Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00049
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: September 1965
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00049
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
STATE OF FLORIDA
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL EXTEN-ION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, AND Vegetable Crop Specialists COUNTY A1E'I A,0.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORn
AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING 1 V E G ER A N GAINESVILLE FLOHMDA






September 21, 1965


TO: COUNTY AGENTS, ASSOCIATES AND ASSISTANTS

NO: 4P 70


IN THIS ISSUE

1. Fertilization of Okra, Squash and Southern Peas
2. Interval Between Liming and Planting
3. Hybrid Cabbage Varieties
4. Leafminer and Aphid Control in Watermelons
5. Potential for Marketing Fresh, Shelled Table
Legume in Florida
6. Brief Items of Interest
a. Revised Vegetable Production Guides
b. New Sweet Potato Varieties
c. New Southern Pea Varieties
d. Quality Vegetable Seeds
e. Asphaltic Mulches


1. Fertilization of Okra, Squash and Southern Peas

In the past, our recommendations for fertilization of the minor
crops have been based on limited research data. It was often necessary
to "borrow" research results from closely related crops and apply
these to the minor crops.

Dr. Paul Sutton, of the Strawberry Lab at Plant City, is
investigating fertilizer requirements for several minor vegetable
crops on sandy soils. In a preliminary summary of his results, he
emphasized the need for considering the initial level of fertility
before applying any fertilize. Here are his results with three
vegetable crops:

a. Okra -- In tests in the fall of 1963 and spring of 1964,
Dr. Sutton found a nitrogen rate in the range of 93 to 187 pounds
per acre to give the highest yields. In all cases, a ratio of
about 1.0-1.3-1.3 (N-P205-K20) produced the highest yields.
(NOTE: This is almost equivalent to a 6-8-U fertilizer, as
suggested in Extension Circular 225).










b. Squash -- In two experiments with squash, Dr. Sutton noted
that higher rates of nitrogen produced larger plants with fruits
which were lighter in color and slightly rougher than those produced
by plants receiving lower rates of nitrogen. Mixtures supplying
90-120-120 pounds of N-P205-K20 in the first season and 100-1d6-120
pounds in the second season produced highest marketable yields.
These rates are equivalent to 1500 pounds of 6-8-3 and 2000 pounds
of 5-9-6 respectively. The fertilizer guide suggests 1500 of
6-8-6 with additional sidedressings, when needed for such soils.

c. Southern Peas -- There was no significant response to any
of the fertilizer treatments with southern peas in either of the two
seasons tested. It is quite apparent from these two tests that
adequate residual fertilizer was available to both plantings of
southern peas.


2. Interval Between Liming and Planting

It has been recommended that lime, when needed, be applied one
to three months in advance of planting for vegetable crops. Due to
circumstances beyond their control, growers often find that they have
not limed the soil when planting time arrives. The question has been
asked many times -- "Will it pay to lime just before planting?"

Dr. Paul Everett, of the South Florida Lab at Immokalee,
investigated this problem last spring. He applied four tons of
lime which was half dolomite and half high calcium limestone. His
preliminary results show that agricultural lime applied just before
planting can be very beneficial to watermelons, the test crop.
Until further studies are made, growers should try to lime early.
But, in a pinch, apply lime any time before planting, if it is needed.


3. Hybrid Cabbage Varieties

Hybrid cabbage varieties, even though recently introduced on a
commercial scale, are gaining in importance with each passing season.
In a cooperative study with the Main Station, where a mechanical
cabbage harvester is being built for future tests, Dr. Dale Hensel,
of the Potato Lab at Hastings, tested two hybrids for uniformity.

He found that both hybrids yielded quite well in a once-over harvest
which simulated a mechanical harvester. King Cole and Market Topper
hybrids yielded over 14 tons per acre. He also found that these
hybrids had good "holding ability" in the field. Test plots harvested
one week later yielded about the same as those harvested earlier and
quality was comparable.

There are several other hybrid cabbage varieties on the market that
look promising, also. Growers should try hybrid cabbage varieties on
a small scale in the beginning.








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4. Leafminer and Aphid Control in watermelons s

In a study primarily aimed at leafminer control, Dr. Adlerz,
of the Watermelon Lab, in cooperation with Dr. Everett, at the South
Florida Lab, found that materials giving best leafminer control also
gave excellent control of aphids on watermelons. Of the materials
approved, dimethoate (Cygon) and Guthion gave the best control.

Check plots not receiving an insecticide, developed heavy
populations of aphids; treated plots developed none.


5. Potential for Marketing Fresh, Shelled Table Legume in Florida

Packaging of foods in "convenience form" is expected to increase
during the coming years. Realizing this, Dr. D. D. Gull, in coopera-
tion with other staff members of the Vegetable Crops Department, has
been investigating methods of harvesting, shelling, packaging and
storage necessary for retention of quality of the fresh product.
His results indicate a very promising potential for fresh, shelled
table legumes in Florida.

