Group Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Title: Berry/vegetable times. September 2006.
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Title: Berry/vegetable times. September 2006.
Uniform Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Physical Description: Newspaper
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Publication Date: September 2006
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087388
Volume ID: VID00045
Source Institution: University of Florida
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7Berry/Vegetable

Times

September-October 2006

I UNIVERSITY o From Your Agent...
FLORIDJA Starting Off the Season Right!
IFAS Extension


A monthly newsletter of the University of
Florida IFAS
Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
Hillsborough County
5339 CR 579, Seffner, FL 33584
(813)744-5519 SC 541-5772
Oct. 17,0 al ery S




















Alicia Whidden, Editor
Mary C 1.ii. I Director
and
Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center
14625 County Road 672,
W83imauma, FL 33598
(813)634-0000 SC514-6890
Christine Cooley, Layout and Design
Craig K. Chandler, Co-Editor
Jack Rechcigl, Center Director
http://gcrec.ifas.ufl.edu


Taking Care of Those New Strawberry Plants- Think
TLC!
One of the first things we can do to help the new
season get off to a good start is to think about the treatment
that is given to the strawberry plant from the time the box is
brought out of the cooler and taken to the field till the time the
plant becomes established in the ground. A little tender
loving care (TLC) can help the plant get off to a good start so
it will produce lots of early berries. First it is important to
keep the transplants as cool as possible while waiting to be
planted. Do not bring too many boxes out of the cooler at one
time especially during the heat of the day. At lunch time
either take plants that are left back to the cooler or put them in
the shade. Do not leave bundles of plants out so that their
foliage and roots dry out; especially do not leave them out on
the top of the bed. Remember to try to keep boxes in the
shade as much as possible. If workers use black garbage bags
to carry plants in the field remember that black absorbs heat
so it can get very hot inside the garbage bag and the plants are
warming up very fast. Next the plants are being set in plant
holes in black plastic covered beds that have been heating up
for several weeks so by the time the overhead irrigation is
(Continued on page 2)


Resolving Restricted Export of Strawberry
Plants from Quebec to Florida due to the
Golden Nematode
J.W. Noling, CREC

The Golden nematode (GN), Globodera rostochiensis,
is a major economic pest of potato in Europe and many other
high elevation areas of Central and South America. In
England, nearly 75 percent of potato acreage is infested and
often suffer severe crop losses due to the nematode. GN was
(Continued on page 2)


1
IFAS is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authored to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin U S Department ofAgnculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Flonda, IFAS, Florida A & M
Umnversity Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating


September-October 2006


BerryNegetable Times







September-October 2006


turned on and the plant foliage is cooled off
the plant already could have some damage
from getting too hot and dry. This brings me
to the next thing to pay close attention to- do
not wait too long to turn the overhead
irrigation on. The black plastic on bed tops
on a hot bright day can be well over 110F.
This is a very important step- the quicker you
get the water on the better!
For the next 10-14 days care should be
taken to be sure to turn the water on early
enough that the plastic on the top of the beds
does not have a chance to get hot. Remember
the overhead irrigation is not to "water" the
plants but is used to keep the foliage from
drying out and dying. The plant will start
putting out roots quickly and being able to
carry water and nutrients to the leaves but
until then the overhead irrigation is what
keeps the leaves alive. Your plants will get off
to a better start and be able to produce flowers
and fruit earlier the more leaves you can keep
alive so remember to think about how the
transplants are treated as soon as they come
out of the cooler. Remember when it comes
to transplant treatment- think TLC!

Worker Protection Standard and Food
Safety
At the start of this new season
remember to check over your Central Posting
and make sure all posters are readable and the
correct emergency medical information is
listed. When inspectors come to your farm,
Central Posting will be one of the first things
they will check. Also remember all new
workers will need to be given WPS training
by the start of the 6th day of work and to
document all training given. Remember do
not keep your "Do Not Enter" sign up that
you posted for fumigation past the correct
time. Inspectors will question why you have
workers in a posted field where they should
not be. Be sure all bathroom and
decontamination sites have adequate fresh
water for washing, soap, and single use paper


towels.
With food safety issues becoming
more prominent in the media, it is important
to instruct all workers to wash hands with
soap and water after using the toilet and
properly dispose of the paper towels. A good
time to tell workers is at WPS training and
this could also be documented in the
paperwork you have employees sign and that
you retain for your records. This would
provide a paper trail for third party audits that
shows workers have been trained in proper
hygiene for food safety.

