PAGE 1

1 Calendar of Events May 12 GAPS: Developing a Food Safety Program for Vegetable and Fruit Growers/Packers. Manatee County Extension Office, Kendrick Auditorium. 8:30 4:30. Cost $70 (for expenses). To register go to http:// manateefoodsafety2011.eventbrite. com/ or call Jenifer at 941 722 4524. Agenda on page June 5 7 2011 Florida State Horticultural Society Meeting, The Renaissance Vinoy, St. Pete. For more information go to www.fshs.org/. Aug. 16 &17 2011 FSGA Agritech at HCC/Trinkle Building. More information will be coming. IFAS is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Ext ension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating. Berry/Vegetable Times May 2011 A University of Florida/IFAS and Florida Cooperative Extension Service Newsletter Hillsborough County, 5339 CR 579 Seffner, FL 33584 (813) 744 5519 Alicia Whidden, Editor Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, 14625 County Road 672, Wimauma, FL 33598 (813) 634 0000 Jack Rechcigl, Center Director Christine Cooley, Layout and Design James F. Price, Co Editor http://gcrec.ifas.ufl.edu Mark your calendar for the 2011 Florida Ag Expo Wednesday, November 9, 2011 Spotted Wing Drosophila and Our Berry Crops Alicia Whidden and James F. Price We were lucky this season that Drosophila suzukii the spotted wing drosophila, did not have a significant impact on Plant City strawberry production. Unfortunately there have been reports of this fly showing up in blueberry fruit in some fields here. We want to remind growers of thin skinned fruit to be on the lookout for this pest. We have published articles on spotted wing drosophila in this newsletter and there is a helpful EDIS publication at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in839 If one looks closely at an infested blueberry, a very small hole may be visible in the fruit. The hole is made by the female spotted wing drosophila. She uses her serrated ovipositor to cut a hole in the intact skin of the fruit and to deposit an egg. When the egg hatches the young larva eats the surrounding (Continued on page 2 ) Strawberry Insecticide Changes during the Past 33 Years Jim Price A college student interviewed me by phone recently to clarify some points related to the pop culture issue of strawberries and the pesticides used to produce them. He presented some facts collected to that point and one was a quote from his current text book. Paraphrased, the passage was that chlorinated hydrocarbons constitute the most abundant industrial chemicals in use today and that chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides now are being replaced organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. I couldn't argue his point about the heavy industrial use of chlorinated hydrocarbons given the amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) I see around. But the current text book's point that chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides now are being replaced by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides drew my breath. That statement was true when I (Continued on page 3 )

PAGE 2

2 fruit pulp. This can cause a sunken depression in the fruit and usually is our first obvious sign that there is a problem in the fruit. If one gently breaks open the fruit a tiny larva can be seen. When workers grade fruit, a close eye should be kept to see those fruits with sunken depressions or even to see the tiny larvae if they fall from the fruit. Sanitation measures are very important to minimize losses to this pest. Spotted wing drosophila flies will attack pre ripe to overripe fruit. Berry growers should remove all damaged or overripe fruit from the field so spotted wing drosophila will not be attracted to the field and to decrease the number of flies that could develop and re infest the field. Overripe and cull fruit should be completely removed; a good way is to bag unmarketable fruit and send it to the dump. Traps are useful to spot the presence of this fly before signs of infested fruit appear. These are simple to make and are described in the EDIS publication referenced above. Each crop has spray rotations that can be used. For blueberries Delegate, Phosmet, malathion, diazinon, Danitol, Asana, or Mustang are useful. Be certain to select an insecticide that has a pre harvest interval (PHI) compatible with expected picking schedules. Some of these products not only kill spotted wing drosophila but also beneficial insect that can lead to other insect problems later on. It is imperative to rotate insecticides by modes of action to reduce resistance. In both strawberry and blueberry spinetoram is a good choice to use. In blueberries it is called Delegate; in strawberries it is Radiant. Also spinetoram is a good option for chilli thrips that affect both crops. Read and follow all label instructions. Another sanitation measure to manage the spotted wing drosophila community wide is to destroy the strawberry crop immediately when finished in a field. Otherwise, these flies can lay eggs and develop to infest other berry crops. The Plant City region has experienced carryover of whiteflies and their viruses from old tomato fields to newer ones and we would like avoid carryover of spotted wing drosophila. Dr. Joe Noling has encouraged the application of Vapam immediately after the final harvesting of a strawberry field as a measure to suppress sting nematode the following season. Vapam kills strawberry plants immediately and the dependent sting nematodes die. That practice would deny spotted wing drosophila reproductive sites in strawberries and ease the impact of the fly on successive blueberry and other berry crops. http:// swd.hort.oregonstate.edu/ faq/what_does_swd_look