Commercial mechanical harvesters are available for Lima beans and
English peas. These crops can be cut and shelled in the field with a
mobile combine or vines transported to a stationary viner for shelling.
Mechanical harvesters used for snap beans are being adapted for
harvest of southern peas, also. A number of southern pea varieties
have a growth habit of pods borne high on the plant, thus facilitating
easy removal of the peas by cutting off the top portion of the plant.
Lima beans and both types of peas can be shelled with commercial
viners which are now available.

Shelling studies with southern and English peas, according to
Dr. Gull, have shown that the shelled product can be kept in a fresh
state for up to seven days. This shelf life is dependent upon care
in shelling and proper refrigeration thereafter.

The seller should be operated at a minimum speed to reduce injury
to the peas. Chemical tests showed that practically all peas receive
some bruising during the shelling operation. Some varieties of southern
peas are much easier to shell than others and so the sheller should be
adjusted accordingly.

Immediately after shelling, peas should be cleaned and refrigerated.
Best holding temperature is 35 400F. Refrigerated showcases are
capable of maintaining at least 450F. Fresh-shelled peas can be
packaged in polyethylene bags or trays with plastic film overwraps for
attractive display. Test marketing of fresh-shelled English peas









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showed that customer reaction was very satisfactory. These peas
were readily merchandised and brought a 10 15c per pound premium
over frozen peas.

Shelled peas should be merchandised as rapidly as possible.
English peas contain appreciable quantities of sugar which are
lost soon after shelling unless proper handling techniques are employed.
Southern peas are highly susceptible to color degradation and spoilage
under the same poor handling conditions although flavor is less
affected than for English peas.

For a successful fresh-shelled pea operation, the importance of
quality control cannot be over emphasized. Peas must be of optimum
maturity when harvested. Shelling must be done in such a way that
a minimum of mechanical injury occurs. Shelled peas must be
adequately refrigerated (35 to 40F.) from the time of shelling until
they are consumed. No chemical to preserve freshness has been found
that is superior to refrigeration.


6. Brief Items of Interest

a. Revised Vegetable Production Guides:

1. Circular 193E Commercial Vegetable Insect and Disease
Control Guide
2. Circular 96B watermelon Production Guide
3. Circular 97A Sweet Potato Production Guide
4. Circular 103A Squash Production Guide
5. Circular 175A Okra Production Guide
6. Circular 176A Onion Production Guide

These circulars have been revised within the past few months.
Be sure you have the most recent issue.

b. New Sweet Potato Varieties:

1. Julian a new L. S. U. release. It produces a high
quality potato for fresh market and processing. Tends to produce
very few jumbos. Suggested for trial purposes only.

2. Gem a release from North Carolina. Gem has been a
consistently high yielder of quality sweet potatoes at Gainesville.
It should be planted on a trial basis.









c. New Southern Pea Varieties

Two recent releases of the University of Florida should be of
interest to southern pea growers in Florida. Both are described in
circulars published by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Limited supplies of seed of these varieties will be available for
the 1965-66 season.

1. Snapea is a new cream-type southern pea which is
excellent in the immature snap-stage. Processors like this variety
for mixing with the shelled types.

2. Floricream is a new all-purpose large seeded, cream
type southern pea. It looks promising. A shelled pea for both
fresh market and processing. Both varieties should be planted on
a trial basis in the beginning.


d. Quality Vegetable Seeds

There is an old saying that, "Good seed is cheap at any price."
Growers should plant the very best quality seed available. Too
often seed is purchased at a bargain price at the expense of germi-
nation, yield and quality. Seed that is harvested from a left-over
commercial crop in Florida is apt to be a gamble for the grower
planting it. This is especially true of watermelon and bean seed.


e. Asphaltic Mulches

Research work on the use of asphaltic (petroleum) mulches has
been conducted at several stations over the past two years in Florida.
The tests covered a wide variety of crops including peppers, tomatoes,
beans and the vine crops. Generally, the results have demonstrated
some advantages for use of asphaltic mulches during the cooler part
of the growing season. This type of mulch may have additional
advantages, such as "anchoring" the soil against wind and water
erosion.

The main disadvantage of the asphaltic mulches has been an
increase in weed population. A good herbicide must be used together
with asphaltic mulch for best results. The product is due to be
marketed in Florida this coming season. Growers are advised to try
asphaltic mulch on a small scale in the beginning.

Sincerely,


F. S. Jamison, Chairman James Montearo
Vegetable Crops Department Vegetable Crops Specialist


*h^ ^.AXc. 5 5^ -
Mason E. Marvel
Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist




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