COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
STATE OF FLORIDA
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, AND l Cro r 'r COUNTY AGENT AND
UNITE STATES DEPARTMENT Vegetable Crop Specialists HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING V E G E TA R I R t A N GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
No. 10 April 27, 1951
FIELD DAYS -- many new developments.
Five locations of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations have re-
ported on work in the field of vegetable production in the past l6 days.
Tee'll attempt in this letter to point out some of the highlights---it's just
a small portion of the work actually presented. Several Stations have as
yet to announce Field Day dates---
PIMYTJIIS tREISTS---tomato late blight.
A primitive tomato (plumb-shaped and named PhyJlis), despite :what you
may hove at first thought, may have a definite place in the tomato industry
one of these days. Phyllis has resistance to late blight and is being cross-
ed with lines carrying resistance to other diseases. Dr J. M. TTlter, Plant
Pathologist, Gulf Coast Experiment Station, and Dr. R. A. Conover, Plant Patho-
logist, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, grew progeny of these crosses last
winter and showed that the resistance of Phyllis had been inherited.
Seed from single plant selections and plants from back-crosses to large-
fruited tomatoes are in this year's plantings at Homestead. Several other
primitive tomatoes with late blight resistance are also under study.
Dr. Conover pointed out to Dade County Tomato Growers' Field Day that
while these lines show considerable'resistance to late blight they are a long
way from being commercial varieties, and that by the time such standards are
reached that the lvte blight resistance may be lost.
TOMATO BREEDING LINES OF TNTZJR;EDI'TE !STAGES TINDE OBSERVATION AND SELECTION
FOR C "'BI;ED RESISTANCE TO COCtION SOIL-BORNE AD FOLI.'.f. DISEASES---whevw
.n `ao-ition to 6beiFg respoibTETor that eTe'TTJ'r., lH. olter, Gulf
Coast Experiment Station, opened our eyes with something else in tomato breed-
"The experienced tomato grower knows that he must expect some difficulty
in obtaining a stand of plants on old land because of soil organisms such as
Rhizoctonia. Resistance to Fusaritu wilt is not all that is needed to make
a new tomato variety suitable for economic production on old land. It seems
certain that we have in the Hanahill superior hereditary characteristics that
shou.l.d be very useful in this connection."
Stocks have shown superior hardiness in previous tests or in ordinary
culture on the old fields at the Station. These results suggest that there
are possibilities to select from Pianahill for a superior level of resistance
We might add that stocks are under test for everything from root-knot
to water damage--believe they mean business do-n there I
VARIETY TESTS---replicated and observational tomatoes.
:T'EP 69 seems to be leading the pack of promising tomato varieties being
tested by Dr. Geo. D. Ruehle, Vice-Director in Charge, Sub-Tropical Experiment
Station. He indicated STEP 89 looks like the best out of the program in that
area. The new -ariety appears uniform, resistant to Fusarium wilt, and not
highly susceptible to blight.
What happened to the Mo. S-34 line that was so promising? Susceptibility
to blight and uneven ripening were among the reasons pointed out. Several
new strains of the same 'blood' look worthless down there to date.
STEP 68, one of the previous leaders, doesn't look so good this year.
It's listed as a wilt resistant line, in-case you wondered. STEP 158, resis-
tant to anthracnose, collar rot and wilt, is carrying a lot of fruit but is
not quite classed with STEP 89.
Dr. Ruehle pointed out the following observational lines as promising:
"TEPs 160. and 181, Gulf .Q.oast Experiment Station, (Multiple resistant)
STEP 1T4, USDA Vegetable Breeding Laboratory, (Wilt resistant)';
STEPs' 175 and.176, UDA Vegetable Breeding Laboratory, (rilt collar rot res.)
