, in brief, are presented in the following table:

Total Yield of Direct-Seeded Cabbage
Hastings, Florida


1969-70 1970-71
Treatment 6-8-8 (wet year) (dry year)
#/A T/A T/A
Broadcast 400 8.2 10.7
1000 10.5 9.2
1600 12.2 7.6
Banded 600 8.4 10.0
1500 10.4 9.3
2400 12.2 8.4


Dr. Hensel reported "During the winter growing seasons
of 1969-70 and 1970-71, three fertilization rates of broad-
casting and banding were combined with three rates of side-
dressing on direct-seeded cabbage. Weather conditions were
quite different. In 1969-70, the growing season was wet,
and the fertilizer applications were subjected to much
leaching. Whereas in 1970-71, the opposite was true. Very
little rain fell during the time the plants were in the small
seedling state which resulted in poor stands and loss of
vigor. Analysis of salt concentrations by the I & B Method
in the 0-6" level showed very high amounts of salt accumulated
in all treatments, however, significant increases were due to
high applications of both broadcast and banded fertilizer."

These results point out some important facts:

(1) Cabbage plant stand and early seedling vigor can be severely
repressed in direct-seeded fields by soluble salts in the soil. It is a
known fact that plants suffer considerably more from salt injury in the
seedling stage than at the more advanced stages of development.

NOTE: Dr. Hensel suggests that only 400 to 600 pounds of 6-8-8 or
equivalent material be used broadcast on sandy soils for direct-seeded
cabbage in areas like Hastings where seepage irrigation is used and wells
are generally high in salts.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


(2) High fertilization pays in a wet (leaching) year but can
actually reduce yields in a dry season. These results demonstrate the
effects of total soluble salts on plant growth. A test for total soluble
salts in the soil solution is an excellent guide to fertilization under
any conditions. Growers not having this service at their disposal should
use good judgment based on their years of experience to modify fertiliza-
tion programs according to frequency and amount of rainfall, etc.
(Montelaro)

B. Salt Injury to Vegetable Crop Seedlings Growing in Plastic

Starting a crop of tomatoes, peppers or any other vegetable from either
seed or transplants under full-bed mulch culture can be a problem during
the warm weather of late summer or early fall. The reason is salt injury
resulting from rather heavy concentrations of salts which accumulate at
the surface of the soil in the area where the hole is cut into the plastic.
Seedlings of any crop are much more susceptible to salt injury than at later
stages of development.

Growers understanding the simple principles governing salt movement in
the soil are in a much better position to cope with the problems. In general,
soluble salts:

(1) Move in the soil moisture.

(2) Accumulate in greatest amounts at the highest point in the bed.
(Note: This would be the crown of the bed, if shaped in that fashion.)

(3) Accumulate at the points where moisture is lost to the air from
the soil by removal by plants and evaporation. (Note: This area would be
the soil surface exposed when holes are cut into plastic on flat-topped beds.)

Since this problem surfaced only recently, our research people have not
had time to solve it completely. However, we have had considerable experience
with salt problems in this state and; therefore, we feel that we can offer
some suggestions to alleviate the seriousness of the problem in the meantime.
Growers should check these suggestions and see how many can be incorporated
into their operations.

(1) On two-row crops such as peppers, strawberries, etc., form the bed
so that it is crowned in the middle (a 1- to 2-inch crown is sufficient). On
a one-row bed, a slight slope to one side of the bed would be beneficial.

(2) Do not use excessive amounts of fertilizer.

(3) Do not place fertilizer in concentrated bands underneath or near
the seedlings.
(4) Maintain adequate (field capacity) moisture at all times.

(5) Keep delay between cutting hole and seeding (or transplanting) to
a minimum. Be certain to permit fumigants to escape.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


(6) Apply reflective materials such as aluminum paint, whitewash,
etc., over the plastic and possibly over the hole provided the material
is not toxic to plants.

