Group Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Title: Berry/vegetable times. February 2008.
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 Material Information
Title: Berry/vegetable times. February 2008.
Uniform Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Physical Description: Newspaper
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Publication Date: February 2008
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087388
Volume ID: VID00055
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Calendar of Events

March 7-10 34th National
Agricultural Plastics Congress,
Tampa, Fl. For more
information go to http://

March 9 Daylight Savings time
returns. Move your clocks up 1

March 11 Pesticide License
Testing. Hillsborough County
Extension Office, Seffner. 9 am.
For more information call Mary
Beth Henry, 813-744-5519, ext

March 11 2008 Spring
Blueberry Meeting and Field
Day. Plant Science Research
Unit, Citra, Fl. Check newsletter
for more information.

April 8 Pesticide License
Testing. Hillsborough County
Extension Office, Seffner. 9 am.
For more information call Mary
Beth Henry, 813-744-5519, ext

A University of Florida/IFAS and Florida
Cooperative Extension Service newsletter
Hillsborough County, 5339 CR 579,
Seffner, FL 33584
(813) 744-5519 SC 541-5772
Joe Pergola, County Extension Director
Alicia Whidden, Editor
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
14625 County Road 672,
Wimauma, FL 33598
(813) 634-0000 SC514-6890
Christine Cooley, Layout and Design
Craig K. Chandler, Co-Editor
Jack Rechcigl, GCREC Center Director

Cerry/Vegetable Times

February 2008

Viruses Affecting Cucurbits and Beans
Alicia Whidden, UF/IFAS, Hillsborough County Extension Service,
Phyllis Gilreath, UF/IFAS, Manatee County Extension Service

Over the last couple of years, the number of whitefly-
transmitted viruses in some cucurbit fields have increased to
almost epidemic proportions. There are 3 major viruses we
are now dealing with in cucurbits, all of which are transmitted
by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. The host range is
similar (mostly cucurbits) but the symptoms differ.
Most growers are aware of Squash Vein Yellowing
Virus (SqVYV). Symptoms of this Ipomovirus were first seen
in watermelon in Florida in the mid 1980's. It is widely
distributed in SW and West Central Florida and has also been
reported from southern Indiana. It is probable that this virus is
native to Florida. This virus is the cause of watermelon vine
decline (WVD) which Florida watermelon growers have been
battling since 2003. It was first isolated from a squash plant
here in Dover and this sample led to the breakthrough in
figuring out the cause of watermelon vine decline. Cucurbits
are hosts (especially squash and watermelon, but Momordica
(Continued on page 2)

New Chilli Thrips Now in Florida Strawberries
James F. Price and Curtis Nagle

Managers of two Plant City area farms recently voiced
their concern to Alicia Whidden (Hillsborough Co.
Vegetables Extension Agent) of their difficulties to control
thrips adequately. Their problems turned out to be a thrips
new to American strawberry culture, "chilli thrips" or
,i 1ii//// ,h % dorsalis.
This thrips first was discovered in Florida in late 2005
and its problems had been restricted to rose, Indian hawthorn,
plumbago and a few other ornamentals. The discovery in
strawberries is a first in the US for a field-grown crop and

(Continued on page 3)

IFAS is an Equal Employment OpportutyAffirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational formation and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin U S Department ofAgriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, Umversity of Flonda, IFAS, Florida A & M
Umnversity Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating

February 2008

BerryNegetable Times

Berry/Vegetable Times

(Continued from page 1)
charantia (balsam-apple) is also a known host
and potentially an excellent reservoir of
Symptoms of SqVYV in watermelon
are death of young plants, death of vines of
older plants and necrosis in the fruit,
especially just inside the rind. Trials for
resistance to SqVYV are being conducted by
grafting watermelon germplasm onto gourd
rootstock and evaluating the watermelon
scions for symptoms. Several potential
sources of resistance in wild type
watermelons have been identified. Also being
evaluated are insecticides and use of silver
plastic mulch to manage SWF and thus WVD.
Cucurbit Leaf Crumple Virus
(CuLCrV) is a begomovirus first seen in
Florida in 2006. At the same time it was
found in grafted watermelon transplants
received in Georgia from a Western U.S.
transplant producer. Known hosts include
tobacco, bean and at least one weed host-
balsam apple, a very common weed in West
Central Florida, especially in citrus groves.
Like the other viruses, SqVYV and CYSDV
(see below), CuLCrV is able to infect most
cucurbits including watermelons, cucumbers,
squash, and pumpkin (Figures 1 and 2). Initial
symptoms include a mosaic pattern on foliage
and crumpling of leaves.