Co6ments to the side accompanying these tests were that STEP 179 (listed
as crack resistant) didn't have many fruit to crack. Several hybr-ds, 89 x
I1o-S-34-F., 1Mo-S-34 x 89, Mo.-S-34 x Manahill, and Manahill x 89, seem to
have good yields of quality fruit---maintaining a seed supply was something
BLIGHT RESISTANT CELERY---
Dr. R. W. Ruprecht,'Vice-Director in Charge, and Mr. Ben F. '.hitner,
Assistant Horticulturist; Central Florida Station, indicated that the new
blight resistant variety, Emerson Pascal, seems to be well-adapted to the muck
but their cooperative rork with Cornell University is continuing.
The idea is to get something even better for sand land celery.
FUNGICIDES FOR SXEET CORN---leaf blight control.
Workers at the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Gulf Coast Experiment
Station, Everglades Experiment Station and the Central Florida Experiment
Station are conducting a cooperative program to provide information for
recommendation on economically controlling Helminthosporium leaf blight.
Treatments included are zineb, nabam. and material 406 applied with budworm
sprays only or after the disease has started, and zineb applied on a regular
schedule from the time the plants are small. Other treatments depend on
Dr. R. A. Conover, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, observes possible
burning with nabam sprays, and definite injury from applications of phygon
XL and a puratized agricultural spray. He also included zineb (with and
without sticker), ziram and ferbam.
Dr. J. TI. Walter, Gulf Coast Experiment Station, has several other
observations of interest to date:
1. Zineb and DDT emulsion are physically not compatible.
2. The pathogen'takes 10-11 days to complete a spore-cycle on loana.
3. Material 406 is believed to be causing an intolerable amount
Present recommendations by Dr. Talter say, "Thus far the experimental
work on this problem does not warrant a definite recommendation far economic
control of leaf blight. However, tests at Belle Glade last year showed that
the disease can be controlled on an experimental basis by applying zineb at
BLACK ROT CONTROL---further tests.
Black rot has been brought under control by treating cabbage seed with
hot water at 1250 F. for 25 minutes; cauliflower and broccoli, 18 minutes.
Further tests by Dr. A. H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Potato
Investigations Laboratory, show that little bl'ck rot is carried over in the
soil from one year to the next one; none, the second year after an affected crop.
NABAj SPRAY INJURY--tomatoes
Dr. R. A. Conover, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, reported that forth
past two seasons injury has been observed in experimental plots and in com-
mercial fields sprayed with nabam plus zinc -sulfate (with or without lime).
Symptoms as now recognized include stunting, leaf-roll, marginal chlorosis
and a reddish-brown fruit spotting.
The question is naturally asked, "Does the same injury seem to occur
with the use of zineb?" Dr. Conover answered, "No." He is conducting tests
to provide an answer as to the cause and to indicate what might be done to
Theory so far points to the possibilities of a zinc toxicity and does
not discount the likelihood of some injury from iron compounds accumulating
in the sludge commonly found at the bottom of long-standing drums.
Applications at reduced pressure, a modified nabam for-better compatibility,
filtered nabam, spreader-sticker treatment, nabam with lime, ncbam without
zinc sulfate, and several others, are among the treatments being compared with
nabam and zineb.
SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES---recognize but watch
Several new systemic insecticides seem to be entering into the trial
stages with entomologists over the State.
These may or may not have a future place in the vegetable deal--you get
the idea, the materialwas sprayed on the foliage, is absDrbed into the plant
system, and from there acts as an insecticide. Too, you understand the
reverberations that could accompany my such usage.
About the most striking demonstration of the insecticidal nature ..of
systemics we've seen was in cabbage plots at the Potato Investigati:ns Labora-
tory, conducted br Dr. J. IT. Uilson, Entomologist, Central Florida Station,
Absolute control of the cabbage aphid resulted.
For now---limit yourself to knowing that such a method exists. No
SOIL FUIMIATION---easy boys I
Dr. E. L. Spencer, Soils Chemist in Charge, Gulf Coast Experiment Station,
reiterated to growers at their field day the same story on fumigation agents
heard at the recent training school.
