Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00017
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 1954
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00017
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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lv COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
STATE OF FLORIDA
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, AND COUNTY AGENT AND
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT Vegetable Crop Specialists HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
No. 24 VEGETARIAN April 2, 1954

MR. COUNTY AGENT:

You'll remember, we hope, that our last "Vegetarian" was devoted to assembling
the latest on Vegetable Insect Controls.

Now, here we come with our attempt to pull together the latest CEGETABLE DISEASE
CONTROLS. This has been prepared in cooperation with Station Pathologists and in-
cludes interpretations of research results up to January 1, 1954.

As we attempted to express in the one on insect control, these newsletters on
pesticides are ot intended to give every detail, but to make available pertinent
facts for your use. See our earlier comments on precautionary statements and other
considerate ions

We've gained a certain amount of reaction and experience with the Key to Recom-
mended Insect Controls forwarded with the last "Vegetarian". You will note that we
have made a similar attempt to key these out for you in the attached chart on disease
control. Don't think we have to point it out, but**..

Don't think that the entire set of pesticide recommendations can be expressed on
one page. These keys are intended to give you a ready field reference. Anyone who
thinks that he can use them without a good working knowledge of the recommendations,
and a certain amount of judgement, is going to be sadly mistaken.

For example, on the key you find that gray mold of tomatoes is coded out with a
"G", referring to phygon. Now, this very definitely does not express the complete
story. Look in the tomato narrative section and you'll find, "timing of applications
appears to be of critical importance"....etc., and to go further, you would find,
"no fungicide is effective after the disease has become established", In other places
you may find given materials may be preferred for use in your area. See what we mean?

AGAIT SPRAY MATERIALS ARE SHOWN I AMOUNTS (Q, EQUIVAL TS) PER ONE HED AL-
LONS WATER. Amounts of sprays and dusts to use per acre vary widely with plant size
and spacing, Remember that again thorough coverage is the essential feature.



BUSH BAN

Sprav: Dut:
Rust, powdery Sulfur, wp 10 to 16 lbs. Dusting sulfur, 325
mildew mesh
Application variable with weather conditions. When diseased fields are near
young plants and weather is mild and humid, make first application a few days after
plants emerge and repeat at 7-day intervals until a few days before picking.
In the past, sulfur has been reported to cause the blossoms to shed before set-
ting the pods, but this is now considered of minor importance. Sulfut applications
have caused burning of leaves and pods when applied during periods of high (85-90O.)
temperatures in the Sanford area.
To be effective for control of rust it is necessary to apply sulfur before the
leaves become heavily infected. When weather is unfavorable for rust, intervals be-
tween applications can be lengthened.




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Bacterial blight (no fungicidal control)
Halo blight and common bacterial blight are carried in and on the seed. (Also
soil.) No seed treatment is beneficial. Sprays in the field usually not effective.
Use disease-free seed grown in certain arid regions of the West. Rotate crops.


Sclerotinia


On marl soils of Homestead area apply 500 to 700 pounds of
cyanamid per acre.


POIE BEAN

Rust, oowderv (same as for bush bean)
mildew
Since pole beans have indeterminate growth it may be profitable to continue
spraying or dusting until about end of harvest. Certain varieties are resistant to
some forms of rust, and these should be used where advisable. 16 pounds of wettable
sulfur in 100 gallons of spray are recommended in the West Coast area; usually a
spring problem and normally not important on fall crop before mid-November.


Bacterial blight

Sclerotinia


Bacterial blight,
powdery mildew


Alternaria leaf
blight


(same as for bush bean)

(same as for bush bean)


LIMA BAIT

(same as for bush bean)


CARROT


abra 27 2 s. plus in sulfate
Nabam 27%, 2 qts. plus 1 Ib. zinc sulfate


Dust:
--


(macrosporium) Copper, 4 lbs. tribasic
Ziram 76%, 2 lbs.
In early plantings it may be satisfactory to begin applications when plants are
5 to 8 inches high and repeat at weekly intervals. In later plantings if the disease
is established in the area, it may be necessary to begin applications shortly after
emergence of the seedlings (3").
Leaf blights of carrot are serious in some localities and of minor importance
in other seasons or localities.


Bacterial blight


Seed treatment in corrosive sublimate (1:1000) or hot water.
Treat seed 10 minutes in water at 1260P.; or 10 minutes in 1:1000
corrosive sublimate (1 ounce crystals in 7- gallons water), wash
and dry.


CELERY


SEED BED
Damoing-off


Fumigation One pound of methyl bromide applied to 50 sq. ft,
of seedbed area will control weeds and nematodes as well as
damping-off. Soil should be prepared and ready for planting
before fumigating. If seedbed fumigation is not practiced seed
treatment may be beneficial.




