COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
STATE OF FLORIDA
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. AND COUNTY AGENT AN
UNITED STAE OEATMENT Vegetable Crop Specialists HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING GAINESVILLE, LORDA
7;VE GETARIAN GAE" TEVIMo IAORID
io. 11 J nc 15, 1?~1
WE TRIED, but --
S.: '" With all of the sound research projects found it very
.... "- :4 difficult to single out highlights of the vegetable field
Says over the State in your last newsletter.
J .i... Now comes one more---that of the Main Station---and here
too, ALL projects looked interesting and more than promising
f for the vegetable industry,
.. .'_. 7 :.:i Rather than narrow it down, we feel you will profit by an
... idea of the over-all picture at the Main Station and how it
"-' may tie-in with the work and problems in your areas.
w Remember, Mr. Agent---most of the recommendations YOU
make may be based on research results incorporated from these
and similar projects over the state. Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations are meeting problems head-on*
On to the Gainesville vegetable field day---
BREEDING to EATING1
Breeding: Dr. A. P. Lorz, a full-time plant breeder, is at present concen-
trating on producing adapted- varieties of bush and pole, snap and lima beans with
superior quality, appearance, yield and/or disease and insect resistance. Along
vith several varieties of southern peas for observation, the Korean2 Crowder pea is
being grown for seed increase and further study. Under the graduate program, M. W.
Hoover and Dr. Lorz are studying physiological changes in the blackeye pea to es-
tablish what stages of maturity are best suited for freezing and the best blanching
Pepper virus'troubles may be approached through breeding. At any rate, Dr.
Phares Decker Tyes, Florida Market and Florida Beauty eggplant) is screening a
world-wide collection of peppers to be tested for possible tolerance or resistance.
Tipped-over the phomopsis deal, didn't he?
Varieties: Always there are variety trials---divided between Dr. V.F. Nettles,
L. H. Halsey, Dr, R. A. Dennison, Dr. C. B. Hall, Dr. F. S. Jamison, and last and
least, F. E. Myers. Goes something like this--with number of varieties concerned
Replicated: pepper (15) tomato (21), cucumber (16), bean (5), sweet corn
(5), watermelon (11) onion (2) and sweet potato (1).
Observational: pepper (7), tomato (29), sweet corn (29), and cantaloupe (1).
Seed Source: tomato (16), and pepper (12).
Following up on the variety angle is a study of the response of the bean and
corn varieties to five possible fertilizer programs.
Fertilization: Dr. R. A. Dennison is particularly interested in potash sources
and rates as influencing tomato quality---he's checking 125 and 250 pounds per acre
each of muriate and sulfate of potash. Then too, there is an experiment on the
1 Cooperate?---if you'll say leading to pun with breeding' we'll suppress similar
attempts fot 10 letters.
2 South Korea. we hone.
response of'Rutgers tomatoes to fertilizer applied prior to planting or by split
application, and comparing nitrate of sodaj nitrate of potash, sulfate of potash and
ammonium nitrate as side-dressing materials* Dr, Dennison is also studying pepper
(California Wonder) under h-7-5 applied as 2000 pounds in one application, 2000// in
two applications, 1500# in three applications, 800# in three applications, and 500#
applied prior to setting with hO# of nitrogen plus 50# of potash in two later appli-
Shifting over to watermelon fertilization, Drs. Dennison, Hall and Nettles are
out to answer some of the age-old and current questions Quality as influenced by
the muriate source compared with the sulfate source of potash? Yields as influenced
by possible combinations of 20, 60 and 100 pounds per acre of nitrogen and 20, 60,
100 and 140 pounds per acre of potash? Yields and quality as influenced by the
possible combinations of 0, 80 and 160 pounds per acre of calcium and 0, 20 and 40
pounds per acre of magnesium?
Nitrogen-Sprays vs. Soil: Dr. C. B. Hall and J. Montelaro, under the graduate
program again, are studying the response of tomatoes receiving 20 or 40 pounds per
acre of nitrogen at planting to foliage sprays of urea, as compared with soil appli-
cations of nitrate of soda as a siTe-dressing. Know there'll be considerable in-
terTesTin the results---
Fumigation-Fertilization: Can't leave fertilization just yet---wanted you to
know that Dr. V. F. Nettles is checking the response of sweet potatoes to broadcast
ethylene dibromide fumigation as affected by fertilization with 1000 and 1500 pounds
per acre of a h-7-5 or 4-7-10 applied prior to planting and in split applications.
