Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: September 1971
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00067
Source Institution: University of Florida
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FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA /
: .--:- INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

Vegetable C(rops Department



NEWSLETTER


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


George A. Marlowe, Jr. James Montelaro J. M. Stephens
Chairman Professor Assistant Professor

J. R. Hicks R. K. Showalter D. D. Gull
Assistant Professor Professor Associate Professor

September 7, 1971


TO: COUNTY EXTEIISION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: James Montelaro, Vegetable Crops Specialist /

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 71-9

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. Commercial Vegetable Production
A. Potato Seed Quality
B. Biological Control of Cabbage Looper
C. Soil Fumigation for Cabbage
II. Harvesting and Handling
A. Harvest at Proper Maturity
III. Vegetable gardening
A. Saving Vegetable Seed from the Garden
D. Know Your Vegetables

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.


I. Commercial Vegetable Production

A. Potato Seed Quality

The Extension Vegetable Specialists are often called on to survey a problem
in a potato field that is subsequently determined to have been caused by poor seed
stock. This type of problem can be prevented and economic losses avoided by a
simple inspection of the seed by the grower at the time he takes possession of it.


COOPERATIVi. [-XTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA, 1FAS, UNIVERSITY
OF LcolonA. U. ). UEPARTMiNT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. COOP[IRATING




-2-

THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

The grower, with a few years of experience in potato production, can quickly
determine whether the potato seed stock is satisfactory or not. Briefly, the
following is a simple check list that a grower may wish to follow in checking
potato seed quality.

1. Check the exterior of bags for indications of dampness, condensed
moisture and stains (indication of rotted potatoes). Suspicious bags should be
opened and carefully inspected.

2. Check for physical injury including shatter bruising, cuts, surface
bruises, peeling, cold injury, etc.

3. Check for size, varietal characteristics, etc.

4. Check for diseases including late blight, Fusarium, corky ring spot,
nematodes, etc.

If he is not satisfied, the grower has the following recourses available
to him:

1. Problems with seed related to diseases, insects and nematodes are
covered by the Potato Seed Regulation administered by the Plant Industry Division
of the Florida Department of Agriculture.

2. Problems related to grade, size, bruises, etc., are covered by con-
tractual agreements and/or Federal-State Inspection Division grade standards.

If there are any doubts about potato seed quality, growers should consult
local representatives of the proper agency listed above.
(Montelaro)

B. Biological Control of Cabbage Looper

The cabbage looper and closely related worms attack many vegetable crops
in Florida. They can injure the growing plant and render edible plant parts
and fruit unsalable from excessive punctures. The cabbage looper has been the
most troublesome worm to control in many vegetable crops for a number of years.

There are now some new materials which offer considerable promise for the
control of loopers in Florida. The most interesting new material is a bacterium
(Bacillus thuringiensis), which invades loopers and kills them. It is a biological
control method that does not leave a dangerous residue and is completely harmless
to humans, wildlife and fish.

The Bacillus strains now on the market are many times more potent than
the originals introduced a few years ago. In most cases, Bacillus treatment can
be combined or alternated with an insecticide if so desired.

There are three commercial brands of Bacillus thuringiensis on the market.
They are Biotrol XK, Dipel and Thuricide HPC. Growers having problems with loopers
should try one of these products.





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Recent research has also shown that some of the insecticides presently
recommended for looper control are not doing the job satisfactorily. However,
some of the newer insecticides are showing considerable promise for looper
control. They are Lannate (Methomyl), Fundal and Galecron and all have been
approved for use on cabbage. Check the label for approval before using on
other vegetable crops.
(Montelaro)

C. Soil Fumigation for Cabbage

Dr. D. P. Weingartner, working at the Agricultural Research Center,
Hastings, Florida, recently completed some interesting research on fumigation
of soils for cabbage. The results are only for one season and must be inter-
preted on that basis.

His objectives were two-fold: (1) to determine if nematodes decrease
yields of cabbage harvested near midseason in the Hastings area, and (2) to
study efficacy of various nematicides under Hastings conditions.

The plots were harvested on February 15, 1971. Results of the study on
approved nematicides are presented in the following table.