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Post-emereence treatment

Spergon 48%. 3 lbs. or
Thiram 50, 1 lb.
Begin application soon after plants emerge and repeat at 4 to 7
day intervals, depending on weather. Apply about 15 gallons of
the spray per 1200 sq. ft. of bed area. Increase amount as plants
become larger.

FIXS OnSray: Dust
Early blight Nabam 27%, 2 qts, plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate
Mandate 75%, 1 lbs. -
Zineb 65, 2 bs. ---
Ziram 76%. 2 lbs,
Fixed coppers-equiv.to 1l lbs.metallic copper --
In the Everglades area begin applications 7 to 10 days after the plants are set
and repeat every 4 to 5 days. After two applications of any of the organic materials,
follow with one application of copper. Nabam gives best results in the Everglades
area,
In the Sanford area apply at weekly intervals unless more frequent applications
are necessary. Ferbam, ziram, manzate and copper have given good results in the San-
ford area.


SWEET CORN

Syrav: D 8":
Helminthosoorium Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 3/4 lb. zinc sulfate --
leaf blight Zineb 65% 2 Ibs. ---
H. turcicum, the species producing large, "boat-shaped" lesions, can ruin a crop
in three weeks of wet weather. Nabam or zineb properly applied once or twice weekly,
depending on weather conditions, will give economic control. For crops in "the whorl-
stage" of growth the sprayer should have two nozzles over the row to direct a gener-
ous quantity of the spray into the whorl in addition to the side nozzles, required
for complete coverage of unfurled leaves. Application of fungicide should cease 10
days before harvest unless younger corn is growing nearby.
It has been observed that these same materials may also control corn rust.


CRUCIFERS

SEED BED Sray:
Downy mildew and Spergon wp 48% 4 Ibs, Spergon 12%
Alternaria leaf --- Spergon 5(JHastings)

Begin applications 7 to 10 days after planting and repeat three times a week un-
til plants are set in the field.
Plants are susceptible to both diseases at all stages of growth, but downy mil-
dew is more common and destructive in the seedbed.
In the Hastings area, the latest summary suggests the following materials for
downy mildew on cabbage (amounts per 100 gallons unless dusts specified) for use in
plant beds and seeded fields: preferred are spergon (48%) 2 lbs., or stabilized
spergon 5% dust; if spergon cannot be applied use nabam 2 qts. plus 1 lb. ZnSO4, or
zineb i1 lbs. In the field the following are suggested: nabam 2 qts. plus 1 lb.
ZnS04, stabilized spergon (50%) 2 Ibs., stabilized spergon 5% dust, or 6% zineb dust.

FIELD Spray: Dust;
towny mildew and Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 3/4-1 lb. zinc sulfate --
Alternaina leaf
Ma-t




-4-


Where seed is sown directly in the field spray seedlings two to three times a
week, beginning when seedlings have emerged and stopping when plants are thinned to
a stand. If alternaria leaf spot is developing rapidly when heads are half-grown,
resume spraying and using 100 to 150 gallons spray per acre every four or five days.
Nabam is very effective against Alternaria leaf spot in the field and gives good
control of downy mildew. Use 2 to 3 ounces of spreader-sticker per 100 gallons.
See summary under "Seed Bed" for Hastings area.

lack rot Hot water treatment: 1220. for 25 minutes, cabbage; 18 minutes,
broccoli and cauliflower.
Fill cheesecloth bags about two-thirds full of seed, tie the tops and immerse in
a container of water at the temperature indicated. Keep the water within 10 of that
specified. Keep the seed under water and stir to maintain uniform temperature. At
the end of the period remove seed from the hot water and plunge into cold water--
spread out and dry. Treatment is a delicate operation and is best performed by a
trained operator using special equipment.
Test seed for germination before treating with hot water. Weak seed may be
killed while good seed will stand treatment and germinate well if planted the same
season it is treated. Seed grown in the Puget Sound area does not need treatment.
The disease organism is short-lived, but it is not advisable to plant on land planted
to crucifers the previous year.

Black leg Use same treatment as for black rot.
Use seed grown in areas where black leg does not usually occur, such as the Puget
Sound area. When in doubt of seed source--treat.

Yellows No control after soil is infected except use of resistant varie-
ties. Growers should take every possible precaution to secure
disease-free plants.


TURNIP-MUSTARD

S-prav: Dut:
D2wan mildew Nabam 27 2 qts, plus 3/4-1 lb. zinc sulfate --
When weather favors development of the disease, begin applications when seedlings
emerge and repeat at 3-4 day intervals. Addition of a spreader-sticker may be advis-
able.