Under the graduate program, S. Hamdi and Dr. Nettles are checking Rutgers
tomatoes under different fertility levels treated with broadcast applications of soil
fumigants. Not satisfied with just this season's effect, Dr. Nettles is studying the
residual effect of both broadcast and in-the-row fumigation under several sources of
nitrogen---using the Contender bean as the crop
Irrigation-Fumigation: On the Latin square irrigation plots you are probably
familiar with,,T r. Nettles is measuring the response of cucumbers to none, heavy and
light over-head irrigation, with and without fumigation treatment with ethylene di-
Weedicides: Relative control of nutgrass with 21, 5 and 7# per acre of the
sodium and alkanolamine forms of 2,-_-D; maleic hydrazide at 5, 10 and 15# per acre;
and sodium TCA at 20 and 40# per acre---credit this one to Dr. Dennison,
Drs. Dennison and Nettles wanted to get a look at several vegetable crops
sprayed purposely with 2,4-D at three different stages of growth. They did& Saw
about what you would expect, too---with one exception. Corn sprayed with 2,4-D
seemed to resist drought.
Handling: field and storage,
Can't just harvest and forget about 'em. 'Dr. C. B. Hall has a test to de-
termine the effect of vine removal, delayed digging, and delayed grading after
digging on the skinning of Irish potatoes. Now there's a piece of needed work
VIC3 also has a project to investigate better ways of curing and storing
onions. He reports satisfactory yields of the Excel and Early Texas Grano varieties,
and has them in storage after artificial curing in a hay drier for 16, 24, 37 and 45
hours at 1120 F.---and at room temperature, of course.
Vegetable Products Laboratory:
Doesn't seem to be a singular heading that will cover ALL that was going on
under the same roof at this Lab on field day. Let it suffice to say'that research
here finds tasty new products and improved techniques for processing,tetter methods
3br. V. F. Nettles. Refuse to repeat self 7th time on same page* He's getting
- 3 -
of packaging, how containers affect the product in transit, and then comes retail
training in merchandising.
The late H. M. Reed and Dr. R. A. Dennison, L. H. Halsey, R.K. Showalter,
B. D. Thompson and S. E. Rosenberger were responsible for the work cited above.
Getting a grower to reduce frequency and depth of cultivation can be talked
about a lot without too much response---he's generally back raising dust before longs
O.K., keep talking. Maybe there's another way you can help him.
We see in the 1950 Annual Report of the South Carolina Experiment Station that
life of many fast-wearing surfaces on farm implements may be extended as much as four
times by the use of hard-facing alloys on the surfaces of plow shares, cultivator
sweeps, plow discs, etc. Some materials are applied by the use of oxy-acetylene
welding equipment and others by electric welding. The alloy tested, stoodite, showed
a saving from the money angle, too.
ON LIMING LAND---100 questions and answers
Feel the need to brush up on the principles involved in liming? Special Cir-
cular 83, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, goes at it in a way we like. For
example: "How do laboratory and plant-root extracting procedures differ?
A.- In common laboratory procedures, exchangeable bases are replaced by
ammonium and hydrogen ions. Plant roots operate on a similar basis. They excrete
carbon dioxide, which, in the presence of water, forms carbonic acid. The hydrogen
of this acid replaces the exchangeable bases of the soil complex, which may then en-
ter the plant. Some plants have greater powers of affecting this exchange than do
Check---100 of rem. (New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland and N. J. cooperating)
PICKING EFFICIENCY---some statistics
Extension Bulletin 337, Purdue Agricultural Extension Service, shows some
simple rules for making movements count in picking tomatoes
They recommend two-hand picking only, and then with each hand carrying two
tomatoes to the picking container. Some of the reasons cited:
(1) Picking with one hand only---you pick 83 hampers when you should pick 100.
(2) Resting one elbow on knee while the hand only holds tomatoes---you pick
only 86 hampers in the time you should pick 1000
(3) Moving hands to hamper with only one tomato in each hand--you pick only
90 hampers in the time you should pick 100.
DA PING-OFF---more contributing factors.
Damping-off is a typically seedling disease, two forms of vhich are recognized,
the pathogenic and the physiogenice Pennsylvania State College Agricultural Experi-
ment StationB bulletin 509, shows the effects of excess solutes, temperature and mois-
ture on several fungi causing damping-off. Excerpts you may be interested in follow:
"..oWhen solutes are in excess, loss of moisture by evaporation and transpiration
soon concentrates the soil solution to a degree that prevents the intake of water by
roots or even extracts moisture from succulent plant tissues".
"...Data show tha-t damping-off fungi grow with comparative ease in concentrations
of soil solutes which seriously inhibit the growth of seed plants.. Under favorable
conditions for seed germination in sand cultures, Fusarium caused slight loss of
seedling stand, but when germination was delayed or inhibited loss became very greatU
PER M iFNET MAILING LIST--complimentary but unfruitful.---Had a good response to the
attempt in your last newsletter to establish a mailing list. However, of 45 returns
from research, state- or area-wide, and out-of-state interests, we had only i with
suggestions. We'll continue about the same--but always open for improvement.
6/1A/51--250 Vegetable trop Specialist