Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00005
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: August 1950
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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/ COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WOKK IN AG(KICULIUMk_ ANU MIUM- 1 t.UJNUMlvi.(
STATE OF FLORIDA


COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, AND
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING

No. 6


Vegetable Crop Specialists

VEGETARIAN


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
COUNTY AGENT AND
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


August 10, 1950


This issue of the "Vegetarian", as was issue No. 3 on insect control, was
prepared from the manuscript of the revised Handbook on Pesticides and Their Uses
in Florida Agriculture to be released at a later date.

We have drawn freely upon the recommendations of Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station entomologists and pathologists and are indeed grateful for their
cooperation in getting this information to you as soon as it is available.


CODE NAMES:
Nabam
Ziram
Thiram
Zineb
Ferbam


(27%)
(76%)
(50%)
(65%)
(76%)


ACTIVE PRINCIPLE:
disodium ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
zinc dimethyl dithiooarbamate
tetramethyl thiurandisulfide
zinc ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
ferric dimethyl dithiocarbamate


DUST TREATMENTS FOR PREVENTING SEED DECAY AND IMPROVING STAND


Crop Materials /Crop materials / S
I t100# s/1# s : 100# S I#
Bean,lima Spergon 48% h4 Eggplant Zinc oxide 80f 8
Thiram 50% 2 Semesan o30 6
Beansnap (same as for lia) Escarole Thiram 505 4
Spergon 48% 8 1
Beet Thiram 5 0 5 1 Lettuce Isame as for esoarole)
N.I.Ceresan 5% 8 3/4
Broccoli Thiram 50 4 Mustard Thiram 5S0
Semesan 30. 6 Semesan 30%1 6
Brussel (same as for broccoli) English Spergon 48% 4
Sprouts Pea Thiram 50% 4
Cabbage (same as for broccoli) Pepper Zinc oxide 80% 8
Semesan 30% 6
Carrot Thiram 50% 8 1 Spinaoh Thiram 50% .
__ ergn 12 1 Cuprooide 80*% 8
Cantaloupe Thiram 50% 2 S Sweet Thiram 50W 2
Semesan 30% 6 Corn Spergon 48% 6 3
Cau 1 if lower Thiram 50% 4l Tomato Zinc oxide 80%s 8
Semesan 30f 6 .Spergon 48% 8 1
Celery Cuprooide 80% 8 Turnip (same as for mustard)
Spergon 12 1
Cucumber Thiram 50% 5 Watermelon Spergon 48% 6 3
Semesan 30% 5 Thiram 50% 4




- 2 4


BEANS, SNAP

Rust Wettable Sulfur 10 to 16 lbs./l00 gale
an or
Powdery Mildew Dusting Sulfur 325 mesh

Frequency of application is variable with weather conditions. When young
plants are near diseased fields, and the weather is mild and humid, make the
first application a few days after the plants emerge. epeaat at7-day inter-
vals until a few days before picking. Increase intervals when weather is
unfavorable for rust.
Blossom-drop caused by sulfur is considered to be of minor importance.
For effective rust control apply sulfur before the leaves become heavily in-
fected.
Certain varieties are highly resistant to some forms of rust and should
be used where advisable,
On the West Coast 16 lbs. per 100 gal. gives best results.
These materials are compatible with recommended insecticides.

Bacterial Blights No fungicidal control.

Halo blight and common bacterial blight are carried in and on the seed.
No No see-treatment is benE icial and sprays in the field are usually not
effective. Use clean seed. Rotate crops,

BEANS, POLE
Diseases and controls are the same as for snap beans. However, since
pole beans have indeterminate growth i- may be profitable to continue appli-
cations until about the end of harvest.

GABBAGE-Seed bed

Downy Mildew Wettable Spergon h0% 4 lbs./100 gal.
and or
Alternaria Leaf Spot 12% Spergon Dust

Begin applications 7 to 10 days after planting and repeat three times a
week untl: plants are set in the field.
Plants are susceptible to both diseases at all stages of growth, but
downy mildew is more common and destructive in the-seedbed. Use spergon in
the seedbed as it gives better control of mildew.
Total number of applications may vary from 6 to 15 depending upon the
season and weather. The amount of spray or dust varies also with sige of the
plant. These materials are compatible with TEPP, parathion, DDT and
chlordane,

CABBAGE-Field
Downy Mildew
and Nabam (27%) 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc
Alternaria Leaf Spot sulfate /100 gals.