Leaf spots The exact causes and controls of the various leaf spot conditions
reported on these crops have not been fully determined. Alternaria
might be controlled by nabam applications. Cercosporella may be
still another cause and nabam has not been observed to be an effec-
tive control,


CUCUMBER, CANTALOUPE, and SQUASH

Spray; Dust:
Doway mildew Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate --
Zineb 65% 2 lbs. Zineb, 4-6j%
Downy mildew is usually serious in all sections of the state when weather condi-
tions favor its spread and development, In major producing areas during warm, damp
weather it is necessary to spray every 3 or 4 days, beginning applications before
runners begin to form. In seasons of light infection it may be possible to control
the disease by beginning applications when runners begin to form and repeating at
weekly intervals until harvest.
Zineb dust, and weekly spray intervals, are not generally considered to be de-
pendable controls in most commercial areas of production but may be adequate in cer-




-5-


tain seasons in the Webster area and some sections of North Florida.
Manzate (75%, 14 Ibs.) has appeared promising and may rank with nabam and zineb
for the control of this disease,

Anthracnose The same program suggested for downy mildew should control
anthracnose.

Powdery mildew
Lacking complete experimental evidence, no general recommendations for the con-
trol of this disease can be made.
At the Sanford Station crotonates have been promising, but the residue hazard
has not been fully determined.
In the Sanford and Homestead areas it is reported that wettable sulfur can be
used at 2 pounds per 100 gallons (4 lbs. on squash) in cool weather during winter and
spring (below 900.). Sulfur regularly applied might cause damage to plants but it
can be used 2 to 3 times in succession to eradicate powdery mildew. Addition of a
wetting agent to the spray is suggested.
In the West Coast area it has been reported that a fair control is obtained by
thorough coverage with nabam spray applied twice weekly; in this same area it has
also been reported that one application of around 30-40 pounds of flowers of sulfur
(125-175 mesh) applied on the ground through absolutely dry vines will control pow-
dery mildew by a fumigation effect. It is possible that this drastic sulfur treat-
ment could bring about such conditions as "acid-yellows", particularly with canta-
loupes, with repeated applications followed by moderate rainfall or where the pH
is already dangerously low.

Angular leaf ot
Angular leaf spot does not often occur in the state. When seed supplies are
adequate growers usually plant seed produced in areas where the disease is not pre-
valent. The use of disease-free seed is the recommended control. Infected seed can
be treated for 5 to 10 minutes in corrosive sublimate (1 ounce crystals in 74 gallons
water), then rinse in clean water and spread out to dry.
It has been noted that copper spray (4 pounds tribasic per 100 gallons) in weekly
applications is superior to nabam for preventing spread of the disease. Copper may
offer a measure of control of downy mildew, but is not satisfactory when downy mil-
dew is severe. It is imperative to maintain adequate control of downy mildew during
periods favorable to its spread. Copper may be injurious to cucurbits in repeated
applications, particularly during dry weather, causing a yellowing of leaf margins.

S :ra Dust:
Blossom blight Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate Zineb 4-6j
(squash)
An adequate program for mildew control may also contribute to the control of
this organism (choanephora); particularly a problem in wet, humid weather. Spraying
for blossom blight alone may not be profitable. In the West Coast Area it has been
reported questionable if blossom blight is due to a pathogen.

EGGPLANT

Phomopsis, fruit No fungicidal control. Resistant varieties are Florida Market
soj and tinover and Florida Beauty.

LETTUCE-ESCAROLE

Stfray: Dust:
Downy mildew Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate
Zineb 65/ 2 bs. ---
Begin applications when disease appears; repeat at 4-5 day intervals.




-6-


Alternaria leaf
snot


SZraym 7
Ziram 76%, 2 lbs.


Begin applications when disease appears; repeat at 4-5 day intervals.
Nabam as applied for downy mildew control should offer a measure of control for
leaf spot; suggested at 7-day intervals in the lWest Coast Area.


Sclerotinia


On marl soils of Homestead area apply 500-700 pounds of cyanamid
per acre.


ONION


Spray: Dust:
Dogny mildew Zineb 65% 2 lbs. plus sticker Zineb 4-62%
Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate plus --
sticker.
When weather conditions favor the development of the disease, begin applications
when seedlings emerge; repeat at intervals of 3-4 days. In certain seasons it may be
possible to begin applications on a weekly schedule, shifting to twice-weekly appli-
cations if necessary.
It is extremely difficult to obtain adequate foliage coverage due to the waxy
nature of the onion plant. Successful control has been reported in the West Coast
area by timing dust applications to coincide with fine films of moisture forming on
the leaf surface at certain periods of the day.


ENGLISH PEA


Srav: Dust:
Powdery mildew sulfur wp 10 lbs. Dusting sulfur, 325
mesh
Begin applications when signs of disease appear. Repeat at 10 to 14-day inter-
vals, or often enough to keep the disease under control.
Powdery mildew sometimes becomes serious during the winter months in the Ever-
glades area. In this locality it is usually necessary to adhere to a strict spray
program to keep it under control.