Figure 1. CuLCrV on squash.

Figure 2. CuLCrV on watermelon.

Infected plants are stunted. In squash,
leaves can be thickened and distorted as well
as curled and crumpled. Fruit symptoms vary
but severe color break was observed in yellow
summer squash in 2006. Now the virus has
been found to infect beans in Florida. This is
the first report of CuLCrV infecting a host
other than cucurbits in Florida. The symptoms
on bean are leaf deformation/rugosity and
mosaic including chlorotic mosaic.
Cucurbit Yellow Stunting Disorder
Virus (CYSDV) was not seen in Florida until
2007. It infects melons, cucumbers, gourds and
winter and summer squash. Symptoms appear
first on older leaves toward the center of the
plant, progressing outward along vines toward
growing points. Symptoms often mimic water
stress. Then a yellowing between the leaf veins
appears and the leaves later turn bright yellow
(Figure 3). On some, small green spots develop
on leaves of certain varieties. Older leaves
drop as the plant's internal transport system
breaks down. This virus does affect fruit
quality by reducing fruit size and sugar
content, plus shortening the product's shelf
life. It was first identified in cucumber and
melon crops in the Middle East more than 15
years ago and in cucumbers and melons in
Spain about 10 years ago. In 2003-04, it

(Continued on page 3)

February 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

(Continued from page 2)
was identified in Central America and the Rio
Grande Valley, Texas, and 2006 in Arizona
and California where it and CuLCrV caused
significant yield losses. It is not known if this
virus infects wild cucurbits or other
uncultivated hosts. As with some other
viruses, it may cause symptomless infections
in some hosts.
Management recommendations for
these viruses are not that dissimilar to
recommendations for tomatoes and TYLCV.
They include:
* Select the most vigorous and well adapted
* When using transplants, use pathogen-free,
whitefly-free transplants Do not buy
transplants that were produced in the western
* Use reflective mulches.
* Treat prior to planting with nicotinoids to
manage whiteflies in the field.
* Apply appropriate insecticides for whitefly
control during production in the field.
* Don't plant in old established fields,
volunteers can be a significant reservoir for
these viruses.
* Post-production sanitation pull up the plastic
and plow fields under Prevent grower of
volunteers or remove all volunteers.
* Maintain a host-free period between spring
and fall crops.

Figure 3. Melon plant infected CYSDV showing
typicalsymptoms on the older leaves. Photo courtesy
of W. Wintermantel (USDA, Salinas, CA).

(Continued from page 1)
raises concerns for the strawberry and
vegetable industries, particularly the pepper
Chilli thrips tend to be found on
strawberry petioles and leaves less than on
flowers as is common with current pest thrips.
Even more problematic, they may hide and
feed in folded, young leaves where it is
difficult for insecticide sprays to reach.
Chilli thrips look much like normal
flower thrips, but adults are shorter, possess
more outwardly-bowed abdomens, and the
setae of their wings create an almost black line
down the adult's back when the wings are
folded there at rest. These characteristics are
best seen when the suspected chilli thrips is
compared directly to a common flower thrips
(Figure 1).

Figure 1. Notice the length of the shorter chilli thrips
(left) and the longer, common flower thrips (right).