Where seed is sown directly in the field spray seedlings 2 to 3 times a
week, beginning when seedlings ave emerged and stopping when plants are
thinned to a stand. If alternaria leaf spot is developing rapidly when heads




-3 -


are half grown resume spraying and using 100 to 150 gallons spray per acre
every 4 or 5 days.
Nabam is very effective against alternaria leaf spot in the field and
gives good control of downy mildew, It is recommended for use in the field
because it is cheaper than spergon. Use 2 to 3 ounces of spreader-sticker
per 100 gal. Nabam is compatible with TEPP, parathion, DDT and chlordane.

Black Rot Hot Water Treatment 1220F. for 25 minutes.

Fill cheesecloth bags about two-thirds full of seed, tie the tops, and
immerse in a container of water at the temperature indicated. Keep the water
within 1o of that specified. Keep the seed underwater and stir to remove
air. At the end of the period remove seed from the hot water and plunge into
cold water---spread out and dry.
Test seed for germination before treating with hot water. vieak seed may
be killed while good seed will stand treatment and germinate well if planted
the same season it is treated. Rotate crops. Seed grown in the Puget Sound
area do not need treatment.

Black Leg Same treatment as black rot above.

Use seed grown in areas where black leg does not usually occur, such as
the Puget Sound area. When in doubt of seed source---treat.

CAULIFLOWER AND BROCCOLI

Black Rot
Downy Iildew Same controls as cabbage above but limit hot water
Alternaria Leaf Spot treatment to 18 minutes.

CARROT

Macrosporium Leaf Blight Nabam (27%) 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc
sulfate/100 gal.
Bordeaux 5-5-50
Ziram (76%) 2 lbs./100 gal.

Begin applications when plants are 5 to 8 inches high and repeat at
weekly intervals. Leaf blights of carrot are serious in some localities and
of minor importance in other seasons or localities.
These materials are compatible with insecticides recommended.

Bacterial Blight
Corrosive Sublimate 1:1000 1 oz. crystals/71 gal.
water for 10 minutes
Hot Water Treatment 10 minutes in water at
1260F.

After treatment, wash and dry seed.

CELERY-Seedbed

Damping-off
Spergon (48%) 3 lbs./100 gal.
Thiram (50%) 1 lb./100 gal.





-L4-


Begin applications soon after plants emerge and repeat at 4 to 7-day
intervals depending on weather. After first three app-licaions change from
3 lbs. spergon to 4 Ibs./100 gal.
Both materials are compatible with DDT and BHC.


CELERY-Field


Early Blight


Nabam (27%)

Zineb (65%)
Ferbam (76%)
Ziram (76%)
Forms of copper that
have proved satisfactory -


2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc
sulfate/100 gal.
2 lb./100 gal.
2 lb,/100 gal.
2 lb./100 gal,

1- lbs. metallic copper/
100 gallons.


In the Everglades area begin applications 7 to 10 days after plants are
set in field and repeat at 4 to 5-day intervals. After two applications of
any of the other material indicated follow with one application of copper.
Nabam gives best results there.
In the Sanford area apply at weekly intervals unless more frequent
applications should be made. Ferbam, zirna and coppers have given best re-
sults in the Sanford area. All are compatible with DDT and BHC.


CANTALOUPE


Downy Mildew
anwde ld
Powdery Mildew


Same as for cucumber below.


CUCUMBER


Downy Mildew


Nabam (27%)

Zineb (65%)


- 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate/100
gal.
- 4% dust in suitable diluent


First applications should be made when runners begin to form. Repeat
at wee-y inter-re.sl until harvest.
Downy mild]rw :e usually serious in all sections of the state when
weather condit?.' favor its spread and develomcrt., In sorn ya-rs it starts
before runners begf t!-r; appear in which case t.h first application should be
made earlier and t-'c irsc1quency of applicatinns are determined by weather
conditions. Po:,de:ry milisw is of minor importance in most seasons and does
not require sepaTa-T treatment for its control
These materials are compatible with recommended insecticides.


Angular Leaf Spot


Corrosive Sublimate

Use disease-free seed


S oz, crystals/7- gal.
water.






-5-


Treat seed in the 1:1000 solution above for 5 minutes then rinse in
clean water and spread out to dry.
Angular leaf spot does not often occur in the state because seed are
produced in areas where the disease usually does not occur.

