Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: December 1971
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00070
Source Institution: University of Florida
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NEWSLETTER 71-12

December 3, 1971



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

G. A. Marlowe, Jr. James Montelaro J. M. Stephens

J. R. Hicks R. K. Showalter D. D. Gull


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FRO1: James Montelaro, Vegetable Crops Specialist IjN1 ,


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Full-bed Mulches in Vegetable Production
B. Root Injury to Vegetables
II. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Packages and Packaging Affect Quality
III. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. National Junior Horticultural Association Convention
B. Know Your Vegetables Jack Bean

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Full-bed Mulches in Vegetable Production

There has been a significant increase in the use of full-bed plastic
or paper mulches for vegetable production over the past two or three years
in Florida. Until recently, this practice was used on str:'..,'erries and on a
small acreage of tomatoes. This season it is estimated that three to five
tli;ousan acres of tomatoes are being grown will full-bed mulches. With the
introduction of biodegradable materials, it is felt that we may see a further
increase in the use of this practice.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Many questions are being asked of county agents by growers who are
using mulches for the first time. A publication to cover all aspects of
this subject is now being written by research and extension workers. How-
ever, it will be some time before it is completed and ready for distri-
bution. The following notes were assembled to take care of some of the
more important questions that are being asked in the meantime.

1. Mulches Advantages and Disadvantages

The first question that comes to mind is; why should mulches be
used? The question can be best answered by listing possible advantages
and disadvantages that are related to the use of full-bed mulches.

a. Advantages

(1) Reduces leaching of fertilizer
(2) Aids in weed control
3) Maintains uniform soil moisture
4) Aids in control of soluble salt problems
(5) Improves action of fumigants and prevent
recontamination
(6) Prevents bed erosion
(7) Reduces fruit rots
(8) Temperature of soil is increased in winter months

b. Disadvantages

(1) Initial cost is quite high
2) Additional fertilizer is hard to apply, if needed
3) Seeding and transplanting are more complicated
4) Removal is troublesome and costly
(5) Temperature may be too high in warm weather

2. Land Selection and Preparation

New land has many advantages over old land. However, old land
can be used with good success. In selecting land for use of full-bed
mulches, try to find land that is level and can be irrigated and drained
easily. Good drainage is a must. Pumping and ditching facilities should be
available for quick removal of excess rainwater. Flooding in a field with
full-bed mulching can result in serious damage to the crop.

All objects which might interfere with mulch application should
be removed from the field. This is especially true of newly-cleared land
where roots and stumps may be present.

3. Fumigants

Choice of fumigants is quite important. On newly-cleared land
a fumigant may not be necessary. On the contrary, fumigation may be absolutely
necessary on old land. Choice of a fumigant depends on the problems anticipated.
The following is a list of fumigants for tomatoes and the pathoigns controlled
by each.




-3-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Table 1. Vegetable Pathogens Controlled in Sandy Soil by Various Fumigants


Rate Pyth- S. Nema-
Fumigants gal/A. Fus. Vert. ium rolfsii todes Phoma
Chloropicrin 30 X X X
Chloropicrin + D-D 30 + 25 X X X X
Chloropicrin + EDB 30 + 6 X X X X
D-D 25 X
EDB 6 X
Vorlex 35 X X X X X
Vorlex-201 35 X X X X X X


4. Final Preparation

After the land has been selected, cleared, levelled, ditched,
etc., final preparations which should be carried out are as follows. These
can be modified, but care should be taken to see that mistakes are not made.
They cannot be corrected very easily after the mulch is laid.