PEPPER

Spram: Dust
Froeeye snot Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate --
Ziram 76% 2 lbs.
Forms of copper that have proved satisfactory, --
diluted to give metallic copper content of
1l Ibs.
In plant beds, begin when plants are 2 to 3 inches high and repeat at 7-day in-
tervals; in fields after plants have become established, repeat at 7 to 10-day inter-
vals as needed.
Frogeye spot is not usually a serious disease and when weather conditions are
not favorable for its development the spray schedule may be modified.

S=ra: Dust:
Bacterial spot Forms of copper that have proved satisfactory, ---
diluted to give metallic copper content of
i Ilbs.
In plant beds, begin when plants are 2 to 3 inches high and repeat at 7-day in-
tervals; in fields after plants have become established, repeat at 7 to 10-day inter-






vals as needed. Copper is the most effective control of all approved commercially
available materials. However, it will not give control when the weather is favorable
for spread of the disease.
Bacterial spot is usually most severe during or following rainy, windy weather.
Where it occurs with frogeye and/or alternaria spot the same schedule should take
care of all diseases.
In the Vest Coast area a weekly spray schedule alternating copper and nabam is
suggested.
In the Homestead area, copper is not recommended and will not control bacterial
spot.

Tobacco mosaic It is suggested that workers wash hands thoroughly in strong soap
solution or 70% alcohol prior to handling pepper plants; particu-
larly important during transplanting operation. No fungicidal con-
trol,


IRISH POTATO

Sprav: Dust:
Late blight Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 3/4-1 lb. zinc sulfate --
Zineb 65% 2 bs. ---
In southern parts of the state begin applications of spray for late blight when
plants have emerged and continue at four- to five-day intervals. In the Hastings
area begin when the plants are 6 to 8 inches high, if late blight does not show
earlier, and continue at four- to five-day intervals.
At Belle Glade and Homestead late blight is usually present throughout the
growing season and nothing less than the best fungicide applied on a rigid schedule
gives satisfactory control. Complete coverage is essential.
In the Homestead and Hastings areas, mandate 75% (1k lbs.) is recommended for
both early and late blight control.

Early blight Nabam-zinc sulfate spray as recommended for control of late blight
will also control early blight. See comments on manzate for
Homestead and Hastings areas.

Scab
Treat seed with hot or cold formaldehyde solution or acidulated mercuric chloride
solution in areas where soil reaction is usually pH 6.0 or higher. Do not treat seed
when potatoes are to be grown in areas where scab has caused little trouble.
(1) Cold Formaldehyde--1 pt. 40% in 30 gallons water.
Soak uncut tubers 1- hours, then remove and air out thoroughly. This treat-
ment is more effective when sacked tubers are first soaked in water for 2 min-
utes before soaking them in formaldehyde or mercury solutions. This softens the
scab lesions.
(2) Hot Formaldehyde--3.3 qts, 40% per 100 gallons water.
Dip uncut sacked tubers for 3 to 4 minutes in the solution held at 1220-124o
F. Stack sacks on end to dry.
Potatoes may be cut for planting any time after the sacks have dried.
Temperature of the hot solution must be kept within the range indicated to
give control of the disease without injuring the tubers.
(3) Acidulated Mercuric Chloride--6 oz. mercuric chloride plus 1 qt. commercial
HC1 in 25 gallons water.
Soak sacked uncut tubers for 5 minutes, allow to drip and plant immediately,
or dry out. This treatment is safe for potatoes planted on sandy and marl soils,
but not safe on muck and peat soils. This material is poisonous and corrosive
and treated seed should not be eaten or fed to livestock.




-7-


vals as needed. Copper is the most effective control of all approved commercially
available materials. However, it will not give control when the weather is favorable
for spread of the disease.
Bacterial spot is usually most severe during or following rainy, windy weather.
Where it occurs with frogeye and/or alternaria spot the same schedule should take
care of all diseases,
In the West Coast area a weekly spray schedule alternating copper and nabam is
suggested.
In the Homestead area, copper is not recommended and will not control bacterial
spot.

Tobacco mosaic It is suggested that workers wash hands thoroughly in strong soap
solution or 70% alcohol prior to handling pepper plants; particu-
larly important during transplanting operation* No fungicidal con-
trol.


IRISH POTATO

Spray;: Dust:
Late blight Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 3/4-1 lb. zinc sulfate --
Zineb 65% 2 bs. ---
In southern parts of the state begin applications of spray for late blight when
plants have emerged and continue at four- to five-day intervals. In the Hastings
area begin when the plants are 6 to 8 inches high, if late blight does not show
earlier, and continue at four- to five-day intervals.
At Belle Glade and Homestead late blight is usually present throughout the
growing season and nothing less than the best fungicide applied on a rigid schedule
gives satisfactory control. Complete coverage is essential.
In the Homestead and Hastings areas, manzate 75% (1 lbs.) is recommended for
both early and late blight control.