PAGE 3

3 began my strawberry career 33 years ago. Not now. It's over. The fact is that the organophosphate and carbamate insecticides that replaced the chlorinated hydrocarbon ones largely have been replaced themselves. Those few that remain for use in strawberries largely languish in sheds. His information was about one human generation behind the times. I was a little sensitive about his information and unloaded my knowledge on pesticides from those more hazardous to applicators, consumers, and the environment a generation ago to those more benign today. The entomology laboratories at the University of Florida Gulf Coast Research and Education Centers in Dover, Bradenton and in Balm have played a major role in that transformation and I am proud of our accomplishments. Here is a thumbnail sketch of the transformation that has occurred during my strawberry career. 1. All four chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides used in the strawberry industry in the beginning of my career (such as toxaphene) have been replaced. None are around anymore. 2. Eight of the 13 organophosphates and carbamates have been removed from use (such as parathion) leaving only diazinon, malathion, naled, chlorpyrifos and carbaryl among them. 3. Eight biologically derived insecticides have been introduced (such as B.t ., abamectin, and spinosad) 4. Two pyrethroids have been introduced (bifenthrin and fenpropathrin) 5. And 16 other insecticides have been introduced (such as novaluron and bifenazate) 7. Overall, 27 modern insecticides have been introduced, 15 old ones have been retired, and four (see item 2) have remained available the entire period. Methomyl both came in and went out during the period. This represents a major positive transformation relative to society's hazards of biggest concern. The news was much bigger and the story was much more favorable than the fellow's text book presented. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition. Use pesticides safely. Read and


Berry/vegetable times
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087388/00071
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Title: Berry/vegetable times
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Language: English
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011
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UFNIFLOVERID IFAS EXTENSION


Calendar of

May 12 GAPS: Dev
Safety Program for
Fruit Growers/Pack
County Extension C
Kendrick Auditoriu
Cost $70 (for expen
register go to http://
manateefoodsafety2
com/ or call Jenifer
4524. Agenda on pa

June 5-7 2011 Flori
Horticultural Societ
Renaissance Vinoy,
more information g
www.fshs.org/.

Aug. 16 &17 2011
Agritech at HCC/Tr
More information w






FLOIIDA A
Mark your cale
2011 Florida
Wednesday, Nov

A University of Fl
Florida Cooperat
Service Ne
Hillsborough Coun
Seffner, FL 33584
Alicia Whidd
Gulf Coast Resear
Center, 14625 Coi
Wimauma, FL 3359
Jack Rechcigl, C
Christine Cooley, L
James F. Price
http://gcrec.il


Berry/Vegetable Times

May 2011

Events Spotted Wing Drosophila and Our Berry Crops
elopingFood Alicia Whidden and James F. Price
*eloping a Food
Vegetable and
ers. Manatee We were lucky this season that Drosophila suzukii, the
office spotted wing drosophila, did not have a significant impact on
m. 8:30-4:30. Plant City strawberry production. Unfortunately there have
ses). To been reports of this fly showing up in blueberry fruit in some
1.e entbrite. fields here. We want to remind growers of thin-skinned fruit
011.eventbrite.
at 941-722- to be on the lookout for this pest. We have published articles
ge on spotted wing drosophila in this newsletter and there is a
helpful EDIS publication at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in839 .
da State If one looks closely at an infested blueberry, a very small hole
y Meeting, The may be visible in the fruit. The hole is made by the female
o to spotted wing drosophila. She uses her serrated ovipositor to
cut a hole in the intact skin of the fruit and to deposit an egg.
When the egg hatches the young larva eats the surrounding
FSGA
inkle Building. (Continued on page 2)
rill be coming.
Strawberry Insecticide Changes during the Past

33 Years
SJim Price

A college student interviewed me by phone recently to
t EXPO clarify some points related to the pop-culture issue of
ndar for the strawberries and the pesticides used to produce them. He
Ag Expo presented some facts collected to that point and one was a
ember 9, 2011 quote from his current text book. Paraphrased, the passage
was that chlorinated hydrocarbons constitute the most
orida/IFAS and abundant industrial chemicals in use today and that
ive Extension chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides now are being replaced
wsletter organophosphate and carbamate insecticides.
ity, 5339 CR 579
(813) 744-5519 I couldn't argue his point about the heavy industrial
en, Editor use of chlorinated hydrocarbons given the amount of
ch & Education polyvinyl chloride (PVC) I see around. But the current text
nty Road 672, book's point that chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides now
S(813) 634-0000 are being replaced by organophosphate and carbamate
enter Director
ayout and Design insecticides drew my breath. That statement was true when I
:, Co-Editor
as.ufl.edu (Continued on page 3)