Results of 1970-71 Cabbage Nematode Test Hastings, Florida

Mean Increase3/ Added3/
Head Yield Nematodes2/ in Crop Cost of-/ Cost to Net3/
Treatment and Weight (Ton/ in lOOcc Value Chemical Market Return
Ratel/ (Lbs.) Acre) Soil ($/Acre) ($/Acre) ($/Acre) ($/Acre)
Soil Fumigants
Telone 5 GPA 1.73 8.8 22.4 18 11.00 10.37 -3.37
Telone 7 GPA 1.91 11.3 5.2 168 15.40 96.77 56.83
D-D 10 GPA 2.08 10.7 8.2 132 17.00 76.13 38.88
Vorlex 7 GPA 2.20 10.8 1.8 138 50.40 79.49 8.11
Fumazone 86
0.8 GPA4/ 1.83 9.9 25.8 84 9.76 48.38 27.86
Fumazone 86
2.5 GPA 1.78 9.8 23.4 78 30.50 44.93 3.57
Control 1.80 9.1 52.4
Control 1.63 7.8 62.4 -- -- -

F values of all data are significant at 1%.

1/ Rates = material applied/row acre (13070 ft.).
SPopulations of sting, stunt, and stubby root nematodes are added together to give a single
value. Sample was taken at midseason. Nematodes separated via sucrose centrifugation metho
/Crop value calculated on basis of: $1.50/bag or $0.03/1b. Chemical costs are based on
distributor's prices March 17, 1971. Marketing costs = $.864/50 lb. and are taken from Ag.
Econ. Report 15. Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida Season 1969-70 with
comparisons. Page 3.
SFumazone 86 0.8 GPA applied at planting.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


The results look quite promising. It must be remembered that this data
is for one season only and, therefore, does not constitute a recommendation.
Growers, in areas where nematode injury is suspected, are well advised to try
fumigation for cabbage on a small scale in the beginning to determine whether
or not the practice would be economical under the conditions tested.
(Montelaro)

II. Harvesting and Handling

A. Harvest at Proper Maturity

A understanding of maturity is necessary for successful marketing of fresh
vegetables. Maturity, like quality, may have different meanings to different
people. The physiologist sees maturation as a part of an irreversible process
beginning at the time of inception of the plant structure and continuing until its
death. The horticulturist says a vegetable is mature when the edible plant
structure possesses the physical and biochemical attributes prerequisite to harvest.
A produce buyer considers that a vegetable has reached commercial maturity when
the harvested product is capable of carrying to market in satisfactory condition.
Consumers consider some fully mature vegetables to be the best quality, but whole-
salers and retailers are reluctant to handle them because of the risk of spoilage.

(1) Length of harvest period The relative lengths of time that different
vegetables remain in an acceptable maturity stage vary greatly depending upon:

a. The part of the plant used as food
b. Weather conditions (high or low temperature).

When the leaves are used as food, such as escarole and lettuce, or the
underground portions such as potatoes, carrots and radishes, the marketable maturity
period is relatively long except in hot weather. When the flower parts of broccoli
and cauliflower are eaten, the heads may be harvested through a wide range of sizes,
but always before the buds open. Among vegetables grown for their fruits some are
eaten immature such as snap beans, cucumbers, squash, peppers and eggplants. Their
marketable maturity period is relatively short and is judged largely by size develop-
ment. Sweet corn has a very short harvest period, particularly in hot weather.
Tomato and watermelon fruits are harvested when they are ripe (suitable for con-
sumption), or when they are mature and then ripened after detachment from the plant.
Since maturation occurs only before harvest, it is imperative that these fruit
vegetables be mature at harvest and either possess or be capable of developing those
characteristics suitable for consumption.

(2) Factors affecting maturity at harvest

a. Yield. Most vegetables continue to increase in size during the
period of desirable harvest, and a delay in harvesting may increase the total yield
very materially although the quality has declined.
b. Market prices. High prices encourage harvesting before or after
optimum maturity.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


c. Mechanical harvesting. Once-over single harvesting of many
vegetables combines many stages of development. Until some method of uniform
plant development and maturation can be evolved, selections for acceptable
maturity will have to be made after harvest. If the maturity range is not
extended too far in either direction and physical damage can be controlled, the
produce industry should be able to adjust to mechanization.
(Hicks, Showalter, Gull)

III. Vegetable Gardening

A. Saving Vegetable Seed from the Garden

Uhile it is true that garden vegetable seed are readily obtained most of
the time from either the garden supply store or the seed catalog, many gardeners
like to save seed for various reasons. Therefore, it might be useful to have
information on hand pertaining to saving one's own vegetable seed.

Advantages

(1) Saving one's own seed may be the only source of supply.
(2) In some cases, a gardener may be able to give his vegetable seed
greater care than those on the open market receive.
(3) Cost of seed is reduced.
(4) The plants selected are the ones which succeed best under the local
environment t.

Disadvantages

(1) Seed-borne diseases
(2) Unsuitable climate
(3) Length of time crops occupy garden space
(4) Crossing of varieties
(5) Seed must be stored
(6) Many varieties are hybrids, and seeds of hybrids should not be saved,
as they do not produce plants that are true to desired type.

The following are examples of how seed of some of the different crops
might be saved.

