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Title: Berry/vegetable times. May 2006.
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Title: Berry/vegetable times. May 2006.
Uniform Title: Berry/vegetable times.
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Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Publication Date: May 2006
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087388
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Berry/Vegetable

Times

May 2006


A monthly newsletter of the University of Florida
IFAS
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Hillsborough County
5339 CR 579, Seffner, FL 33584
(813) 744M5519 SC 541-5772
Alicia Whidden, Editor
Mary Chernesky, Director
and
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
14625 County Road 672, Wimauma, FL 33598
(813) 634-0000 SC514-6890
Christine Cooley, Layout and Design
Craig K. Chandler, Co-Editor
JackRechcigl, Center Director
http://gcrec.ifas.ufl.edu


BMP Regional Meeting for Strawberry and
Vegetable Growers
Alicia Whidden

On June 14th a regional Vegetable BMP Sign-up
Meeting will be held at the Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center auditorium at 10:00 am. Growers will learn
about the BMP program and its impact on their farms.
Regulatory issues and the practical side of nutrient and
irrigation management will be discussed. The BMP manual
will be given out and the actual process of signing up for the
program will be covered. Technical assistance that is
available to growers will also be discussed. An agenda for the
program is included in this newsletter.
This is a very important meeting for all farm operations to
attend. Early compliance is critical to the future of farming
in Florida.
For more information, contact Alicia at 813-744-5519,
ext. 134 or aiwhidden(,ifas.ufl.edu




Integrated Strategies of Sting Nematode
Management: What Growers Should Now be
Considering!
J.W. Noling, Alicia Whidden, and Phyllis Gilreath

The strawberry season has again concluded, and as in
years past, sting nematode was a significant problem in many
fields, including a number of fields where sting nematode had
never been detected before, even after field survey and soil
analysis in a previous research study, were unfortunately
discovered this past season. We do not claim to understand
how or why this happens, although it is noteworthy that a
change in management and cropping practice was observed
for some. One of the new sting nematode discovery's this
pastseason, and what we were actually pleased to learn, turned
out to be the strawberry research fields at the UF / IFAS Gulf
Coast Research & Education Center in Balm. Sting problems
(Continued on page 3)


IFAS is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authonzed to provide research, educational information and other services onlyto individuals andinstitutions that
function without regardto race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin US Department of Agnculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Flonda, IFAS, Florida A & M
University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating


May 2006


Berry/Vegetable Times








Berry/Vegetable Times


WPS Do's and Don'ts
Phyllis Gilreath and Alicia Whidden

Based on the WPS road shows and
observations/questions received since then,
here are a few things to keep in mind relevant
to compliance with the WPS.

sM)Do not put the WPS posting sign at the
front gate to your farm. This implies
that the entire farm is under an REI
which may not be the case. You need
to be posting by treated blocks.

,AsCentral location information has to be
posted in an accessible location for
employees. This consists of the large
WPS poster and application
information. Since most farms do not
have a fax machine, some growers have
found it time consuming to write all the
required information for each
application. A "short cut" is to have an
index sheet there with your application
information that contains an
alphabetized list of all the chemicals
you use, the active ingredient, EPA
registration number, REI, the licensed
applicator's name and license number
(if this is the same person all the time),
etc. (Chemicals with different
manufacturers or different formulations
would still have to be listed separately.)
This way you will not have to duplicate
it for each application. Your daily
sheets would then only need to include
the name of the chemical, the date and
location of the application and when it
is safe to re-enter.

,Af you are using a tank mix of products
in an application, list all ingredients
and base the re-entry time on the
material with the longest REI.

s"What if a large farm is split by a dirt or
paved road? Do you need more than


one central location? When we posed
this question to inspectors we were told
that one central location would suffice
as long as it was contiguous property
directly on each side of the road. They
did recommend having a sign on one
side indicating that the central location
was on the other side and include this
information in your worker/handler
training; however, it is not that
difficult to post in two places with
application information on each side
pertinent to that side.

,eeA question also came up about the
legality of soap products for use in
SilverleafWhitefly control. According
to FDACS Enforcement in Tallahassee,
a soap that does not make a pesticidal
claim is not regulated by them. Food
safety auditors, however, may have a
different interpretation so you need to
ensure this is not a problem.

eVWhy do you have to have
decontamination supplies available for
7 days for products with 4 hour REIs,
but 30 days for products with REIs
longer than 4 hours or with no
REI? This is because when the WPS
went into effect back in 1992, some
products either did not have REIs
established or it was not reflected as
such on the label. Those with no REI
on the label are either older products or
have not gone through the newer data
assessments and reviews. As time goes
on, this should no longer be an issue.