(7) Use overhead sprinklers in extreme emergencies to wash salts from
the root zone.
(Montelaro)

C. Pick-Your-Own Vegetables--A Success Story

Just a few years ago, it was almost impossible to find a pick-your-own
vegetable operation in the State of Florida. Today, they can be found in
the vicinity of the larger cities in larger numbers and to a lesser extent
even near the "so-called" small towns. Many growers are still using this
method of marketing to sell the "residues" of vegetable crops planted primarily
for regular fresh market channels. However, more are going directly to
pick-your-own after having found that it is a profitable way of marketing
their crops.

With the experience gained over the past few years, growers are taking
steps to improve their operations by using better (1) scheduling of crops,
(2) field layout, (3) advertising, (4) signs, (5) entrances to farm, (6)
parking, etc. Most of the growers interviewed seemed to be well pleased with
this type of operation. Most felt that the volume of vegetables sold by the
pick-your-own method can be expanded significantly in certain situations.

We believe that vegetable production for pick-your-own sales can be
expanded to include a wider variety of crops over a longer period of time
and into more areas of the State than at present. The desire for fresh, high
quality vegetables and strawberries at a reasonable cost plus ever-increasing
family leisure time will certainly support an expansion of this unique method
of selling these items. We feel that pick-your-own offers excellent opportunities
for small, family-type operations.
(Montelaro)

D. Irrigation: Almost A Necessity

Irrigation is generally used where natural rainfall is subject to
fluctuations in amount, intensity and occurrence so that an additional source
of water is needed to produce a successful crop.
There are various methods utilized to distribute the water over the
crop land, each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages and installa-
tion and operation costs. The methods currently in use in Florida were
generally chosen to take advantage of some natural phenomena such as artesian
wells, impervious soil layers, etc., in addition to the initial cost considera-
tions. Although Florida is one of the wettest states in terms of rainfall,
irrigation is still very necessary for the production of vegetables. Hardly
a season passes that does not require additional water by irrigation to maintain
the crops' yield and/or quality.







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


For example, at the Belle Glade Agricultural Research and Education
Center a 47 year average of monthly rainfall shows: October 5.22, November
2.00, December 1.62, January 1.88, and February 1.86. It is generally
used as a rule of thumb that about 1 inch per week is the quantity of water
we like to have on vegetables. From the 47 year averages, we see that
several of the months' averages are below the 1 inch per week rule of thumb
value. This indicates that irrigation is beneficial during one or more of
these months during any given year in the Belle Glade area.

The production costs of any given vegetable crop have become so large
that supplemental irrigation facilities are a requirement to insure the
investment from complete loss. Most processing companies now have irriga-
tion requirements for any contract acreages let out. Fluctuations in yields
from year to year due to shortages of rainfall can be reduced by using irriga-
tion. The stabilizing effect of irrigation on yields gives a degree of pre-
dictability to the acreage. This is beneficial both to the grower and the
processor over the long run.

Newer systems and concepts are currently being dealt with in a con-
tinuing attempt to improve our fertilizer usage efficiency, water usage,
and management techniques. Such systems as trickle, drip, and ooze tubes
will be discussed in the future much as solid set, furrow and seepage systems
are talked of currently.

Irrigation will continue to be an integral part of the vegetable pro-
duction operation. Any new vegetable production concern within the State
must incorporate irrigation to be competitive or to remain commercially
productive and profitable.


(Kostewicz)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


II. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Book Review "Vegetable Gardening" by the Progressive Farmer

An excellent manual on growing vegetables in the South is now avail-
able for purchase from the editors of the Progressive Farmer and Southern
Living magazines. The gardening information was edited by members of an
advisory panel composed of Cooperative Extension personnel from various
southern universities.

The chapters are entitled as follows:


The Home Garden
Planning the Garden
Growing Plants Out Of Season
Minigardens and Growing Plants Without Soil
How to Grow Each Vegetable
Planting Maps
Growing Berries and Grapes
Spice Your Garden With Herbs
Month by Month in the Garden
Controlling Garden Pests
Garden Pest Control Chart
Beneficial Insects
State Planting Guides
Plant Insects and Diseases (Color)
Glossary


"Vegetable Gardening" contains 172 pages and is printed in large, easy-
to-read type. It is a well-illustrated 71 x 10 inch hard-cover book. Price
is $3.95 (plus 50 postage and handling).