Early blight Nabam-zinc sulfate spray as recommended for control of late blight
will also control early blight. See comments on mandate for
Homestead and Hastings areas.

Scab
Treat seed with hot or cold formaldehyde solution or acidulated mercuric chloride
solution in areas where soil reaction is usually pH 6.0 or higher. Do not treat seed
when potatoes are to be grown in areas where scab has caused little trouble.
(1) Cold Formaldehyde--l pt. 40% in 30 gallons water.
Soak uncut tubers l1 hours, then remove and air out thoroughly. This treat-
ment is more effective when sacked tubers are first soaked in water for 2 min-
utes before soaking them in formaldehyde or mercury solutions. This softens the
scab lesions.
(2) Hot Formaldehyde--3.3 qts. 40 per 100 gallons water.
Dip uncut sacked tubers for 3 to 4 minutes in the solution held at 122o-1240
F. Stack sacks on end to dry.
Potatoes may be cut for planting any time after the sacks have dried.
Temperature of the hot solution must be kept within the range indicated to
give control of the disease without injuring the tubers.
(3) Acidulated Mercuric Chloride--6 oz. mercuric chloride plus 1 qt. commercial
HC1 in 25 gallons water.
Soak sacked uncut tubers for 5 minutes, allow to drip and plant immediately,
or dry out. This treatment is safe for potatoes planted on sandy and marl soils,
but not safe on muck and peat soils. This material is poisonous and corrosive
and treated seed should not be eaten or fed to livestock.




-8-


Sclerotinia
On marl soils, where sclerotinia has been observed in the previous crop, apply
400 to 600 pounds of cyanamid per acre before planting. It should be evenly distri-
buted and thoroughly mixed with the surface soil,


SWEET POTATO

Seed selection
Many diseases may be reduced by growing enough seed from vine cuttings to pro-
duce next year's seed supply. Select hills at digging time which are free from dis-
ease, have desirable varietal characteristics and have at least four or five No. 1
potatoes per hill. Seed stock should be free of internal cork, a disease for which
thereis no other known control. Seed stock should be free from injury. Take special
care in digging and maintaining the seed supply, handling the product a minimum num-
ber of times.

Plant bed site
Locate the bed where sweet potatoes or tobacco have never been grown or have not
been grown within three years. If permanent beds are to be used, remove soil to a
depth of 12 inches, drench the bed and frame with a solution of 1 pint of formalde-
hyde per 15 gallons of water, then replace with new soil.

Seed treatment (Use only one)
Semesan bel 1 pound to 7- to 8 gallons water for one minute; bed, or dry in
the shade.
Mercuric chloride Dissolve 4 ounces in 1 gallon hot water and add to 31 gal-
lons of cold water in a clean wooden container; dip for 8 to 10 minutes and bed.
After treating 10 bushels add 1 quart of stock solution (Q ounce mercuric chloride
per quart water), and add water to 32 gallon mark on container. Repeat for every
additional 10 bushels and discard for fresh solution after 50 bushels.
Snerron (48%) 1 pound wettable in 5 gallons water; dip (in and right out),
drain and bed.

Plant treatment (Use only one, depending on specific problem.)
In General Dip to soil line (do not wet leaves) in semesan bel, 1 pound per
10 gallons water.
Stem Rot or Wilt Dip base of stem and plant roots or lower end of vine cutting
in wettable spergon solution, 1 pound to 8 gallons water.
Scurf Dip base of stem and plant roots in ferbam solution, 1 pound to 5 gal-
lons water.


RADISH

Spray: Dust:
Downy mildew Zineb 65% 2 Ibs. Zineb 4-6%
Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate
When weather is favorable for the development of the disease, apply on a twice-
weekly schedule.
In the West Coast area it has been observed that the zineb dust may be the most
practical approach to achieve adequate coverage. The dust must be directed with
considerable force to penetrate this ground-level foliage.


STRAWBERRY

NURSERY Sara: us:
Anthracnose Forms of copper that have proved to be Copper dust 6-7%




-9-


satisfactory diluted to give metallic copper
content of 1^ lbs. plus spreader-sticker.


Spray:
I!eaf a-ot Zineb 65% 2 lbs.
Nabam 27% 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate
Begin applications when diseases appear; repeat at 7-day
eases are checked, or oftener if there are daily rains.


FIELD
Leaf spot

Rhizoctonia bud
rot




SEED BED
Damping-off


Dust:
Zineb 4-6j%

interals until dis-
intervals until dis-


(same as for leaf spot above)

No fungicidal control. Frequent shallow cultivation may give a
measure of control.


