Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00055
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: January 1967
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00055
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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.- FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES


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VEGETA JAN


January 25, 1967

TO: COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENTS

NO: 76

IN THIS ISSUE:

1. Fertilizer for Okra.
2. Watermelon Response to Copper
3. Plastic Mulch for Vegetables.
4. Nematode Control on Onions.
5. Bud Nematode Control on Strawberry.
6. Variety and Spacing Effects on Cabbage Yields.


Each year many excellent papers are presented in the Vegetable Crops
Section at the annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultual Society.
Everyone connected with the vegetable industry of the state of Florida
should attend. It is not only a question of listening to reports on re-
cent research and other developments, but joining in with the group for
fellowship and to make contact with people of similar interests.

For those who did not attend, we have selected those papers which we
feel contain information of immediate interest and possibly are ready for
limited field trials. Since it Is not practical to r'evew alf of
the papers on vegetables presented at last October's meeting, everyone is
urged to get a copy of the Proceedings which will be available in a bound
volume within the near future.


1. Fertilizer for Okra.

In a series of four experiments on requirements of okra for nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium at Plant City, Dr. Sutton found that "in all cases
a fertilizer ratio of 1-1.3-1.3 (N-P205-K20) resulted in the highest yield
of marketable okra." A 1-1.3-1.3 ratio fertilizer is almost identical to
the ratio suggested in Extension Circular 225 for okra grown on sands, rock-
lands, and marls of Florida. The grade suggested in the Circular for okra
is 6-8-8 (1-1.25-1.25 ratio).


2. Watermelon Response to Copper.

In a series of experiments on watermelons at such locations as Gaines-
ville, Immokalee, Leesburg, Live Oak and Westville (Holmes county), Drs.
Locascio, Fiskell, Everett and Crall demonstrated quite conclusively that
watermelons respond to copper fertilization. At Live Oak, one season there


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was no response to copper, but there was a significant response to a mate-
rial containing not only copper but the other minor elements as well. Where-
ever they obtained a response to copper alone they also obtained a significant
response to the material containing all of the minor elements including
copper.

Copper deficiency is apt to occur on any soil (especially newly cleared
land) that has not been fertilized sufficiently with copper. The older soils
may not need additional copper for watermelons as they may have considerable
copper accumulated In them over the years from applications of this element
in fertilizer and fungicides.

Some of these same authors reported additional information of interest
on copper. Last season they observed a significant interaction of copper
with phosphorus in watermelons. That is to say that the addition of one of
these elements without the other resulted in no significant yield increases.
However, when both were added simultaneously, yield increases were highly
significant. For example, addition of 105 pounds of phosphorus per acre
and no copper resulted in a yield of 7.4 tons. Similarly, when 4 pounds of
copper per acre were supplied without phosphorus, yield was only 9.8 tons.
When both, phosphorus (105 lbs./acre) and copper (4lbs./acre) were added, a
yield of 30.9 tons per acre of watermelons was obtained.

A word of caution!!! A grower must understand when and where copper
may be needed so that he will not use copper indiscriminately. Copper
may be deficient on relatively new land, or on old land never receiving
sizeable amounts of copper in fertilizer or fungicides. Relatively more
copper is needed as phosphorus rates increase. Growers should also remember
that treated sewage materials may contain goodly amounts of copper. Growers
anticipating use of copper in sprays (for control of bacterial spot) may
eliminate copper or at least reduce the amount used in fertilizer.


3. Plastic Mulch for Vegetables.

Dr. Bryan reported on work at the Quincy Station where a number of
vegetable crops were grown with various types of plastic mulches. His
results may answer some of the questions asked by growers and home gardeners:

"When compared to no-mulch treatments, clear mulch was associated with
higher yields of watermelons, sweet potatoes, cucumbers, and okra; black
mulch with higher yields of cantaloupes, cabbage, broccoli, and lettuce;
aluminum painted black mulch with higher yields of summer squash and sweet
potatoes; and smoke gray mulch was not as effective as other types tested.
In another year the high yields of sweet potatoes were obtained with white
on black mulch. Pole beans and Southern peas did not respond favorably to
plastic mulch. Earliness and quality of several other crops, however, were
improved with black and clear."

At the present time black plastic is used extensively on strawberries
and on limited acreage of tomatoes and other vegetables. Clear plastic gives
a "greenhouse effect," warming the soil significantly. This added warmth





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encourages good growth of crops in cold weather but also encourages weed
growth. Clear plastics cannot be used without complete soil sterilization
or good herbicides.


4. Nematode Control on Onions.

Onions can become a crop of economic importance in Florida. In the
past,t.research work in Florida has entailed such areas as curing, varieties,
fertilizer, dates of planting, spacing, etc. Dr. Rhoades reported on nema-
tode control work conducted at Sanford, Florida:

"Nematocidal experiments in the field on Leon fine sand with D-D applied
at either 20 or 30 gallons per acre, zinophos at 4 pounds per acre, and
zinophos-thimet at 2 pounds per acre of each chemical, significantly increased
yields of green onions in soils heavily infested with sting and stubby-
root nematodes but not in the presence of light infestations."

D-D is the only material approved for use on onions at the present time.


5. Bud Nematode Control on Strawberry.

A disorder of strawberry characterized by plants that are severely
stunted with leaves that are deformed and crinkled was diagnosed as bud
nematodes. It is quite widespread over Florida, probably causing signif-
icant reductions in yields every year. Dr. Locascio and co-authors reported
results of studies on methods for controlling this plant parasite.

The most effective treatment was found to be a 10-minute dip of straw-
berry plants in a 300 ppm solution of zinophos. The most satisfactory time
for treatment was just before transplanting.

Zinophos is NOT YET LABELLED for use on strawberry. In the meantime,
the only suggestion that can be made is for spraying plants in the field
with parathion which, at best, gives only partial control. Approval for
use on zinophos is expected in the near future.


6. Variety and Spacing Effects on Cabbage Yields.

A number of research studies are directed toward mechanical harvest of
vegetables to replace hand labor and cabbage is one of the crops receiving
considerable attention. Research work that already has been reported which
related directly or indirectly to cabbage includes such studies as size of
seed, depth of planting of seed, hybrid variety yields on once-over harvest,
field testing of a once-over harvester, etc.

Mr. Halsey and co-authors reported results of a study at three locations
on the effect of variety and spacing on yield of cabbage. Cabbage hybrids
FM-9, King Cole and Market Topper, and the open-pollinated variety Badger
Market were grown at spacings of 9, 12 and 15 inches in the row at Gainesville,
Hastings and Belle Glade.







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They found that the hybrid varieties in general outyield the standard
open-pollinated variety. Increase in spacing resulted in increase in cabbage
heads. The 15-inch spacing produced cabbage heads averaging 1.99 lbs. each
at Gainesville, 2.42 each at Hastings and 3.54 lbs. each at Belle Glade.

In order to obtain heads of desirable size it is necessary for the grower
not only to select the right variety, but the proper spacing for the area
also. Growers will find that size of head is affected by growing conditions.
Any given spacing producing desirable size heads one year, may produce heads
that are too small under adverse conditions and heads that are too large
under good growing conditions.

Sincerely,



.S. /Jison, Chairman Mason E. Marvel
Veget be Crops Department Assoc. Vegetable Crops Specialist



jVeg ames Monteclaro
Vegetable Crops Specialist




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