,, FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
S UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
\'i 'g'ttlblc' C ,ji. Depaurt ilcut
April 26, 1966
TO: COUNTY_ AGENTS, ASSOCIATES AND ASSISTANTS
IN THIS ISSUE:
Field Day Notes
Cover Crops Trials Dade Co.
Southern Peas usage in U. S.
1. Onion Classification
There are always questions and some confusion concerning onion
types and their response to day length and the latitudes where they
are best adapted. The following list compiled by Dr. V. F. Nettles
gives some of the varieties and their adaptation.
White Crystal Wax
Texas Grano 502
Henry's Special *
Brown Australian Brown 100
White White Grano
Yellow San Joaquin
Asgrow Y 50K
Southport Red Globe
Lord Howe Island
Red Granex *
White Alamo *
White Granex *
Early Premium *
Granex 33 *
Brown Beauty *
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White Granite *
Downing Yellow Globe
Autumn Spice *
Brown Beauty *
Spartan Era *
Span Pak A *
Short Day--Adapted for use in areas lying between latitudes 240 and 280.
Medium Day-Adapted for use in areas lying between latitudes 320 and 400.
Long Day --Adapted to the main onion growing areas north of 360 latitude.
2. Field Day Notes
a. Central Florida Experiment Station Field Day
Dr. J. F. Darby with Dr. J. C. Walker from Wisconsin spending
his winter vacation helping him, is evaluating some 83 cabbage
varieties and hybrids for resistance to bacterial spot and black
speck. These tests should show some differences. Dr. Darby
says to avoid black speck plant Marion Market Early Glory, Globe,
or King Cole and harvest as early as possible.
Dr. J. D. Wilson got near perfect control of cabbage looper
with nine insecticides and poor control with three. Several
were numbered compounds, however, the following ones are labeled
for cabbage: Thuricide 90TS, Phosdrin, Thiodan + Sevin, DDT +
Toxaphene, Parathion + Thiodan, Parathion + Toxaphene.
b. Nematode Control Work at Sanford by Dr. Harlan Rhodes indi-
cates that highest yields of cabbage followed Crotalaria
spectabilis plus treatment before planting with DD at 25 gal.
per acre. Lowest yields were with sesbania cover crop and no
chemical treatment. Crotalaria is poisonous to animals and
White Southport White Globe
White Sweet Spanish
Yellow Brigham Yellow Globe
Early Yellow Globe
Yellow Sweet Spanish
Autumn Splendor *
Early Harvest *
Trapp's No. 2 *
poultry and should not be used where feed crops may be grown
an6 it should be plowed under before it seeds. The combina-
tion of chemicals plus cultural practices is usually a good
Dr. Rhodes increased green bunching onion yields nearly
three fold from 3.4 Ibs. per plot to 13.3 lbs. per plot by
the application of DD at 30 gallons per acre pre plant.
Dr. W. T. Scudder presented results of weed control trials
with several chemicals alone and in combination both pre- and
post-emergence to the crop, on the surface and incorporated in
the soil. The crops were cabbage, cucumbers, onions, peppers,
potatoes, tomatoes, and sweet corn. The chemicals and treat-
ments are too numerous to list here, however, the results of
these trials will be used to prepare new recommendations for
weed control in vegetable crops. Extension Circular 196A,
"Commercial Vegetable Weed Control Guide," is in the process
of being revised and will be available soon.
Dr. R. B. Forbes' work with carrots has resulted in much
new information on varieties and nutrition. Among 36 varieties
and strains of both fresh market and processing carrots, several
have been outstanding. These include Royal Chanteray No. 13.
for processing and Pioneer for fresh market.
3. Potato Cover Crops in Dade Co.
Drs. Baranowski, Averre, Campbell, and Orth at the Sub-
Tropical Experiment Station presented the following results
from two years work on various summer cultural practices
between winter potato crops on the marl soils.
These plots were on a commercial potato farm and each plot
was 200 x 200 ft. replicated four times and a 12 foot roadway
was maintained between each plot. The treatments were:
1. Fallow disked five times to keep down all growth.
2. Sodbuster planted in late May; mowed 8 weeks after planting.
3. Sesbania planted in late May.
4. Amax Hybrid Sorghum planted in late May.
All cover crop plots received Diazinon at 3 lbs. active in
85 gal. of water per acre broadcast and disked in prior to
planting. Potatoes were planted in late November or early
December. All cover crops were mowed in September and plowed
Chemical Treatments: In the fall of 1964, the test area was
treated with 2 Ibs. active parathion per acre, broadcast, prior
to planting. Phorate was applied at 3 Ibs. active at planting.
In the fall of 1965, the amount of parathion was increased to
3 Ibs. active per acre. Phorate was again used at 3 Ibs. active.
Wireworms: Fallow plots had the lowest number of wireworms
and lowest tuber injury. Of the wireworms recovered from the
samples taken in 1964, 56% were Melanotus communis and 44%
Conoderus sp, In 1965, 55% were Melanotus communis and 45%
Conoderus as. A total of 110 wireworms were recovered in
1964 and 218 in 1965.