1
IFAS is an Equal Employment Opportunity-Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services onlyto individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin U S Department ofAgriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M
University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating










fruit pulp. This can cause a sunken
depression in the fruit and usually is our first
obvious sign that there is a problem in the
fruit. If one gently breaks open the fruit a
tiny larva can be seen. When workers grade
fruit, a close eye should be kept to see those
fruits with sunken depressions or even to see
the tiny larvae if they fall from the fruit.
Sanitation measures are very
important to minimize losses to this pest.
Spotted wing drosophila flies will attack pre-
ripe to overripe fruit. Berry growers should
remove all damaged or overripe fruit from
the field so spotted wing drosophila will not
be attracted to the field and to decrease the
number of flies that could develop and re-
infest the field. Overripe and cull fruit
should be completely removed; a good way
is to bag unmarketable fruit and send it to the
dump.
Traps are useful to spot the presence
of this fly before signs of infested fruit
appear. These are simple to make and are
described in the EDIS publication referenced
above.
Each crop has spray rotations that can
be used. For blueberries Delegate, Phosmet,
malathion, diazinon, Danitol, Asana, or
Mustang are useful. Be certain to select an
insecticide that has a pre-harvest interval
(PHI) compatible with expected picking


schedules. Some of these products not only
kill spotted wing drosophila but also beneficial
insect that can lead to other insect problems
later on. It is imperative to rotate insecticides
by modes of action to reduce resistance. In
both strawberry and blueberry spinetoram is a
good choice to use. In blueberries it is called
Delegate; in strawberries it is Radiant. Also
spinetoram is a good option for chilli thrips
that affect both crops. Read and follow all
label instructions.
Another sanitation measure to manage
the spotted wing drosophila community-wide
is to destroy the strawberry crop immediately
when finished in a field. Otherwise, these flies
can lay eggs and develop to infest other berry
crops. The Plant City region has experienced
carryover of whiteflies and their viruses from
old tomato fields to newer ones and we would
like avoid carryover of spotted wing
drosophila.
Dr. Joe Noling has encouraged the
application of Vapam immediately after the
final harvesting of a strawberry field as a
measure to suppress sting nematode the
following season. Vapam kills strawberry
plants immediately and the dependent sting
nematodes die. That practice would deny
spotted wing drosophila reproductive sites in
strawberries and ease the impact of the fly on
successive blueberry and other berry crops.


SWD Identification key characters


Mae


Black spot
on wings
T.:M--- -.-


Female


http://
swd. hort.oregonstate.edu/
faq/what does swd look


She inserts saw-like device
(ovipositor) into fruits and
lays eggs


2 black combs -
on front legs -.


a*

Irilj










began my strawberry career 33 years ago.
Not now. It's over.
The fact is that the organophosphate
and carbamate insecticides that replaced the
chlorinated hydrocarbon ones largely have
been replaced themselves. Those few that
remain for use in strawberries largely
languish in sheds. His information was
about one human generation behind the
times.
I was a little sensitive about his
information and unloaded my knowledge on
him... knowledge regarding the evolution of
pesticides from those more hazardous to
applicators, consumers, and the environment
a generation ago to those more benign today.
The entomology laboratories at the
University of Florida Gulf Coast Research
and Education Centers in Dover, Bradenton
and in Balm have played a major role in that
transformation and I am proud of our
accomplishments.
Here is a thumbnail sketch of the
transformation that has occurred during my
strawberry career.

1. All four chlorinated hydrocarbon
insecticides used in the strawberry
industry in the beginning of my
career (such as toxaphene) have been
replaced. None are around anymore.

2. Eight of the 13 organophosphates
and carbamates have been removed
from use (such as parathion) leaving
only diazinon, malathion, naled,
chlorpyrifos and carbaryl among
them.

3. Eight biologically derived
insecticides have been introduced
(such as B. t., abamectin, and
spinosad)


4. Two pyrethroids have been
introduced (bifenthrin and
fenpropathrin)

5. And 16 other insecticides have been
introduced (such as novaluron and
bifenazate)

7. Overall, 27 modern insecticides
have been introduced, 15 old ones have
been retired, and four (see item 2) have
remained available the entire period.
Methomyl both came in and went out
during the period.

This represents a major positive
transformation relative to society's hazards of
biggest concern. The news was much bigger
and the story was much more favorable than
the fellow's text book presented.


Please remember...
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing specific information. It is not a
guarantee or warranty of the products named and does not
signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others of
suitable composition. Use pesticides safely. Read and
follow directions on the manufacturer's label.




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