TOMATO


Frmigation Apply one pound of methyl bromide per 50 sq. ft. of
seedbed area. Soil must be prepared and ready for planting before
fumigation. Methyl bromide controls weeds and nematodes as well
as damping-off. If seedbed fumigation is not practiced, seed
treatments may be beneficial.


Spray: Dust:
Late blight Nabam 275 2 qts.plus 3/4 lb.zinc sulfate (36) ---
Zineb 65% 2 lbs. ---
Phygon XL 3/4 lb.
Manzate 1- Ibs. --
Copper 11-2 Ibs. metallic copper --
When late blight is favored by cool, damp weather conditions, begin spraying the
plants as soon as they have emerged and repeat at 4 to 7 day intervals until trans-
planted. Thorough coverage of all above-ground plant surface is imperative. An
application just before transplanting is desirable.
Nabam and zineb sprays tend to stunt young plants when used frequently. To
avoid this, alternate them with phygon XL, mandate or a copper fungicide.
In the southern part of the state and on the West Coast, copper fungicides will
not control late blight. For these areas an alternating nabam and phygon IL or man-
zate schedule is recommended.

FIELD
Late blight Materials and formulas are the same as for "Seed Bed" above.
Begin applications immediately after plants have become established and repeat
at 4 to 7 day intervals until end of harvest. Thorough coverage of all above-ground
surface is imperative. Spray is more effective than dust.
Nabam and zineb are recommended in the southern half of the state. In the other
parts of the state where late blight is less severe, copper sprays usually give satis-
factory control. In areas and seasons which are not favorable for late blight, in-
crease time interval between applications. In the southern part of the state this
is a risky venture because with blight present its spread may become very rapid with
the return of weather favorable for its development.

Early blight Materials and formulas same as for late blight above,
Where early blight and late blight occur together, use the schedule recommended
for late blight. In some localities and seasons where early blight occurs but late
blight is not an important factor, coppers usually give satisfactory control of early
blight.
In the Homestead, Ws't Coast and Ft. Pieroti areas, neither phygon nor' oppers




-10-


give control of early blight on tomatoes eqtal'tb that provided by nabam or zineb.

Gray leaf spot Materials and formulas same as for late blight above, except phy-
gon XL and copper fungicides not effective.
When late blight is not present, applications at 7-day intervals are usually
adequate. Gray leaf spot is not important in all tomato growing areas or in every
year. When it occurs it causes extensive damage unless control measures are started
on time. If late blight is also present the schedule recommended for late blight
should be used.

Spray: Dust:
Gray old Pygon XL 3/4 b. --
Timing of applications appears to be of critical importance. First application
should be made before the plants fall over. As many as 6 applications may be neces-
sary for adequate control. No fungicide effective after the disease has become es-
tablished. Copper fungicides will give a degree of control if applied before the
disease appears.

Sray: Dust:
Bacterial spot Copper 2 Ibs. metallic copper
Copper-containing fungicides have given the most effective control of all
approved commercial materials tested. In wet seasons with frequent driving rains
they may not give satisfactory control of bacterial spot. Greatest effectiveness is
to be expected if the copper spray is applied just before a driving rain occurs.
Copper is not recommended and will not control bacterial spot in the Homestead
area,

Fusarium wilt No chemical control. Use resistant varieties or new land.

Sclerotinia
On marl soils apply cyanamid at the rate of 500-700 lbs. per acre 7-10 days be-
fore setting plants in field. Distribute evenly and disk thoroughly after applica-
tion.


W'ATERMELON

The importance of anthracnose, downy mildew and gummy-stem blight varies widely
from year to year with weather conditions. When a disease appears late little bene-
fit may be derived from spraying or dusting. When disease appears early, subsequent
applications of a fungicide are effective in checking further spread, The time of
appearance of a disease and weather conditions should serve as a guide as to how often
and how many applications should be made. The same fungicide schedule is usually
effective for all three diseases.
It has been observed in the West Coast area that nabam may contribute to a cu-
ticle-damage condition of young fruit. Where this is the case nabam might be used
while the crop is young; when fruit begins toform it may be advisable to shift to
zineb. After fruits have developed skin toughness it may be satisfactory to return
to the nabam schedule. It has been noted in the Leesburg area that a spreader-stick-
er added to the nabam may reduce fruit injury.

Sprav: Dust:
Anthracnose Nabam 27% 2 qts.plus 1 Ib.zinc sulfate, plus --
sticker
Zineb 65% 2 lbs. plus sticker Zineb 4-6b%
Begin applications when runners start to form or when first signs of disease
appear. It is important to have coverage on the under side of leaves. Follow with
two or three applications at 7 to 10-day intervals. The varieties Congo, Fairfax
and 51-27 are resistant to anthracnose.