Order from:


Progressive Farmer
Book Division
Box 2463
Birmingham, Alabama 35202


(Stephens)


B. Mimeographs Available from the Vegetable Crops Department

Several mimeographs on vegetable topics are on file in the Vegetable
Crops Department, University of Florida. Many of these are available upon
request. Quantities mailed to anyone ordering mimeos will be limited to
supplies available. Here is a listing of mimeos available.


Veg. Crops MR #


60-1

61-3


Title


Asparagus Marvel

Machine Laying of Polyethylene Mulch Harrison and
Marvel







THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Veg. Crops MR #

62-1


64-1

64-2

64-3

64-4

64-5

65-1

65-2

65-3

65-4

65-5

65-6

65-7


66-1

66-2

66-3

66-4

66-5

66-7

67-1

67-2

67-3

67-4

67-5


Title

Suggested Year-Round Garden for Central Florida -
Stephens

Growing the Chayote in Florida Stephens

Growing the Dasheen in Florida Stephens

Growing Dill in Florida Stephens

Growing Strawberries in Barrels Stephens and Locascio

Tomato Fruit Set Stephens

Growing Cassava in Florida Stephens

Growing Rhubarb in Florida Stephens

Growing Collards in Florida Stephens

Chives in the Florida Garden Stephens

Nutsedge in Florida Stephens and Sasser

Vegetable Variety Demonstration Report Stephens

Potentials of Vegetable Production in North and West
Florida Jamison

Growing the Jerusalem Artichoke in Florida Stephens

Ornamental Gourds Stephens

Growing Ginger in Florida Stephens

Sources of Herbs Stephens

Variety and Type Seed Use Survey Marvel

Guide for Growing Cantaloupes in North Florida Marvel

Growing Herbs in Florida Stephens

Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Produce Stephens

Bobby and the Nematodes Stephens

Securing Good Seed Potatoes for Florida Montelaro

Instructions for Seeding in Peat Pots Marvel




-8-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Veg. Crops MR # Title

67-6 Description of Hot Peppers Marvel

68-1 County Agent Training Session Roadside Markets -
Stephens

68-2 Roadside Market Survey Montelaro

68-3 Analysis of Varieties Planted in Florida Marvel

70-1 Strawberry Nurseries Marvel

71-1 Prediction of Maturity in Vegetables Hart

71-2 The "Ideal" Roadside Market Stephens

71-3 Mushroom Information Stephens

71-4 Luffa Gourd Stephens

72-1 Vegetable Seed and Plant Companies Stephens

72-2 Growing Vegetables Organically Stephens

(Stephens)

C. Know Your Vegetables New Zealand Spinach

New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides) is used in the same
manner as spinach, but the plant is very different. It reaches a height of
1 to 2 feet and is much branched, spreading to 2 to 3 feet across. When the
plant has reached a spread of a foot or so, the end 2 or 3 inches of the
branches (tender shoots, tips, and leaves) may be harvested with a knife.
New growth will arise along these cut branches and the ends of the new branches
may be harvested. Cutting back too heavily will retard growth and reduce the
total yield. The gardener must learn from experience how much to harvest each
time under his own conditions. Commercially, whole plants are usually cut
above ground when small. New growth from the cut stem base will produce a
later crop.

New Zealand spinach has a flavor very similar to, but milder than
common spinach. It is a heat-resistant, warm weather plant that is tender
to frost. For this reason, it promises much for summer greens in Florida gardens.

The seeds are large and germinate slowly. Soaking the seeds for 24
hours before planting helps in germination. Space rows 24 to 30 inches apart
and the plants 12 to 15 inches apart.

In Florida, plant in early spring throughout the summer. First foliage
is ready for harvest about 2 months after seeding.


(Stephens)




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