Alicia Whidden
Hillsborough County Extension Service
813-744-5519, ext. 134
awhidden@ufl.edu


(Continuedfrom page 1)
introduced to Europe via infested potato
tubers transported by Spanish galleon from
incursions into Central and South America.
Once introduced and established into any new
environment, populations can increase
rapidly. The nematode invades the plant root,
after which the female body becomes round in
size and erupts from the root to expose the
posterior portion of the female body to the
external environment. The remains of female
nematode ultimately forms a hardened,
impermeable cyst, (an obvious and visible
sphere, Figure 1), housing up to 500 eggs
which can then survive for decades. The
Golden Nematode also causes extensive
damage to tomatoes, and eggplant, and can
reproduce on the roots of wild solanaceous
weeds like nightshade. Fortunately,
strawberry has been identified as a nonhost
GN. The nematode is very difficult to
eradicate because of the delayed hatch of eggs
and because the egg lie shielded within the
hard and impermeable exoskeleton of the
dead female (cyst) (Figure 2). Canada,
Mexico and the United States have all


Berry/Vegetable Times








September-October 2006


Figure 1


Figure 2


to imposed domestic and foreign quarantine
restrictions to prevent the introduction of the
nematode within their borders. Here in
Florida, we should all be keenly aware of the
types of problems created by introduction of
an exotic pest, Citrus Canker and Greening
are the most recent.
The problem for Florida strawberry
growers began more than a month ago on
Aug 16, 2006 when the U.S. Department of
Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service (APHIS) announced that
they were prohibiting the entry of potatoes
and other plant products into the U.S. from
the province of Quebec due to the detection
of the golden nematode (GN). The APHIS
announcement came one day after the
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
confirmed the presence of the Golden


nematode on a 30-acre farm 13 miles east of
Montreal, Quebec. Presence of the nematode
was also positively confirmed from on-farm
tillage equipment which had been transported
and used at other farms 50 miles distant from
farm outside of Montreal. Strict quarantine
measures were immediately imposed and
extensive root and soil sampling of the
affected farms by CFIA, under close
observation by APHIS, is still underway.
On August 23, 2006, USDA APHIS
prohibited certain agricultural products
originating in Quebec from entry into the
U.S. A relatively long list of prohibited
products and equipment were developed. The
most important of these restricted articles
included (1) plants with roots and (2) plant
crowns and roots for propagation including
the all important stipulation that they all must
be free of any adhering soil. The APHIS
restriction effectively quarantined over 30
million bare-root transplants and 3 million
strawberry plug plants from three Quebec
nurseries (Masse, Lareault, Labrecque). It
was estimated that loss of these plants would
reduce strawberry planted acreage within
Florida by as much as over 20 percent. In
subsequent telephone communications with
USDA APHIS, it was reported that previous
USDA research had demonstrated the
inability to eliminate all soil particles from
roots, even when various root washing
techniques were used. This suggested early
on that it was simply not possible to satisfy
the soil-free, bare-root transplant product
requirement and that other means of
phytosanitary certification would have to be
quickly developed and approved. On Aug
27th, USDA APHIS scientists arrived in
Montreal to discuss and observe the ongoing
investigation of Golden Nematode in
Quebec. At this time, it was also made
abundantly clear that any Canadian protocols
developed for Golden nematode sampling
and detection purpose had to be preapproved
by USDA APHIS before issuance of any


BerryNegetable Times







September-October 2006


Phytosanitary Certification and entry into the
U.S.
Since that time the Florida
Strawberry Growers Association (FSGA) has
been in continual contact with USDA APHIS
seeking a certification standard which would
provide plant inspection and adequate
assurances to prevent the movement of the
nematode out of Quebec and allow export of
the plants into Florida. As individual
discussions and conference calls frantically
continued into mid September, it then
became disturbingly clear that CFIA lacked
the infrastructure required to use
internationally accepted methods to test soil
and root systems for the presence of the
Golden Nematode in a time frame needed for
digging and export of plants to Florida. Here
in Florida we were fearful that a
comprehensive soil sampling procedure
would be required for each nursery to certify
the absence of the nematode within each
nursery field. The international protocol for
soil sampling requires that core soil samples
be collected using a grid pattern of 4 to 8
paces throughout a field. Thirty consecutive
core samples constitute one testing sample
for laboratory analysis. Unmistakably, this is
a very intensive sampling proposition which
requires special laboratory certification to
collect, process and identify nematodes, but
also to provide chain of custody
documentation from field to lab. It became
clearly apparent that there was insufficient
time and Canadian infrastructure to provide
phytosanitary certification of the three
strawberry nursery sites via soil sampling
protocols.