Group A -- Annuals, the seed of which are eaten

1. Beans and Southern Peas Select the best plants, mark them, and allow
the pods to dry. Pull the pods and dry in an airy, dry place. Shell the seeds and
dry in a similar manner.

2. Sweet Corn The best seed can be obtained by allowing it to ripen on
the plant. Select the best and earliest ear by stripping down the husks to examine
the grain and to remove any worms, then fold back and tie with an elastic band or
string. After the kernels have matured, remove the husk and place the ears in a
dry, airy place to cure.


-J-





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Group B -- Annuals, the fruits of which are eaten

A fruit which develops from a blossom consists of the seed and its
enclosing parts. It is a simple matter to save seeds of these vegetable fruits.
The fruits should be allowed to ripen, and the seeds removed and cleaned. Some
vegetables in this group are cucumber, eggplant, cantaloupe, okra, pepper,
squash, tomato and watermelon.

1. Cucumber Select the plant desired and allow fruit to remain on plant
until ripe. Ripeness is usually indicated by development of pale yellow or
golden color. Open the fruit, remove pulp and seed, and wash the seed clean.
Spread the seed to dry in bright sunshine.

2. Watermelon The seed of watermelon is ready for harvest at the time
the fruit reaches edible maturity. Seed should be scraped out, washed, and spread
to dry. Otherwise, they are similar to cucumbers.

3. Tomatoes Select a desirable plant having good characteristics and
uniformly good fruit. Tag the desirable fruits and allow to ripen past edible
stage. Before they rot, pick the fruits, cut in half and squeeze out the seed
pulp. Place pulp and seeds into a soft cloth bag and massage the bag gently under
water, forcing the pulp out the bag in this manner. When clean, spread seeds to
dry in airy place.

Group C -- Annuals, the stems or leaves of which are eaten

Examples are lettuce, endive, and mustard.

1. Lettuce After the selected plant nears edible maturity, the seed
stalk emerges and grows slowly. Lettuce seed is usually mature about 12 days
after full bloom. When the first seed heads open so there is danger of loss of
seed from shattering, pull the plants and put them, roots up, in a paper bag. Hang
the bags in a dry, airy place until the seed is ripened and dry. Using a flail of
some sort, thresh out the seed, clean and store.

Group D -- Biennials (plantswhich require a winter rest before seeding) the stems
or leaves of which are eaten

Examples are Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, collard, endive,
kale, kohlrabi, leek, onion, parsley, potato, and spinach.

1. Cabbage The first year cabbage heads up; during the second year the
stem elongates and branches considerably. The fruit is called a pod, and contains
12 to 20 seeds. Harvest seed pods when they have turned yellow. Spread the pods
out in a dry, airy place on sheets of paper to ripen and cure. When the seeds are
hard (do not crush easily between the fingers) beat them out of the pods and spread
to dry.

2. Onion The onion stem elongates during the second year, and sends up a
flower stalk. As the seed pods open, the seeds will turn black and begin to ripen.
Cut the seed stalks with about 1 foot of stem attached to pods and stack on paper.
Expose them to the sun and dry; then rub out the seed.








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Group E -- Biennials, the roots of which are eaten

This group has all the root vegetables except early radishes.

1. Beets The leaves and fleshy taproot are normally produced the
first year. The second year, branched seed stalks develop from the top of
the root (crown). These may reach a height of several feet. The beet seed,
as usually purchased, is really a fruit containing several seeds. Allow "seeds"
to turn brown, then harvest, clean, and store. (Stephens)
(Stephens)
B. Know Your Vegetables

This item will appear each month, discussing a little-known vegetable.

Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) is another form of the Globe Artichoke.
However, with cardoon the young tender leaves and undeveloped tender flower
stalks are eaten rather than the flower bud. The thistle-like cardoon plant
grows to a height of 3 to 5 feet and spreads over an area of 6 feet in diameter.

Our Florida summers are rather warm for cardoon to grow properly; therefore,
it should be started in the fall or winter so that it develops in the cooler
months similarly to the lettuce crops. It should be noted, however, that freezing
temperatures below 280 F. may kill the above ground parts.

Propagation is by seeds, suckers or root division. A rich soil or abundant
fertilizer and plenty of water are the requirements of the cardoon. Space the
plants about 6 feet apart.

Usually, blanching of the stalks is desired. This is accomplished by
tying up the outer branches a foot or so from the top of the plant and piling soil
up around them as the plant grows. Do not cover the leaves with soil.

There are several uses for cardoon. The most popular is as a green, that
is, with the leaves and tender stalks cooked. It may also be eaten fresh and
uncooked in salads. Some say it has gentle laxative values.
(Stephens)




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