Powdery Mildew
Zineb (65%) 4% dust in suitable diluent
Ferbam (76%) 7% dust in suitable diluent

Apply when runners begin to form and repeat at weekly intervals until
harvest.
These materials are compatible with recommended insecticides.


EGGPLANT
Phomopsis (tip-over)
No fungicidal control.

Resistant varieties are Florida Market and Florida Beauty.


ENGLISH PEAS
Powdery Mildew
Wettable Sulfur 10 lbs./lO gal. plus wetting
agent.
Sulfur Dust 325 mesh

Begin when signs of disease appear. Repeat at 10 to 14-day intervals,
or often enough to keep the disease under control.
Powdery mildew sometimes becomes serious during the winter months in
the Everglades area where most of the peas are grown on a oomraercial scale.
In this locality it is usually necessary to adhere to a strict spray program
to keep it under control.
These materials are compatible with insecticides recommended.


PEPPER
Frogeye Spot
Ziram (76%) 2 lbs./l00 gal.
Nabam (27%) 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate/
100 gal.
Forms of copper that
have proved satisfactory diluted to give metallic
copper content of 1 lbs./
100 gal.
In plant beds, begin when plants are 2 to 3 inches high and repeat at
7-day intervals; in fTiels after plants have become established repeat at 7
to 10-day intervals.
Frogeye spot does not always occur in serious form every year. When
weather conditions are not favorable the spray schedule may be modified.
These materials are compatible with isotox, DDT, wettable and emulsion.






- 6 -


Bacterial Spot
Forms of copper that have
proved satisfactory Diluted to give metallic
copper content of 1- lbs./
100 gal.
Application and compatibility same as under frogeye spot*
Bacterial spot is usually most severe during or following rainy, windy
weather. Where it occurs with frogeye and alternaria spot the same schedule
should take care of all diseases.

IRISH POTATO

Late Blight
Nabam (27%) 2 qts, plus 1 lb, zinc sulfate/
100 gal.
Zineb (65%) 2 lbs./l0 gal.
Forms of copper that diluted to give metallic copper
proved satisfactory content of 1t lbs./100 gal.

In Southern parts of the state begin applications when plants have
emerged and continue at 4 to 5-day intervals. In the Hastings area begin
when the plants are 6 to 8 inches high if late blight does no- show earlier
and continue at 4 to 5-day intervals.
If cutworms, Colorado potato beetles and aphis are present use DDT in
each application of fungicide. At Belle Glade and Homestead late blight is
usually present throughout the growing season and nothing less than the best
fungicide applied on rigid schedule gives satisfactory control. In the
Hastings area copper dusts have controlled late blight when applied properly.
"Naam and zineb are compatible with DDT, wettable and emulsion.

Early Blight
Materials and formulas are the same as for late blight above.
Use schedule for late blight where both early and late blight are
present. Less frequent applications maybe-~used where late blight is not
serious.
Early blight is usually important in the Southern part of the state and
the schedule for late blight gives good control. In the Hastings area and
other sections it is usually not of sufficient importance to spray for early
blight alone.
Copper fungicides are not as good as nabam and zineb.

Scab
(Use of treatments is not recommended in the Hastings area and other
parts of the state where scab is of minor importance.)
Cold Formaldehyde 1 pt. 40% in 30 gal. water

Soak uncut tubers 1V4 hours then remove and air out thoroughly. This
treatment is more effective when sacked tubers are first soaked in water for
2 minutes before soaking them in formaldehyde or mercury solutions. This
softens the scab lesions.

Hot Formaldehyde 3.3 qts 40%/100 gal.

Dip uncut sacked tubers for 3 to 4 minutes in the solution held at
1220 to 1240F. Stack sacks on end for one hour, one layer deep, to drip and
air out.







- 7 -


Potatoes may be cut for planting any time after the sacks have dried;
Temperature of the hot solution must be kept within the range indicated to
give control of the disease without injuring the tubers.

Acidulated Mercuric Chloride 6 oz. mercuric chloride,
1 qt. commercial HC1/25 gal.
water*

Soak sacked uncut tubers for 5 minutes, allow to drip and plant immedi-
ately, or dry out. This treatment is safe for potatoes planted on sandy and
marl soils, but not safe on muck and peat soils. Thise!Se.A. poisonous and
corrosive and treated ed sd should not be eaten or fed to livestock.


SQUASH

Downy Mildew
and
Powdery Mildew Same materials and formula as under cucumbers.