a. Soil Moisture

(1) Maintain seedbed moisture during preparation of the field
(2) Purpose
(a) encourage rotting of crop debris
b) encourage hatching of nematode and insect eggs,
germination of weed seeds, and spores of disease
organisms

b. Cultivation

(1) Rotovate, disk or plow the field repeatedly for at least
one month before planting
(2) Purpose
(a) destroy previous crop debris
(b) destroy weeds
(c) clean fallow to starve out soil pests

c. Soil Amendments

(1) Mix 500 Ibs./A dolomite broadcast during cultivation and
500 Ibs./A superphosphate + 20 Ibs./A FN503 fritted
trace elements in the beds. Use more lime, if needed.
(2) Purpose
(a) liming materials and phosphates must be thoroughly
mixed in the plow layer

d. Soil Fumigation

(1) Apply a soil fumigant in prepared beds or as the beds
are being constructed





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


(2) Method
(a) 3 streams 6 inches below the final bed surface
(b) distance between streams varies with chemical
(8-12 inches)
(c) compact the treated bed immediately with a
press, eliminate chisel crevice

e. Fertilization (Immediately)

(1) Place 1500-2000 Ibs./A 18-0-25-2 in 2 narrow bands
on outer edge of bed surface
(2) Broadcast 300 lbs./A 6-10-10 between the bands

f. Mulch (Immediately)

(1) Seal mulch over fumigated and fertilized bed
(2) 7 days after fumigation cut the plant holes in mulch
3) 14 days after fumigation set tomato transplants

These suggested were, in the main, prepared by Mrs. Overman, Dr. Jones
and Dr. Geraldson of the AREC at Bradenton. The author expanded the information
to answer questions asked often by county agents. NOTE: The information pre-
sented here is for tomatoes. It can be used for other crops with only slight
modifications.
(Montelaro)

B. Root Injury to Vegetables

In recent visits to vegetable operations in the state, the author noted
at least two serious cases of root injury to crops in advanced stages of develop-
ment. Both cases involved fertilizer applications.

In the first, the growers applied a solid sidedressing material and felt
it had to be incorporated with the soil for best results. The equipment used
was set too deeply and the resulting root damaged more than negated the potential
benefits of the sidedressing material.

In the second case, a liquid sidedressing material was injected in bands
to each side of the crop. The injections were too close and too deep. To add
to this, the injection slit was left open to dry out--further increasing injury
to the root system.
There is no easy way to spell out to growers how to sidedress crops pro-
perly. A rule of thumb can be given which should be of considerable help in
determining how it should be done for a given crop at a given time. Study the-
root system by digging around a plant or two to determine the extent of the
root system. Inject the fertilizer ahead of the root tips. Never cut roots
to perform this operation. It is better to place and leave the sidedressing
material on the surface rather than taking a chance of injuring the roots. A
damaged root system will certainly reduce the potential yield of a crop even
though it may never be apparent to the eye.
(Montelaro)




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Packages and Packaging Affect Quality

Higher quality produce would be available to consumers in retail stores
if the quality at harvest could be maintained through the marketing system.
Shipping containers and other packaging are essential for moving vegetables and
fruits from widely dispersed production areas to points of consumption. When we
spend a dollar for food, about one-third of it goes to the grower, transportation
gets 10 percent, and 40 percent goes for packaging and other marketing costs.
Perishables are packaged in so many different types of containers that some of
the purposes and objectives of packaging need to be reviewed.

An essential function of a container is to protect its contents from
mechanical damage. Vegetables vary in susceptibility to different kinds of
damage. Cuts caused by sharp edges result in serious quality losses from subse-
quent decay and leakage. Bruising injury from impacts and compression is a major
problem in marketing fresh vegetables. mechanical harvesting and packaging
operations with emphasis on speed and volume often cause excessive bruising. The
obscurity of internal bruising of tomatoes and watermelons has tended to conceal
the importance of this damage. Compression injury can result from the bulge in
an over-packed container just as vibration or rubbing injury can develop from
slow turning of produce in a loosely packed or non-lidded container. The ideal
pack consists of a tight-fill without a bulge in a lidded container having
sufficient stacking strength to protect the contents under all handling conditions.
A second essential function of packaging is prevention of water loss. Many
lots of leafy vegetables, snap beans, peppers, and celery in retail displays are
wilted and discolored. Dehydration is a very significant factor in market quality
because it affects not only texture, but also appearance and salability.
New packages and improved packaging materials are being developed from
wood, fiberboard, paper and plastic to meet changing industry demands. Many
factors contribute to the large losses of produce that occur during marketing.
The main causes are rough handling, deficiencies in shipping containers and
transport equipment, and improper use of transport equipment. Shipping containers
may not be strong enough, or they may absorb too much moisture and collapse from
overhead weight. Recent developments include wide scale use of wax-saturated
corrugated board for commodities exposed to water, high humidity or top ice.