Suggested measures to control chilli thrips in
strawberries are taken from experiences among
Florida's ornamentals industries. Given their
experiences and the materials permitted in
strawberries, it seems that abamectin,
nicotinoid sprays, oils (remember the
phytotoxicity caution in strawberries!) new
spinetoram, and spinosad may be the best
materials presently available for control.
Given that limited applications of these

(Continued on page 4)

February 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

materials are permitted, that these materials
are useful for other problems, and that chilli
thrips could become problematic on farms, it
may be wise to reserve some use of these
materials for a possible appearance of chilli
The strawberry industry has
experience in remediating cyclamen mite
problems from crowns and young, folded
leaves. The industry's technique with high
volume sprays to deliver toxicants to plant
interiors and buds may be valuable to
manage chilli thrips there. But the fact is, we
do not yet have sufficient experience to
define best techniques.
Lance Osborne and other IFAS and
FDACS scientists have provided
considerable information on our current
understanding of this new pest at:;; or
IFAS scientists are working on the
chilli thrips problem in strawberries and by
next season will have more definitive
management procedures to suggest.

Assessment of sensory and
chemical characteristics of several
selections of strawberries over a
period of 2 years
Celine Jouquand1, Anne Plotto2, and Craig Chandler1
(' University of Florida, Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center, 14625 CR 672, Wimauma, FL
33598; 2 USDA-ARS, Citrus & Subtropical Products
Laboratory, 600 Avenue S, NW, Winter Haven, FL

'Festival', the main cultivar grown by
the large commercial strawberry farms in
Florida, can produce firm, attractive and
sweet fruit with a strong aroma. However,
'Festival' has low yields in early December

and the overall flavor of its fruit tends to be low
in March. New selections are being evaluated
by the University of Florida, as potential
complements to 'Festival' in December and
March. The USDA-ARS Citrus and
Subtropical Products Laboratory has evaluated
sensory and chemical characteristics of the most
promising of these selections over 2 seasons
(2006 and 2007).

Sensory evaluation
Sensory evaluation was performed on
February 2 and March 9 in 2006, and on
January 4, February 13 and March 15, in 2007.
Five genotypes were tested in 2006: FL 95-269,
FL 99-164, FL 99-117, FL 00-51 and FL 01-
116 with 'Festival' included as a reference. In
2007, four genotypes were retained: FL 99-164,
FL 99-117, FL 00-51, FL 01-116, and two
named cultivars were added in February and
March, 'Rubygem' and 'Sugarbaby', with
'Festival' still used as a reference. Panels took
place at the University of Florida's Gulf Coast
Research and Education Center (Figure 1).
Panelists were asked to rate strawberries for
appearance, flavor, texture, sweetness and

Figure 1: Panelists tasting strawberry selections at
the University of Florida's Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center

(Continued on page 5)

February 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

Results for flavor preference indicate that FL-00-51 was always preferred for flavor and
sweetness, and with high ratings for flavor (above 6) (Table 1 and Table 2). 'Festival' was
rated with high flavor in February 06 and 07, but its rating declined in March 06 and 07, as well
as in January 07 (Table 1 and Table 3). 'Rubygem' was also rated high for flavor liking and
sweetness preference but this cultivar was only evaluated in 2007 (Table 4).

Table 1: Flavor liking (9-point hedonic scale) for eight strawberry genotypes evaluated over
two harvest seasons.
Selection Feb. 06 Mar. 06 Jan. 07 Feb. 07 Mar. 07
Festival 7.30 a 6.16 b 5.92 bc 6.93 a 5.20 d
00-51 7.32 a 7.04 a 6.53 a 6.68 a 6.17 ab
99-164 7.14 a 6.46 ab 5.65 c 5.47 c 5.39 cd
99-117 5.60 b 6.45 ab 6.47 ab 5.86 bc 6.02 bc
01-116 5.86 b 6.47 ab 5.91 bc 6.36 ab 4.89 d
95-269 6.26 b 5.30 c
Rubygem 6.32 ab 6.36 ab 6.74 a

Table 2: Flavor liking FL 00-51
Category means Groups

Feb 06 7.32 A

Mar 06 7.04 A B

Feb 07 6.68 B C

Jan 07 6.53 B C

Mar 07 6.17 C

Table 4: Flavor liking

Table 3: Flavor liking Festival
Category means Groups

Feb 06 7.30 A

Feb 07 6.93 A

Mar 06 6.16 B

Jan 07 5.92 B

Mar 07 5.20 C


Category LS means Groups

Mar 07 6.74 A

Feb 07 6.36 A

Jan 07 6.32 A

February 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

'Rubygem' and FL-00-51 seemed to have constant sensory characteristics while the
other genotypes showed greater variation. Genotypes with a low flavor rating (FL 95-269 in
March 06, FL 99-164 in January and February 07, 'Festival' and 01-116 in March 07) were
always described as "not sweet enough" by the panelists, thus clearly linking flavor liking to
sweetness preference. However, 'Sugarbaby' had low flavor preference in February and March
07, despite the high percentage of "just right" rating for sweetness, indicating sweetness is not
the only indicator of good quality for strawberries.