-11-


Spora: Dust:
Downy mildew Nabam 27% 2 qts.plus 1 lb.zinc sulfate, plus --
sticker
Zineb 65% 2 lbs. plus sticker Zineb 4-61
Tribasic copper sulfate, diluted to metallic Copper 6-7%
copper content of l, lbs., plus sticker
Arply as given for anthracnose control. Copper is not recommended for the West
Coast and Indian River areas.

Snray: Austs
kuM stem blight Nabam 27% 2 qts.plus 1 lb.zinc sulfate, plus --
sticker
Zineb 65% 2 lbs. plus sticker Zinel 4-6j%
Apply as given for anthracnose control,

Wilt (no fungicidal control)
In general, 8 to 10 years between melon crops will reduce the wilt fungus in the
soil to a point where land can be used again for planting susceptible varieties. It
pays to wait at least two years between crops of watermelons on the same land even
when wilt-resistant varieties are grown,(Blacklee, Fairfax, 51-27).
There is always danger of wilt occurring on new land where drainage water from
a diseased field has flowed over the new field, or where cattle have had access to
both fields.




DUST TR'ATI-EIITS FOR PRjViNMIN SEED DECAY AND IMPROVING STAND*


So. / TSPNS. OZ. / TSPNS.
CROP MATERIALS 100o# /1# CROP MAT IALS o100o /l#

Bean. lima Spergon 48 2 4 Eggplant Zinc oxide 80% 8 %
Thiram_ 50% 2 Semesan 30% 6
Bean, snap (same as for lima) Escarole Thiram 50% 4
Sneraon 48% 8 1
Beet Thiram 50 8 1 Lettuce (same as for escarole)
N.I.Ceresan 5 8 3/4
Broccoli Thiram 50o 4 1 Mustard Thiram 50% 4 1
.Semesan 30 6 Semesan 30_ 6

Brussel (same as for broccoli) English Spergon 48% 4
Snrouts Pea Thiram 504 4

Cabbage (same as for broccoli) PeppQr Zinc oxide 80, 8
Semesan 30% 6
Carrot Thiram 50% 8 1 Spinach Thiram 50S 4 x
Spgereon 48' 12 1 COunrocide 804 8 -
Cantaloupe Thiram 50% 2 Sweet Thiram 50% 2
Semesan 30" 6 i Corn Suergon 48& 6 3/4
Cauliflower Thiram 50% 4 1 Tomato Zinc oxide 80% 8 2
Semesan 30% 6 Snereon 48% 8 1
Celery Cuprocide 80% 8 2 Turnip (same as for mantatd)
SDerPon 48L 12 1I1
Cucumber Thiram 50% 3 1 Watermelon Spergon 48% 6 3/4
Semesan 30-, 4 5 Thiram 50o 4 1

*Bradenton Station: Not recommended if seedbed fumigated or where environmental
conditions favor good germination and egrly development of the crop. During pro-
longed periods of cold damp weather, it may be advisable to treat seed of such crops
as beans and sweet corn.

Sanford Station: Celery seed treatment is recommended only if seedbed fumiga-
tion is not used.

Ft. Pierce Station: Tomato seed treatment is not recommended.

Very truly yours,


Ei : ehl
4/2/54
250 copies


F. JtAi4lSON
Vegetable Crop Specialist






riiiii L ti SLeeits
iii 20 RZECO]KZMDD C0TROLa

Ag. lxteoion Service sumary of research by Fla. Ag. I, p. Station pathologists. Limited to results reported
to January 1, 1954. Revisions will be mde bhen arranged by trther research with thee pesticides or additional pesticide tested.

B=i 3 piaR Cjoa TNI WIN.an, USio= 333Ig3186 I r1 If laa S9f 9 I I S ...W-
MEMWEX~ NE EOWXXPLAST WIM% 01osou13 U -- 'MI


BL3OS0H BLIGHT
5 A SPOIR T




USLRI VILT
GLRA 17 & SLACK ROT








O310 STE BLIGEB
aHl ll, TBOORIH




POA T .L PO.
2REX OCTONIA DUDROT

SCLRWOTISIAl
SEED SW. POT. DISlaSqB


M. I *I


0CIta


ff


SPRAtS/At. 100 gallon

A. .b.m (27%) 2 qt.. 4 3/4-1 lb. 21504

3. abam (27%) 2 qte. + 3/4 lb. ZaSOW

C. 5Nban (27%) 2 qtr. + 1 lb. S2014

D. Zieob (65%) 2 lb.,

z. zirm (76%) 2 lbs.