Summed up---there's more than meets the eye. Postpone fumigation as long
as possible. Don't give up on the possibilities of rotation and fallowing
for a season. Dr. Spencer's recommendation says, 'nWhen necessary, in-the-row
treatment with ethylene dibromide, 26 (80-20) gallons per acre prior to each
crop." (We'll string along for the present.)
MINOR ELEIPNTS---Hastings cabbage
Dr. E. H. McCubbin, Horticulturist, Potato Investigations Laboratory,
gave some interesting information on including minor elements in cabbage
No response in yield was evident where fertilizers included per acre rates
of forty pounds' of MgO and MnO, twenty pounds each of ZnO and CuO, and ten
pounds of borax, Dr. Cubbin stated, "Minor elements in the fertilizer have
not increased yield of cabbage over a period of three years."
Treatments included comparisons of no minir elements with plots receiving
all of the elements listed, and with plots receiving only four of the five
WHIPTAIL OF CAULIFLCMER
Progress on another trouble was reported by Drs. A. H. Eddins and E. N.
McCubbin, Potato Investigations Laboratory.
"Thiptail" of cauliflower due to a deficiency of molybdenum was partly
corrected by adjusting the soil to pH $.2 with hydrated lime. Snowball A
is very susceptible."
Dr. Eddins indicated the possibility of correction -with molybdenum
applications, or sprays is not recommended at this time.
If you think boron is a touchy individual---read up on molybdenuml
BLACKHEART OF CELERY
Plots shown by Dr. P. J. Westgate, Central Florida Experiment Station,
dem-instrated the incidence of blackheart as associated with high rates of
fertilization. Under the conditions of the experiment--
There was an increase in marketable celery up to applications of 3 tons
of 5--5-8 per acre. hien rates of four tons were applied, blackheart entered
the picture, and the marketable yield was reduced to less than the yield with
3 tons of fertilizer." Five tons per acre increased the total yield in compari-
son to the 4 ton rate, but decreased the marketable yield.
NUTRITIONAL SPRAYS---major elements
Tests at the Gulf Coast Experiment Station, Bradenton, with nutritional
sprays on tomatoes are being conducted by Dr. E. L. Spencer and Dr. C. M.
Recommendations are, "Previous tests have yielded conflictinF results.
Value of nutritional sprays for supplying major elements such as N, P, K,
Ca, Ug, etc. are still questionable except perhaps under unfavorable growing
Dr. J. L. Malcolm, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, is testing some of
the commercial preparations along these lines. He draws no conclusions to
EAST COAST FERTILITY TRIALS
One of the most interesting plots we've seen lately is over at the
Boynton branch of the Everglades Experiment Station. Dr. YT. T. Forsee and
Mr. VU. A. Hills are observing the results on beans of varying the ratios of
2, 5 and 8% nitrogen, to 0, 6, and 12% phosphorus, to 3, 9, and 15% potassium---
in twenty-seven possible combinations.
Of-course, the test will come in yield records. Observations indicate,
however, that when applied at the rate of 1000 rounds per acre at planting
time, a 8-12-9 gives the best growth but the color is lighter than when a
5-0-15 was used. The 5-0-15 has the best color but plant growth is not quite
as good where the 8-12-9 was used.
This is one we want to watch.
DITFWREI'ITIAL PRUNING---staked tomatoes
David G. A. Kelbert, Gulf Coast Experiment Station. gives a new slant
on pruning tomatoes.
"The object of differential pruning is to increase yield by one cluster
without increasing the denseness of the plant. One side shoot is permitted
to grow as practiced with two-stem pruning, but the bud is removed above the'
first bloom cluster. Preliminary tests indicate an increase of 10% in yield,
most of which was equal in quality to first cluster fruit on the main stalk."
Somewhere in the rush of getting out our last newsletter we failed to
cite Professors Wade McCall and George Thornton as responsible for getting
you the charts we included on average percent content of fertilizer materi-
als and relative availability of elements correlated 'rith pH. ITe're glad
to back up and acknowledge their fine cooperation.
F. r. Jamison
Vegetable Crop Specialist
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May h, 1951