Diseases: Potatoes were examined both years for scab-like
lesions. No differences were evident in either year.
Both spiral and ring nematodes are considered injurious to
crops, but very little is known about the ring nematode. Al-
though fewer nematodes were recovered from the fallow plots,
the differences are not statistically significant. Potatoes
were examined both years for root-knot galls. None were found.
Weeds: The highest weed counts were in sesbania plots except
for Bermuda grass and the lowest counts in sorghum plots. It
should be pointed out that most of the weeds found in the fallow
plots were small seedlings. The fact that bermuda grass was
found only in the fallow plots may indicate that it could develop
into a problem in fields not disked often enough and kept fallow
for several summers.
Yields in 50 pound bags per acre
% increase % increase
of fallow of fallow %
over over Decrease
Treatment 1965 covercrop 1966 covercrop of 1966 Avg. Plant Weight
plots plots from 1965 1/19 2/1
1 Fallow 347.2 -- 325.7 -- 6 9.32 10.9
2 Sodbuster 319.6 8 280.3 16 12 6.62 9.4
3 Sesbania 217.4 9 278.3 17 12 7.64 8.5
4 Sorghum 311.7 11 266.6 22 14 6.16 9.5
Although there were differences ranging from 27-35 bags per
acre in the 64-65 season, the differences were not statistically
significant. However, in the 65-66 season the differences
ranged from 45-59 bags per acre and were statistically signifi-
cant. In both years the yields from the various treatments
held the same order. T- yield decrease in the fallow plots
last year was only 6% of the preceding year whereas the de-
crease in the covercrop plots ranged from 12-14%. We have no
explanation for this difference.
1. Wireworm populations were decreased in plots kept fallow
2. Less wireworm damage to potatoes was evident in plots kept
3. Nematode populations are known to be reduced by keeping
fields fallow. The evidence from this test indicated that
the populations were being reduced.
4. In general the underground portion of the plants from the
fallow plots had fewer disease lesions.
5. The above ground portion of the plants was larger in the
6. There was no evidence that would indicate an excessive
weed problem on land disked 4-5 times during the summer.
7. There was no evidence of any increase in clods or dirt
clumps during digging operations in the fallow plots.
8. There was no change in the appearance of the potatoes.
9. Finally, yields were higher from the fallow plots.
It is the consensus of those involved in this study that
the evidence, at present, indicates that there are no problems
associated with keeping the marl soils fallow for 2 years.
The advantages, in terms of better yields and better quality
from the standpoint of less wireworm damage, indicate that a
fallow summer program should be considered by potato growers
in Dade County.
Here is a list of publications that should be of interest
(a) Halo Blight Bulletin 444, Idaho Agric. Ext. Service -
(b) Growing Tomatoes for Mechanical Harvesting, Univ. of
Calif. AXT 150, Davis.
(c) Demand and Competitive Relationship for Florida and
Greenhouse-grown Tomatoes, Univ. of Fla., Agric. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 703.
(d) Nematode Control Guide for Vegetable Production in Florida,
Exp.Sta. Bul. 707.
(e) Strawberry Production Guide, Univ. of Fla. Agric. Ext.
Serv., Ext. Circ. 142C.
(f) Precision Planter and Fertilizer Applicator for Use on
Experimental Plots. U.S.D.A. Misc. Pub. 962.
(g) Precision Vacuum-Type Planter Head, U.S.D.A., A.R.S. 115.
5. Southern Peas An Expanding Crop
Use of Southern Peas for human food has increased in the
last few years, however, most of us have not been aware of just
how much this has increased. Here are some figures compiled
by Dr. W. H. Brittingham at the Virginia Truck Experiment
Southern Pea Frozen Pack in Pounds and
Canned Pack in No. 303 Cans (net con-
tents given as one pound), United States,
Year Pounds No. 303s
1949 .57 33.27
1952 4.15 45.12
1955 10.23 55.76
1958 13.01 57.11
1961 18.68 54.33
1964 23.45 42.25
Sources: National Association of Frozen Food
Packers, National Canners Association.
In 1964, the frozen pack of Southern peas was (among frozen
packs) 7.0% of green peas, 18.3% of lima beans, and 12.5% of
green beans. Also in 1964, the canned pack of Southern peas
was (among canned packs) 5.8% of green peas, 79.5% of lima beans,
and 4.8% of green beans. In other words: For every 15 servings
of frozen green peas (the leading frozen vegetable) in the
United States in 1964, and for every 8 servings of frozen lima
beans (the second largest), and for every 6 servings of frozen
lima beans, there was a serving of blackeye peas (or a related
F. S. Jamison, Chairman Mason E. Marvel
Vegetable Crops Department Assoc. Vegetable Crops Specialist
Vegetable Crops Specialist
Vegetable Crops Specialist