,eAnspectors now must issue a fine for
failure to provide pesticide safety
training, failure to comply with
restricted entry intervals, failure to post
treated areas to prevent early reentry,
and failure to provide the essential
personal protective equipment to
(Continued on page 3)


May 2006








Berry/Vegetable Times


workers or handlers. This fine is not
just a flat rate of $250 but is $250
multiplied by the number of workers
involved in each infraction.


(Continuedfrom page 1)
were severe, suggesting that this new research
facility will provide excellent opportunity to
study sting nematode biology and pest
management.
Although harvesting operations may be
over and sights are now turned toward other
activities, now is not the time to forget about
sting nematode management. It is painfully
apparent that sting nematode management
cannot exclusively rely upon methyl bromide.
to satisfactorily resolve the problem. What
previous research has clearly demonstrated is
that a year long, multi-tactic, integrated
strategy is necessary to manage sting
nematode. One of these tactics which should
be immediately considered is rapid destruction
of the strawberry crop immediately after
harvesting is complete. Even though the
irrigation is off and plastic pulled, strawberry
plants continue to survive upon rainfall,
providing food supply for continued
reproduction of sting nematode. Delays in
destruction of the crop thus result in higher soil
density of the nematode, increased difficulty of
control, and potential for greater losses in any
subsequent crop. This past season we were
pleased to observe the benefits of killing last
years strawberry crop with a post season drip
application of metam sodium (vapam; 75 gal/a)
before we removed the plastic, drip tape, and
disked the field. Whether a post season crop
destruction chemical is used or not, the field
should be disked as soon as possible after the
picking season to expose nematodes to the
killing action of sun and wind.
Off season weed management is
another critical element of the overall sting
nematode management plan. We have
repeatedly demonstrated the hosting ability of


various grasses, broadleaves, and leguminous
weeds when allowed to grow and proliferate in
sting nematode infested fields over the spring
and summer months. The list of weeds which
host sting, continues to grow like the weeds in
the field. A new winter weed becoming
increasingly important to strawberry crop
growth and production, Black Medic
(Medicago lupinus), was added to the excellent
host list for sting nematode this spring. In
another study this past summer, we were not
able to demonstrate a meaningful reduction in
sting nematode populations and crop impact
when weed growth was excluded for a 6 to 7
week period during July and August. The
results of this study suggest that longer weed-
free (food-free) periods are required to starve
sting nematode. At this point, we would still
highly recommend that if the field is to be
fallowed until land preparation for the next
strawberry crop, that it be periodically disked
to minimize weed growth and soil density of
sting nematode.
Finally a few comments about sting
nematode management, methyl bromide, and
the chemical alternatives. This will be the
second year in which methyl bromide will be
made available to strawberry growers for soil
fumigation use as a result of an international
approval of a Critical Use Exemption (CUE).
Each year the approved amount (as a
proportion of 1991 baseline level) continues to
decline. This year, the 2006 CUE allowance
consist of 29% new production and another
5% coming from any existing supplies. A
sales representative of a major gas distributor
indicated in a recent meeting that there appears
to be a lack of existing stocks compared to
previous years. When thinking about
acquiring methyl bromide for fall use, the lack
of existing supplies concerns us and it should
concern you. Since methyl bromide price is
generally considered to be a direct function of
supply and demand, we would strongly
encourage growers to prepay gas distributors to
(Continued on page 4)