Packaging requirements vary widely depending on what is to be packaged
and the conditions which the produce will undergo from the packager to the con-
sumer. During the 1960's, there was a slight increase in prepackaging of produce
at the shipping point instead of at the retail store. About one-half of the 55
billion pounds of fresh fruits and vegetables marketed annually is now prepackaged
before delivery to the stores.

Putting a number of individual crates and cartons on pallets and handling
them through the marketing system like single containers is one way to reduce the
number of times the produce is handled. Containerization is another technique
to reduce loss and damage of produce on long distance shipme-nts. Individual
containers are placed in a large van container or trailer, 20 to 40 feet long, and
moved from shipping point to destination in a single temperature and humidity
controlled unit. Growers and shippers could impr-ove the quality of vegetables
on distant markets if they used better packaging materials and methods.


(Showalter and Hicks)




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. National Junior Horticultural Association Convention Miami Beach,
December 5-9, 1971.

Florida is hosting the 37th Annual Convention of the N.J.H.A. at the
Sheraton Beach Hotel, Miami Beach, December 5-9, 1971. This organization
is composed of 4-H, FFA, and other young people interested in horticultural
projects and activities. About 500 youngsters, leaders, and coaches from
30-35 states will attend.

Convention Arrangements Committee: J. M. Stephens, Chairman, IFAS
Extension Vegetable Crops; B. J. Allen, IFAS 4-H; Nolan Durre, IFAS Dade
County Extension; Don Adams, Florida Power and Light Company; 'Wayne Hawkins,
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association; Bob Croft, FFA; Tim Anderson,
Fairchild Gardens; and Clyde Wolfe, St. Johns County 4-H member and regional
officer of N.J.H.A.

Convention Program

Sunday through Thursday, December 5-9


Registration Convention Hall
Press Room Convention Hall
Committee Meeting Villa I (Bayside)
Courtesy Counter Exhibit Convention Hall
Newsletter Room Collins Exec. Room

Sunday December 5th


8:00 p.m. 9:00 p.m.

9:00 p.m. 11:00 p.m.


Vesper Service C. H. Auditorium
Barri Cannon N.J.H.A. Director, Leader
Get-Together Party C. H. Auditorium
Rodd Moesel N.J.H.A. Director, Leader


Monday December 6th


7:00 a.m. 8:30 a.m.





8:45 a.m. 5:30 p.m.


12:00 Noon


Get-Acquainted Breakfast C. H. Auditorium
Welcome--The Honorable Steven P. Clark,
Mayor of Dade County
Convention Announcements--Charles DeLancey,
N.J.H.A. President
Breakfast--Courtesy of the Campbell Soup
Company, Camden, New Jersey
Tour of Dade County including large fruit and
vegetable production areas and the Plant
Introduction Center
Barbecue beef luncheon Homestead Agricultural
Center





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Adult Leaders Meeting Collins Room
Junior Leaders Meeting Bar Room
Entertainment Poolside
Susan Wall, Florida Assistant 4-H Club
Leader In Charge


Tuesday December 7th


8:30 a.m. -



11:00 a.m. -


1:00 p.m. -

2:00 p.m. -


5:30 p.m.



12:00 Noon


5:00 p.m.

4:00 p.m.


29th Annual Demonstration Contest
Hubert Wetzel, Illinois In Charge
All sections will be located in the
Convention Hall Auditorium
Review of Judging, Information and Identifi-
cation Contest Collins Room
Dr. Lee Taylor, Michigan, Committee Chairman
Annual Meeting of the N.J.H.A. Foundation
Board of Trustees Grist Mill
Horticultural Workshops C. H. Auditorium
Developing a New Variety Dr. Mark J.
Bassett, IFAS, Vegetable Crops
The Use of Fruits and Vegetables Mrs.
Beth Walsh, IFAS, Home Economics
Landscape Architecture Mr. Tim Anderson,
Fairchild Gardens
Adult Leaders Meeting Collins Room
, Entertainment Poolside
Susan Wall, Florida Assistant 4-H Club
Leader In Charge


7:00 p.m. 8:00 p.m.
7:30 p.m. 11:00 p.m.