?. Mansate (754) 1 lb ..
0. Phygan IL 3/4 lb.
H. Copper 14-2 lb., amtallic

I. Copper li4 lb. metallic

J. Copper 2 lbm. mtallic

E. Copper 11-2 lbe. metallic from tribaeic

L. Sperton (48%) 4 tbs.

X. S lfur 10 to 16 Itb. (16# West Coeat)
I. Sulfur 10 lbt.

DUSTS c. Speraon 12%

a. Zinmb 41-6 d. Sporgon 5% Restimn
b. Copper 6-7% a. Solfur 325 meah


SPECIAL Trm5KIUT

1. Marle-Cyanald 500-700 lb.. per Sore 7 to 10 dayr prior planttng toatoeal 400.600 lb.. on irish potatoes.

2. Seed-Hot water 1220 F for 25 in. caabbge; 18 min., broccoli and califlower.
3. Seed-Iot water 126 7 for 10 in.; or 10 mia. In 111000 corrosive embllaete (1 or, crystal 71 fglloos water).

4. Seed-5-10 sin. in ll000 corroive nsblimate (1 as. crystal Ti gallons water); copper preferred over nabia
to prevent spread.

5. o general recommendation. S9ford, crotanates promilrg, residue hbaard not fully. deteainedl Observational
Sanford and Bomteod, salfar 2R100 (4# eqtush) in cool (below 900 7) weather. Obesrvtilonal Bradenton.
nabha twice weekly; 30.J40 (125-175 esh) salfur an ground through dry vinee.

6. aOld ant BD Site: Remove top 12' soil, drench bed end frame 1 pt. formaldehyde per 15 gallon, replace
with ev etoIl. Seed: Someu n bel 1 lb. 74-8 gallon: water for 1 min.; mercurli ehloride 4 o I galloa
hat water to 31 gallone cold water for 8-10 tin.: opergao (4 ) 1 lb. In 5 gallons waetr, dip in and right
out. Plantst In general. dip base in eomesa bel 1 lb. 10 gllons water; stem rot or wilt p.ergan (454)
1 Ib. in gallons vater; ecwrf I lb. terbma to 5 pllone water.

7. Uncut tibers-Cold formalded* 1 pt. 40% in 30 gallons water for 1I hours; hot formaldehyde 3.3 qtn. 40 In
100 gallons m ter at 122-140 for 3-4 *in.; aercaric chloridel6 oa. plus 1 qt. C1 in 25 gallons water for
5 aim.

B. eDiteae-freo planting stock.

9. Reslitant verietile-rotate crops.

1. Frequent ehllow caltivatlon ear give a mmeOro of control.

11. Seedbed famigation-Methyl bromide 1 lb. 50 sq. ft. (celery post-emerga ce-3 lb. 489 spergon or 1 lb. 50(
thira/100 gallons water at 15 gallons 1200 sq. ft.)
Ig. Vorkere wash hands prior handling plantea-trong soap or 70% alchohol.


IST TRZT3UrNTS IOR PRETElfTI0 SOGE IDCAT AXD IMPROVING STA*
0Z./ TSP--. OZ./ TSPNS.
cMP NAT.RmIALS 1OO. lie COP MITZRIALS 100# li1

Sean. li Spergon 4g 4 Igplut 4ine o4dl 80 8 I
Thirm 50 1 bcSseen 30$ 6

Bean. sap (iam as for lian) Ioarole Thro s 4 4

Bet ThirmT 50% 8 1 Lettuce (Uam as for escarole)
l.I..renea i% 314_____ _________

Broccoli han 50% 4 ? Ii rtrd Thra 50 4 t
Selss.n a 6 emi geao 0 6

Bruseal (Ame na for broccoli) aglish Sprtog 4g 4
Sproute Pea thi rn t0o 4 4

Cabbai (sa as for broccoli) Pepper ms gold e 0e 8
___________________________.m 0 6 I

COrrot thirm 0% 8 1 8pinbh Thirn 50 4
peraoB g g -1- Ouroae 80 -

Sames.s 0%4 6 orn SperDo. 4 6 r/4

Camliflower Thlir 50% 4 4 tomato Zina oxida. 5O 8
seeas!a ,o 6 I oeron 4!g 8 1

Celery Coprtootldto t Turap (-ae.. o for metard)
.trgor 1 1 ____I__

Ocumber Thirm 50 3 i V termeles rIpert 46 6 5/4
Somm.iaz 3 ithirsa 50% 41


Bradenton StatioBoNat reoaemendal if seed-

bed fualgted orwhere environmental

conditions favor good gprtaation and

early development of the crop. During

prolonged periods of cold damp weather,

it man be adviable to treat s*ad of
euch crope as beans amd swt corn.

Sanford Stationl Celery seet treat snt

it racomenedad only If sedbed fail-
gation Is not n1od.

lart Piere Stations Tomate oed treat-

wset i not recommended.


A Dn I


Univ. of 7a.
Ag, hrteeaton SreTvce
rM/1ehl
2/15/54


I I I




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