May 2006







Berry/Vegetable Times


acquire the best price and to ensure delivery of
adequate gas quantities this fall. Since we see
so little use of alternatives, we would also
strongly encourage growers to considered
broader use and evaluation of alternatives such
as Telone C35. With the continued depletion
of existing supplies and diminishing levels of
approved CUE levels, we believe it is time
growers finally gain working experience with
the alternatives, identify any shortcomings and
define any other management practices required
to achieve equivalent pest control.
It also seems clear to us that new EPA
regulatory decisions regarding the
reregistration of the alternative fumigants
(metham sodium, chloropicrin, methyl iodide,
dazomet, and others) is expected to pose new
problems and product label constraints such as
mandatory requirements for reduced
application rates, additional personal protective
equipment, and expanded buffer zones
between agriculturally treated and urban area
ie., occupied structure. If true, this scenario in
itself mandates a more intensive, overall
evaluation of new alternatives and reduced rate
fumigant application technology on the part of
growers. As a result, we would also highly
encourage growers to identify plastic mulch
distributors with products such as high barrier /
virtually impermeable plastic mulches (VIF)
which restrict rapid gas movement through the
mulch and allow significant rate reductions to
occur without compromise of crop yield or
pest control efficacy.
Finally, and based on recent field
research by Dr. Jim Gilreath, successful use of
VIF involves more than just reducing gas flow
and laying the more gas impermeable mulch
film. Reduced rate applications requires a new
level of sophistication and application
technology, such as balancing gas flow
between chisels by ensuring sufficient back
pressure on each gas delivery line by reducing
line size or use of orifice plates. These are but
a few new considerations and equipment
modifications required to use VIF and reduced


rates of methyl bromide or any other fumigant.
We would encourage growers to address these
issues well in advance of the strawberry
fumigation season beginning in August.



Asian Cockroach Eats Strawberry
Seeds
Jim Price

There are several insects associated
with Florida strawberry fields that remove
strawberry seeds and eat the soft inner tissues.
Most are black, carabid beetles. This season
there was a problem with the Asian cockroach
(Figure 1) in the GCREC fields and
greenhouses removing seeds and eating the
contents.
This insect was first discovered in the
US in nearby Lakeland, Florida in 1986. It
wasn't long before they were associated with
strawberry culture, but only now is the seed
damage being recognized. The cockroach
pulls seeds from fruit, opens the seed covers,
eats the contents, and forms a neat pile of split
seed covers under the fruit. This season, the
damage was extensive in GCREC fields and
even in greenhouses. It is not known if
consumers can detect the de-seeded fruit to
form an objection. The problem can be huge
though to our breeder, Craig Chandler, who
depends on seeds to bring the industry new
varieties.


Figure 1. Adult Asian cockroach.


May 2006








Berry/Vegetable Times


The Asian cockroach looks much like
our small German cockroach, but is much
more prone to fly. It is sometimes called the
"flying cockroach". It is the cockroach that
Floridians may see abundantly among leaves
and mulch in their yards and gardens. It is not
commonly found in homes.
We do not yet know at what levels, if at
all, the cockroach needs to be controlled in the
field situation nor do we know best methods.
We are studying the problem at the GCREC
and will provide new information as it
develops.
Information about this insect around
homes is provided in an excellent publication
available on UF IFAS EDIS at htp://
creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/urban/roaches/
asian cockroach.htm



How Long Can Roundup Residues
Stay on Plastic Mulch?
Bielinski M. Santos and James P. Gilreath
GCREC, Horticulture and Weed Science

Glyphosate is the most used herbicide
in the world, and it is commercially sold as
Roundup, Rodeo, Accord', Glyphomax,
Rattlers, Touchdown, among other brand
names. This is a non-selective herbicide that is
sprayed on bed-tops before the crop is planted
and in row-middle applications. The latter is
widely used in polyethylene-mulched
vegetables, strawberries, and ornamentals. In
double-cropped cucurbits (e.g. cucumber,
squash, zucchini, cantaloupe, etc.) after
strawberries, glyphosate is applied to kill green
foliage before planting the second crop.
The label of this herbicide indicates
that it has no soil activity and it is rapidly
broken down by microbes. However, injury
symptoms have been reported in situations
where glyphosate has been applied on
polyethylene mulch before crop transplanting.
There is no information on whether the


herbicide is deactivated by sunlight (called
photodegradation) on plastic mulch and on
how long this process takes. Therefore, studies
were conducted to determine the extent of
photodegradation over varying sunlight and
humidity exposure periods.
To achieve that objective, tomato was
used as the test crop and black low-density
polyethylene film was sprayed with a labeled
rate of 1 lb of glyphosate/acre. Sunlight-
exposure times were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11,
13, and 15 days after application. No rainfall or
sprinkler irrigation occurred during the trial.
The results indicated that 15 days after
application, there was still enough glyphosate
to significantly reduce tomato growth by 70%
(see picture), which suggests that glyphosate
breakdown takes more that 2 weeks when
applied on the polyethylene mulch, especially
if no rainfall or sprinkler irrigation has been
used to wash the herbicide away. This is
particularly important from the grower's
standpoint, since it is a common practice
transplanting the crop shortly after glyphosate
application.