Chemical composition
The chemical composition of each genotype was determined in order to evaluate the
influence of harvest date and /or genotypes on titratable acidity (TA), soluble solid content
(SSC) and volatile compounds. Data were also used to interpret flavor preferences.
Sugar (SSC) and acid (TA) levels were good indicators of sweetness and tartness
preferences. Both were highly affected by harvest date. In 2007, all selections had higher SSC
in February than in March and January. Figure 2 shows the sugars/acid ratio for 'Festival', FL-
00-51, 'Rubygem' and 'Sugarbaby'. The SSC/TA of'Festival' was always lower than for FL-
0051 and 'Rubygem'. 'Sugarbaby' had the highest SSC/TA ratio, mostly due to both high SSC
(10.5 Brix) and low TA (0.59 %). As indicated above, the high sugar content of'Sugarbaby'
was not an indication of quality for that selection. Volatile analysis provided more information



14 F figure 2: SSC/TA ratio for
\ -- Festial 'Festival', FL-00-51, 'Rubygem'
12 and 'Sugarbaby' over the har-
-1-- Rubygen
---Sugarbaby vest season in 2006 and 2007.


Feb 06 March 06 Jan 07 Feb 07 March 07

Si furanones
O lactones
o terpenolds
E aldehydes
Io Besters Figure 3: Sum of esters, terpe-
noids and aldehyde/alcohols for
'Festival', FL-00-51, 'Rubygem'
and 'Sugarbaby' (sum of rela-
tive peak area for each com-
Spound in each chemical group).

Festival FL 00-51 Rubyge. Sugarbaby

February 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

All genotypes had the same volatiles
(same quality) but with different proportions
of esters, terpenoids, acids, lactones,
furanones and alcohols/aldehydes. Esters,
lactones and furanones are known to impart a
desirable sweet/fruity flavor, terpenoids
impart an earthy to medicinal flavor (when in
high amount), and alcohol and aldehydes
impart a "green" flavor that may give an
impression of freshness, but also of unripe
fruit if present in large amounts. Different
proportions of these volatile compounds may
result in very different aroma or flavor
profiles in fruit. For example, FL 00-51 had
the highest proportion of esters, lactones and
furanones (Figure 3), which explains why it
had high preference ratings over time.
'Rubygem' also had high amounts of lactones,
but less esters than FL-00-51. 'Sugarbaby'
had the least amount of esters, and was
generally not liked, in spite of its high sugar
content. Panelists' comments for this variety
indicated "very sweet", but it tastes
"artificial", like "peach", "apricot",
In this study, the aroma profile
(variations in proportion of volatile
compounds) was determined more by harvest
date (environment) than by selection
(genotype). In February 2006, most
genotypes were characterized by a lack of
terpenoids and alcohols/aldehydes and a high
amount of TA. In March 2006, fruit had high
contents of lactones, esters, and furanones,
and high SSC, SSC/TA. In January 2007 fruit
had low volatile content and SSC, while in
February 2007 fruit had a high terpenoid and
alcohols/aldehydes content. FL 00-51 was an
exception because it was always characterized
by a high quantity of volatiles and SSC
(except in January 07). This observation
might explain consistent high ratings for
flavor liking and "just-right" for sweetness
attributed to this selection. In March 2007,
genotypes with the lowest flavor ratings -
'Festival' and FL 01-116 showed a lack of

volatile compounds and low SSC (similar to
what was observed among all the selections
tested in January).
In conclusion, the sensory evaluation
of strawberry genotypes over 2 seasons
showed a great variation month by month,
except for FL 00-51, and 'Rubygem'. FL 00
-51 and 'Rubygem' were the most preferred
selections, but 'Rubygem' needs to be
evaluated over another season to confirm the
2007 results. FL-00-51 may give the Florida
strawberry industry an opportunity to provide
consumers with a sweeter and more flavorful
product in March. However, its storability
was inferior to 'Festival' in this study (data
not shown).