Observation of Roots
On cyst nematode infested potato plants,
CFIA inspectors typically rely upon direct
microscopic observation of potato roots,
visually examining roots for the pinhead size
adult females which protrude from the root
surface. Plant evaluations typically begin


after the flowering stage, a time when the
white, yellow, or brown cysts can be found
on a potato plant's root system. Inspectors
must exercise caution during the root
collection phase since simple excavation and
removal of plants from soil can dislodge
attached females on roots. To satisfy risk
considerations and obtain an accurate
assessment of whether Golden Nematode is
present, 3000 root systems from each suspect
field must be separately analyzed. Because of
the nonhost status of strawberry to Golden
Nematode, it was hoped that it would not be
necessary to conduct such a comprehensive
sampling of strawberry plants from the three
nurseries.

For more information regarding Golden
Nematode-Continue reading.

Golden Nematode Protocol
Chip Hinton, FSGA

By the time the Association was
made aware of the problem, we were
approaching the first of September, a mere
three weeks or so before harvesting was
scheduled to begin.
There were at least three major
factors weighing heavily against us. The first
was the time factor itself. USDA is a very
large organization and known for its
institutional lethargy. In my thirty plus years
of dealing with them, I've noted that policy
is set after considerable discussion and
thought. Major shifts in direction take years,
not weeks to accomplish. Secondly, it was
pretty well assumed that whatever protocol
was accepted, inspection and analysis would
be required. Just certifying the farm soil
according to CFIA standards would require
over 11,000 soil cores and almost 400
samples. Every lab in Canada was swamped
with samples taken to determine the extent of
the Golden nematode infection. Some
estimates of the backlog exceeded 40,000
samples.


Berry/Vegetable Times








September-October 2006


Thirdly, no incident is politically
isolated from events that precede it. Earlier,
Idaho potato growers found Golden
Nematode in their soil and Canada
immediately shut the border to US potatoes
and soil. When Canada had a similar episode
with the Golden Nematode, there was a
sentiment that the border should be slammed
shut and stay that way until the border was
opened to solanaceous commodities heading
north.
Over the next two weeks, we
employed every asset we could imagine to
solve this problem. We were successful in
resolving the soil sample problem by
separating the farm certification (which
required heavy sampling) from the plant
inspection to insure the seedlings were safe.
That made the sample numbers more
manageable.
We contacted Risk Management to
determine if the USDA Crop Insurance
would cover an inability to obtain plants due
to governmental action. For your
information, your insurance takes affect only
after your plants are planted, and you
therefore would not be covered, even if it
was the government that made it impossible
for you to obtain plants.
We provided pages of data to make
USDA more familiar with how strawberry
nurseries work and how they dovetail with
Florida strawberry production. Dr. Joe
Noling was a tremendous help with his
knowledge of nematodes and the workings of
USDA-APHIS. As a last resort, we contacted
Representative Putnam and Senator
Martinez.
The interest from our legislators
raised the urgency for a solution. On
September 15, USDA-APHIS established a
protocol for the movement of strawberry
plants fromQuebec Canada. This was a mere
seventeen days from the time we contacted
USDA about our problem. There were staff
members from USDA that moved mountains


to make it possible for you to get plants.
Mike Swett tops that list.

That protocol is as follows:
1. The plants must originate from fields
where no host crops have been grown for
at least 10 years. In addition, the
equipment used in the strawberry fields
must not have previously been used in
potato fields.
2. The plants must be shaken so that there is
a minimum presence of soil.
3. A minimum of 1210 strawberry plants
per field must be randomly sampled and
processed to ensure they are free of
Golden Nematode. If there are
solanaceous weeds, such as nightshade,
present within or around the edge of the
fields, a sample must also be collected
and processed.
4. Any host plants and accompanying soil
growing within or around the fields must
be sampled and tested according to
approved protocol.
5. The shipment must be accompanied by a
phytosanitary certificate confirming that
the strawberry plants have been
processed in accordance with USDA
protocols.

The very next day, APHIS had its
experts on-site in Quebec to observe the
fields samples taken by Canadian plant
health officials and ensure its laboratory
detection methods comply with US
protocols. This was a cooperative exercise,
with Canadians holding authority for the
testing, but USDA establishing a mutually
agreed upon protocol. This way, US potatoes
were protected and strawberry plants
destined for the US were allowed to enter the
US.
There were other factors outside of
this protocol that have come into play to
provide support to the comfort level of those
around us.