Applications should begin before plants begin to bloom or before mildew
appears. Squash is a quic'maturing crop and spraying or dusting to control
disease is not always a profitable investment. The large leaves are
difficult to cover with a fungicide. In areas where mildews are favored
by weather considerable benefit may be derived from spraying or dusting.

Blossom Blight
Same materials and formula as under cucumbers for downy
mildew. Either treatment should help to check blossom blight,
although spraying for it alone may not be profitable.


STRAWBERRY-Nursery

Anthracnose
Bordeaux 6-6-100
Forms of copper that diluted to give metallic copper
proved satisfactory content of 1-L ibs./100 gal. plus
spreader-sticker.
7% metallic copper dust.

Apply during rainy, summer season at 7-day intervals, or oftener if
there are daily showers.

Leaf Spots
Zineb (65%) % dust in suitable diluent.

At 7-day intervals if weather conditions favor disease.


STRAWBERRY-Field

Use of fungicides is necessary during the summer in nurseries, but it
is usually unnecessary to spray or dust field plants for control of diseases







Leaf Spots
Same materials as shown above in nurseries.

Rhizoctonia Bud Rot
No fungicidal control. shallow cultivation.


TOMATO-Seedbed
Late Blight
Nabam (27%) 2 qtse plus 1 lbo zinc sulfate
plus l Ib. lime/100 gal.
Zineb (65%) 2 lbs./100 gale
Phygon to 35/ lb./100 galo
Forms of copper that diluted to give metallic copper
have proved satisfactory content of 1i lbs./l0 gal.

When late blight is favored by weather conditions begin spraying the
plants as soon as they have emerged and repeat at 4 to 7-day intervals until
transplanted An application just before transplanting is desirable.
Thorough coverage of all above-ground plant surface is imperative.
Nabam, zineb and phygon sprays tend to stunt young plants when used
frequently. To avoid this,alternate the nabam and zineb with phygon and
Copper A.
In the Southern part of the state and on the West Coast copper fungicides
will not control late blight. In these areas an alternating nabam and phygon
schedule is recommended. In other parts of the state where late blight is
less severe the copper spray may'Te alternated with nabam.
Do not use an insecticide with phygon, as the mixture may cause injury.
Nabam, zineb and forms of copper that have proved satisfactory are compatible
with recommended insecticides,


TOMATO-Field
Late Blight
Materials and formulas same as for seedbed above.

Begin applications immediately after plants have become established and
repea atI't to 7-day intervals until end of harvest. Thorough coverage of
all above-ground surface is imperative. Spray is more effective than dust.
Nabam is recommended as first choice in the Southern part of the state.
In the other parts of the state where late blight is less severe copper
sprays usually give satisfactory control. In areas and seasons which are not
favorable for late blight, intervals between applications may be longer. In
the Southern part of the state this is a risky venture because with blight
present its spread may become very rapid with the return of favorable weather.

Early Blight
Materials and formulas same as for late blight above.

Where early blight and late blight occur together use the schedule
recommended for late blight. In localities and seasons where early blight
occurs, but late blight is not an important factor, coppers usually give
satisfactory control of early blight*






- 9


Gray Leaf Spot


Materials and formulas same as for late blight above.


When late blight is not present applications at 7-day intervals are
usually adequate. Gray leaf spot is not important in all tomato growing
areas or in every year. When it does occur it causes extensive damage unless
control measures are started on time. If late blight is also present the
schedule recommended for late blight should be used.


WATERMELON


Anthracnose
and
Downy Mildew


Zineb (65%)

Tribasic Copper Sulfat
or other forms of copp
that have proved satis
factory.


a 4% dust in suitable diluent or
2 Ib./100 gal.
;e diluted to metallic dopper content
)er of 1 lbs./l0 gal., or 6% dust in
\- suitable diluent.


Begin applications when runners begin to form or when first signs of
disease appear; follow with 2 or 3 applications at 10 to 14-day intervals.
The importance of anthracnose and downy mildew varies widely from year
to year with weather conditions. When the disease appears late, little
benefit may be derived from spraying or dusting. When the disease appears
early, early applications of a fungicide are effective in checking further
spread. The time of appearance of a disease and weather conditions should
serve as a guide as to how often and how many applications should be made.
The same fungicide schedule is usually effective for all three diseases.


Gummy Stem Blight
Zineb (65%)


- L dust in suitable diluent or
2 lb./l0 gal.


Applied same as for anthraonose above.


Ext,
8/16/50
250




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