BMAPs are Coming in 2008!
Jemy West Hinton, Sr. Engineer BMP and Alicia
Whidden, Hillsborough County Extension Agent

And growers better be ready! By
now you probably have heard about the
Florida TMDL (Total Maximum Daily
Load), the state's response to the federal
Clean Water Act mandate to protect ground
and surface waters. This is a process
whereby the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection (DEP) assesses the
health of the state's water-bodies, identifies
impairments and determines what must be
done to regain a healthy system. By using
detailed scientific methodology, DEP is well
into the TMDL process of monitoring state
waters, identifying pollutants, and
determining the reduction in pollutants that is
necessary to achieve target water quality in
the system. Once the TMDL is identified and
set for a water-body, the next step in the
process is developing a Basin Management
Action Plan (BMAP) which projects the
actions needed to meet restoration goals.

(Continued on page 8)

February 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

DEP's strategic approach for
implementing BMAPs is one of collaboration.
The BMAP process in most watersheds will
be a stakeholder driven public/private
working partnership that uses existing local
knowledge to best manage a system. The
BMAP working groups will consist of
landowners, public utilities, water supply
authorities, state, district and local agencies,
educational entities, agricultural groups,
environmental groups and any other interested

BMAPs will be coming soon to a
watershed near you. You can be ready.
Producers can now voluntarily enroll in the
Agricultural Best Management Practices
Implementation Program (BMP) by initiating
legally adopted practices applicable to their
operations. Agricultural BMPs are practical,
cost-effective actions that agricultural
producers can take to reduce the amount of
pesticides, fertilizers, animal waste and other
pollutants entering our water resources.
While the program is voluntary in much of
the state, in areas of the state where DEP has
developed a BMAP that includes agriculture,
farmers must sign up for the BMP
Implementation Program or conduct water
quality monitoring at their own cost.

By using local stakeholders with local
knowledge, the BMAP process will encourage
a proactive, incentive based educational
approach to developing the plan. The plans
will include agricultural Best Management
Practices (BMPs), stormwater BMPs and
retrofits, local ordinances, financial and
regulatory incentives, education and more
education. All actions will be coordinated
with community outreach.
Permitting will still continue and will
remain an option. However, the preferred
avenue will be a process that involves the
community developing a BMAP resulting in a
personal ownership by all participants. All
parties will be sitting at the same table,
sharing ideas, information and resources. All
will be embracing the same watershed goals
and working together to attain them.

f~or information on the Agriculture
Best Management Practices Implementation
Program in your area, you may contact Jemy
West Hinton, or (813)478-
6630, Alicia Whidden, Hillsborough County

The use of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing specific
information. It is not a guarantee or
warranty of the products names and does not
signify that they are approved to the
exclusion of others of suitable composition.
Use pesticides safely. Read and follow
directions on the manufacturer's label..

February 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

Pesticide Registrations & Actions
* The Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services (FDACS) has
approved the special local needs (SLN)
registration of hexythiazox (Savey 50
DF) ovicide/miticide with a reduced
plantback interval (30 days for snap beans
or cucurbit vegetables and 60 days for
fruiting vegetables) after application to
strawberry on plastic mulch. The
registration is FL-080001. (PREC Agenda,
* Based on requests by Nippon Soda and IR
-4, the EPA has approved tolerances for
the insecticide acetamiprid (Assail ).
Tolerances of importance in Florida
include blueberry and onion. (Federal
Register, 1/16/08).
* Based on a request by Valent USA, the
EPA has approved tolerances for the
fungicide fluopicolide (proposed name
Infinito). This is a member of
acylpicolides, a new chemistry and mode
of action with systemic properties. It is
active against water molds and downy
mildew. Tolerances of importance in
Florida include: fruiting vegetable (group
8), cucurbit vegetables (group 9), and
tuberous and corm vegetables (subgroup
ID). (Federal Register, 1/30/08).
* Based on a request by Syngenta, the EPA
has approved tolerances for the fungicide
mandipropamid (proposed name Revus).
This is a carboxamide-which binds with
the wax layer in plant tissue and is stable
for a longer period of time. It is active
against water molds (except Pythium).
Tolerances of importance in Florida
include: fruiting vegetables (group 8),
cucurbit vegetables (group 9), leafy
vegetables except bassica (group 4), head
and stem brassicas (subgroup 5A), leafy
green bassicas (subgroup 5B), tuberous
and corm vegetables (subgroup 1C), okra,
onion, and potato. (Federal Register,