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose
ofproviding specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty
of the products names and does not signify that they are approved to
the exclusion of others of suitable composition. Use pesticides
safely. Read andfollow directions on the manufacturer's label.


May 2006








Berry/Vegetable Times


Chemically Speaking
Pesticide Registrations and Actions

?? The FDACS has requested the use of the
fungicide Topsin M (thiophanate) for
control of white mold on fruiting
vegetables (tomato, pepper, eggplant)
under section 18 of FIFRA. (FDACS letter
to EPA dated 2/14/06).
?? Based on a request by BASF Corporation
and IR-4, tolerances are approved for use
of the fungicide boscalid (Endura/
Pristine. Tolerances of importance to
Florida include celery, spinach, and leafy
vegetables (group 4) except lettuce.
(Federal Register, 2A\ or).
?? In mid-February, OmniLytics, Inc.,
announced final EPA registration for its
AgriPhage bacteria control product line.
The material can be used in the greenhouse
or field, and can be used as a preventative
as well as a curative treatment. At a
current price of $12/pint, a recommended
treatment (two pints) equates to a treatment
cost of $24/acre. It is approved for use in
tomato and pepper.


Retired GCREC-
Dover Staffer, Annie
Turgeau, Dies at 75
Craig Chandler, Alicia f
Whidden, and Jim Price

Annie (Anne)
Turgeau, who worked for the
GCREC-Dover "strawberry lab" for 30 years
(1969 1999) died on May 10, 2006. By making
a career in the area of strawberry research and
education, Anne followed in her father's
footsteps. Her father, George Strickland, worked
for the lab from 1948 until retiring in 1971.
Anne was the classic girl Friday. The
lab's staff was small, and resources were limited
for most of Anne's career, so she worked
wherever help was needed, whether it was
answering the phone, doing data calculations,
typing manuscripts, or working in the field or
grading room.
Anne had a passion for strawberries, and
was on a first name basis with most of the
Dover-Plant City
strawberry growers.
dAnne is survived by her
SlithrIee children,
SMlchelle, Karen, and
N laulice, and four
i grandchildren, James,
Stac\. Sarah and
i Samantha. Michelle,
Maurice, and Samantha are carrying on the
family tradition of working in the strawberry
industry. Michelle (Williamson) is the Director
of Human Resources for G & F Farms, LLC and
Dover Fresh Produce, LLC, Maurice is the
managing partner of Berry Bay Farm of
Wimauma, and Samantha (Williamson) is a
Strawberry Ambassador for the Florida
Strawberry Growers Association.
Over the years of Anne's tenure at the
lab, many employees came and went, including
high school, college, and graduate students.
Anne had a special ability to make new
employees feel welcome and part of the lab
family. She often treated her co-workers and
friends to her famous strawberry pizza. She will
be greatly missed.
6


AgriTech 2006
August 29th and 30th
New Location for 2006

This year's event will be at the new
Hillsborough Community College (HCC)
auditorium, also known as the
John R. Trinkle Building
1206 N. Park Road, Plant City.

For information and details, call the
Florida Strawberry Grower's Association
(813) 752-6822. A registration form can be
found online at
www.straw-berry.org/documents/
AgritechO6.pdf


May 2006






Berry/Vegetable Times


Vegetable & Agronomic Crop BMP Manual
Regional Sign-up Meeting
June 14, 2006
10:00 a.m.
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center Auditorium
Balm, Florida

10:00 Welcome, Introductions
Alicia Whidden, Vegetable Agent, Hillsborough County Extension Service

10:05 UF/IFAS Research & Extension Role in BMP Development &
Verification
Dr. Joan Dusky, Associate Dean for Extension, UF/IFAS Gainesville

10:15 Best Management Practices: Statutory Benefits of Implementation
Bill Bartnick, Environmental Administrator, Florida Dept. of Agriculture,
Tallahassee

10:30 Overview of Nutrient and Irrigation BMPs
Eric Simonne, Associate Professor, Horticultural Sciences Dept., UF/
IFAS, Gainesville

10:45 Implementation Procedures for Vegetable & Agronomic Crop BMP
Manual
Bill Bartnick and Eric Simonne (Handout and Manual)

11:40 Virtual Grower Notice of Intent Sign-Up
Dale Calhoun, Policy Analyst, Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Tallahassee

2 CCA Credits available.


~I-.


Hillsborough County
Florida


May 2006




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