Wednesday December 8th


8:00 a.m.

12:30 p.m.








3:15 p.m.
5:00 p.m.
7:30 p.m.


- 12:00 Noon

- 3:00 p.m.








- 4:30 p.m.
- 7:00 p.m.
- 11:00 p.m.


The 37th Annual Judging, Information and
Identification Contest C. H. Auditorium
Careers in Horticulture Luncheon C. H.
Auditorium
Carmen Sutton--N.J.H.A. Vice Chairman--M.C.
Dr. J. C. Raulston--Pictorial Presentation of
Careers in the Field of Horticulture
(IFAS, Bradenton, Florida)
Alumni Comments--Dr. Walter Scudder (IFAS,
Sanford, Florida)
Marjorie Ann (Ball) Moesel
Annual N.J.H.A. Business Meeting Collins Room
State Group Dinners
Entertainment Poolside
Weiner Roast--Calipso Band--Courtesy of the
Sheraton Beach Hotel
Rodd Moesel--N.J.H.A. Director In Charge


7:00
7:00
7:30


p. m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.


8:00
8:00
11:00


p.m.
p.m.
p.m.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Thursday December 9th


8:30 a.m. 5:00 p.m.




6:30 p.m.


Tour to include a boat trip and tour to East
Ft. Lauderdale, the Aquaglades, the Flamingo
Orange Groves plus many historical points
on the tour route--DeArmand Hull, Palm Beach
Extension Agent, Guide
The 37th Annual Awards and Recognition Banquet-
Convention Hall Auditorium
Charles DeLancey, N.J.H.A. President--Toast
Master
Guest-of-Honor--Dr. Charles Browning, Dean
of Agriculture, University of Florida
Presentation of Awards for Projects Sponsored
by N.J.H.A.


(Stephens)


B. Know Your Vegetables Jack Bean

The jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.) will grow throughout Florida in
frost-free periods. Other names sometimes given it are Chickasaw Lima Bean,
Brazilian Broad Bean, Coffee Bean, Ensiform Bean, Horse Bean, and Watanka. The
jack bean is not a commercial crop in the United States, but is found in home
gardens.

Along about July each year our office in Gainesville usually gets a few
seed or pod specimens sent in for identification. The seeds are large, 1/2 to
3/4 inch long, and almost as broad. They are creamy white with a dark, almost
black, hilum (seed scar). The plant itself is a large, spreading, vining bush.
The pods reach 10 to 14 inches in length, but are harvested at about half that
size.

I planted a seed in my garden last March, and by June, the plant had
just about covered the entire garden. It continued to grow throughout the
summer.

Reports indicate the young pods can be used as snap beans. The young
pods are sliced and boiled, and the tender seeds may be peeled and used as broad
beans.


(Stephens)






B. Know Your Vegetables Jack Bean


The jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.) will grow throughout Florida in
frost-free periods. Other names sometimes given it are Chickasaw Lima Bean,
Brazilian Broad Bean, Coffee Bean, Ensiform Bean, Horse Bean, and Watanka. The
jack bean is not a commercial crop in the United States, but is found in home
gardens.

Along about July each year our office in Gainesville usually gets a few seed
or pod specimens sent in for identification. The seeds are large, to 3/4 inch
long, and almost as broad. They are creamy white with a dark, almost black, hilum
(seed scar). The plant itself is a large, spreading, vining bush. The pods reach
10 to 14 inches in length, but are harvested at about half that size.

I planted a seed in my garden last March, and by June, the plant had
just about covered the entire garden. It continued to grow throughout the
summer.

Reports indicate the young pods can be used as snap beans. The young pods
are sliced and boiled, and the tender seeds may be peeled and used as broad beans.




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