* Based on a request by Syngenta, the EPA
has approved tolerances for the fungicide
difenoconazole (Dividend ). Tolerances
of importance in Florida include: sweet
corn, cotton, fruiting vegetables (group 8),
and tuberous and corm vegetables
(subgroup 1C). (Federal Register,

Spring Blueberry Field Day
Tuesday, March 11, 2008
Plant Science Research and Education Unit
2556 W. Hwy. 318, Citra, FL

8:00 am Late Registration
8:45 am Welcome- Dr. Daniel L.
8:55 am Update on blueberry
9:15 am Another disease of blueberry,
9:35 am Fertigation of blueberries Mr. Bryan
Hobbs, president, B.B. Hobbs Company,
Palmetto, Fla.
9:55 am Update on horticultural blueberry
research at the University of Florida -
Dr. JeffWilliamson, extension
horticulturist, Horticultural Sciences
Dept., IFAS, University of Florida
10:10 am FBGA Business Meeting Ms. Donna
Miller, FBGA president, presiding
10:25 am Instructions for Tour of the PSREU -
Dr. JeffWilliamson and Dr. Paul
Lyrene, Horticultural Sciences Dept.,
IFAS, University of Florida
10:35 am Depart for field tour of blueberry
research and breeding plots at the
PSREU Dr. Jeff Wiliamson, extension
horticulturist, Horticultural Sciences
Dept., IFAS, University of Florida
11:45 am Lunch provided for pre-registrants
compliments of Agri-Source and
1:00 pm Depart for field tour of area blueberry
farm Maps will be provided.

More details on Page 10.

February 2008

Information about the short course -

Registration Please find a pre-registration form for the Spring Blueberry Field Day below.
This form must be returned postmarked by March 6 to guarantee your meal at the field

Directions to the UF Plant Science Research and Education Unit, Citra, Fla. Directions
from 1-75 Exit 1-75 at exit #368 (W Hwy 318). Head east on Hwy 318. After approximately 5
miles, you will cross over 441. Keep heading east for approximately 2.5 miles. The Plant
Science Unit is on the right. Directions from Hwy 441 Where 441 and W Hwy 318 intersect, turn
east onto W Hwy 318. The Plant Science Unit is approximately 2.5 miles east from the intersection
on the right.

2008 Spring Blueberry Meeting and Field Day
Where: Plant Science Research Unit, Citra Fla.
When: Tuesday, March 11, 2008.

Pre-register now for the Annual FBGA Spring Field Day. Pre-registrations must be
postmarked by March 6, 2008 to guarantee a meal.

About the Field Day On-site registration will begin at 8:00 a.m. Note: Meals will be provided
only to those who have preregistered. The trade show will open at 8:00 a.m. Research and
educational presentations and a tour of research plots will be followed by lunch and an
afternoon tour of an area farm. We are planning to offer Florida CEU credits for this meeting.

Location of the Spring Meeting The 2008 Spring Meeting and Field Day will be held at the
Plant Science Research and Education Unit in Citra, Fla. The address is 2556 W. Hwy. 318,
Citra, FL.

Thank you for your continued support of the Florida Blueberry Growers' Association!

Florida Blueberry Growers' Association
P.O. Box 163
Island Grove, FL 32654

Please cut here and return to above address.

Name(s) attending the Short Course

February 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

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