Berry/Vegetable Times








September-October 2006


1. We have obtained information denoting
the recipients of the plants from Quebec
and provided this information to USDA.
This will allow a means for USDA to
determine the relationship of farms to
producers of solanaceous commodities. It
will also provide information should
USDA want to sample soil at the
recipient farms.
2. We will try to inform growers as to the
importance of avoiding solanaceous
crops when double cropping following
strawberries from Quebec. If you plan to
grow tomatoes, potatoes or eggplants,
please have them follow strawberries
from other provinces or the US. Restrict
movement of equipment and clean
equipment well if movement is
absolutely necessary.

As of today, the samples have been
taken and nurseries have been digging and
loading their trucks. Plants should be on their
way the last week of September, assuming
the samples show no golden nematode. All
plants will be sent through the Champlain
port of departure/entry. We have repeatedly
reminded USDA that we have plants that will
be traveling across the border from points in
Nova Scotia and Ontario. We have asked
them to notify Customs that these provinces
are not under quarantine.


El Nino Impacts on Agriculture in
the Southeast
Clyde Fraisse, UF Climate Extension Specialist

In reference to peach and blueberry
crops, seasonal climate variability impacts
deciduous fruit production main through
changes in the satisfaction of dormancy that
occurs by the accumulation of chilling hours
(temperatures at or below 45F) and changes
in the accumulation of heat units that
promote flowering and fruit development.


Also affected can be the extent of the threat
from freeze damage during flower and fruit
development, and the timing and severity of
diseases and pests.

El Nifo and its Impacts on
Strawberry Diseases
Clyde Fraisse and Natalia Peres

El Nifio has returned for the first time
since 2003 and will have substantial impacts
on our climate for the next 3 to 6 months. It
appears that El Nifio has returned for the first
time since the weak event of 2002-2003. El
Nifio is a name for the unusual warming of
the ocean's surface that occurs every 2 to 7
years along the equator in the central and
eastern Pacific Ocean. It is very likely that
the current El Nifio will intensify further and
last through the winter of 2007.
The classic El Nifio climate pattern
during the winter includes more frequent
storms, excessive rainfall, and cooler
temperatures to Florida and coastal Alabama
and Georgia. The figure shows that Central
Florida can expect 20 to 40% more rainfall
than normal in the winter months. It is
believed that the increase in rain and
cloudiness associated with El Nifio causes


Typical El Nino Precipitation
Changes (El Niho vs. Neutral)
Winter (Dec.- Feb.)

-------3 -30 *
i .. ...
I -3
" -i.iir ^
r-1 l.


ess than $o
0--40

i0--20

S.5
-to
0-20
-30
0-50
-6
o-m
-70
0.B0


Percent Chanae


(Continued on page 7)


7 5
m2


mr
M 7


Berry/Vegetable Times







September-October 2006


average temperatures to be cooler than
normal during the winter months. For more
details, check the El Nifio forecast and
climate outlook sections at
www.AgClimate.org The climate tool, under
AgClimate Tools, can also provide detailed
information about precipitation and
temperature changes that may occur in your
county during El Nifio years.
Now is a good opportunity to review
some of the implications that El Nifio has on
diseases problems. As mentioned above, El
Nifio years are expected to be very wet which
are usually conducive to fungal diseases such
as Anthracnose and Botrytis fruit rots.
Although all of the currently grown
commercial cultivars are susceptible to these
diseases, 'Camarosa', 'Carmine', and
'Treasure' are less susceptible to Botrytis fruit
rot than 'Strawberry Festival' and 'Sweet
Charlie' under Florida conditions. On the
other hand, 'Camarosa' and 'Treasure' are
highly susceptible to anthracnose fruit rot,


caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, whereas
'Carmine' and 'Sweet Charlie' are quite
resistant. 'Strawberry Festival', which
represented more than 60% of our acreage in
this past season, is considered moderately
susceptible to anthracnose fruit rot. During a
wet season such as the one expected this
year, regular applications of fungicides will
be needed often to suppress these diseases
especially when moderately or highly
susceptible cultivars are grown. In addition,
crown rot diseases caused by Colletotrichum
and Phytophthora species can be exacerbated
in wet weather. Angular leaf spot caused by
the bacterium Xanthomonasfragariae is
another disease that is favored by cool wet
winters. Thus, in contrast with the past
season, when we had a La Nifia year with
drier and warmer than normal conditions and
consequently less disease, the coming season
will have potentially high disease pressure.
Be prepared.


(Note: FBGA member pay $10 per person. Non-members pay $20 per person)


Fall Blueberry Short Course Pre-registration
October 17, 2006
Florida Farm Bureau Building, Gainesville, FL
Please pre-register for FBGA Fall Short Course by October 7. 2006.

Please complete the FBGA Short Course pre-registration form below and return with your check
postmarked by October 7 to:

Florida Blueberry Growers' Association, P.O. Box 163, Island Grove, FL 32654

Thank you for your continued support of the Florida Blueberry Growers' Association!
h.. a.. n .T.^ .y. ..fo r .y.0 .r..c. 1.o .t.... .s ....p .. .o .th e... .^ l0 ^ ?. = .oJ~u~ j:2e rp...r ...a ...gi.... .. .. r. I.... e. r.s....... ... /.

Please cut here and return to the above address with your pre-registration fee.
Make check payable to Florida Blueberry Growers' Association

Name(s) attending Short Course:





Short Course pre-registration fee enclosed ............... ..$........$


BerryNegetable Times










September-October 2006


Fungicides approved for management of strawberry diseases in Florida

Maximum Rate/Acre

Trade Name Fungicide Per Per Min. Days to Disease or Pathogen Remarks
Groupa applic. season Harvest

Abound 11 15.4 fl oz 62 fl oz 0 Anthracnose, Powdery mil- Do not make more than 2 sequen-
dew and suppresses Botrytis tial applications or more than 4
total applications per crop year. See
main label for drip treatment.

Aliette WDG 33 5 lb 30 lb 12 hr Phytophthora diseases Do not tank mix with copper.

Cabrio EG 11 14 fl oz 70 fl oz 0 Anthracnose, Leaf spot, Pow- Do not make more than 2 sequen-
dery mildew, tial applications or more than 5
and suppresses Botrytis total applications per crop year.

Captan 80 WDG M3 3.75 lb 30 lb 1-day REI Anthracnose, Botrytis fruit Rate per treated acre. Special use
rot, Leaf spot label allows 24 applications per
season.

Catevate 68 WDG M3 + 17 5.25 lb 21 lb 0 Botrytis fruit rot, Do not make more than 2 consecu-
Anthracnose tive applications.

Copper Ml or M9 varies varies 1-2 Angular leaf spot May damage leaves during hot
many brands 1 weather.

Elevate 50WDG 17 1.5 lb 6 lb 0 Botrytis fruit rot Do not make more than 2 consecu-
tive applications

Nova 40W 3 5 oz 30 oz 0 Powdery mildew, Leaf spot, 30-day plant back restriction for
and leaf blight rotational crops not on Nova label

Potassium bicarbonate varies varies 1 Powdery mildew Do not mix with highly acid prod-
many brands 2 ucts, e.g. Alliette.

Potassium phosphate varies varies 0 Phytophthora diseases May bur leaves if applied with
many brands 3 copper-based products.

Pristine 11+7 23 oz 115 oz 0 Botrytis fruit rot, Do not make more than 2 consecu-
Anthracnose, Powdery tive applications or more than 5 per
mildew and Leaf spot crop year.

Procure 50WS 3 8 oz 32 oz 1 Powdery mildew 30-day plant back restriction for
leafy vegetables, 60 days root vege-
tables and 1 yr. for rotational crops.

Ridomil Gold EC 4 1 pt 3 pt Phytophthora diseases Rates are for treated acre. See label
for use in drip irrigation.

Scala SC 9 18 fl oz 54 fl oz 1 Botrytis fruit rot Do not make more than 2 consecu-
tive applications or 3 (or 6) per
season.

Serenade Max 3 lb 0 Powdery mildew, Should be used in combination with
Botrytis fruit rot, other fungicides.
Anthracnose


Sulfur M or M9 varies varies 1 Powdery mildew Do not use during hot weather.
many brands4

Switch 62.5 WG 9 + 12 14 oz 56 oz 0 Botrytis fruit rot, Do not make more than 2 consecu-
Anthracose tive applications. 30-day plant
back restriction for non-label crops.

Thiram Granflo M2 4.4 lb 22 lb 3 Botrytis fruit rot Do not make more than 5 applica-
tions per crop cycle.

Topsin M 70WP 1 lb 4 lb 1 Botrytis fruit rot, Leaf blight, Tank mix with other fungicides for
Colletotrichum crown rot,, disease resistance management.
Leaf scorch, Powdery mildew
1 e.g. Kocide, Champion, Champ, Cuprofix Disperss, Copper Count-N, Norodo, Nu Cop; 2 e.g. Kaligreen, Armicarb, Milstop;
3 e.g. Fosphite, Helena Prophyt; 4 e.g. Micro Sulf, Sulfur 90W, Super-Six, Microthiol Disperss, Wettable Sulfur, Kumulus


BerryNegetable Times




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