Group Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Title: Berry/vegetable times. March 2006.
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Title: Berry/vegetable times. March 2006.
Uniform Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Physical Description: Newspaper
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Publication Date: March 2006
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087388
Volume ID: VID00042
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Berry/Vegetable

STimes

March 2006


From Your Agent
VERY IMPORTANT GROWER MEETING
Worker Protection Standards Roadshow

On May 8 at 11:30 the WPS Roadshow will come to
Hillsborough County. This program is jointly being put on by
Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
University of Florida Pesticide Information Office and Florida
Fruit and Vegetable Association. The meeting will start at
11:30 at the Hillsborough County Extension office in the new
auditorium. Lunch will be provided. This meeting is very
important for all agricultural operations. WPS inspections are
becoming more frequent, new inspectors are due to be hired
and the laws are getting tougher. Ag worker safety issues are
very prominent in the news. The WPS Roadshow will give
you the latest information and answer questions that pertain to
your operation. There will be 2 private applicator CUEs
given for this meeting and 2 CCA credits.

The proposed agenda:


10 minutes
45 minutes

30 minutes

30 minutes

15 minutes


A monthly newsletter of the University of Florida
IFAS
Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
Hillsborough County
5339 CR 579, Seffner, FL 33584
(813) 744-5519 SC 541-5772
Alicia Whidden, Editor
Mary Chernesky, Director
and
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
14625 County Road 672, Wimauma, FL 33598
(813) 634-0005 SC514-6890
Christine Cooley, Layout and Design
Craig K. Chandler, Co-Editor
Jack Rechcigl, Center Director
http://gcrec.ifas.ufl.edu


Welcome and Overview- M. Aerts, FFVA
Recordkeeping Essentials: Chemical and
Worker, D. Dubberly, FDACS
Situation- Posting; Central and Field, F. Fishel,
UF Pesticide Information Office
Revisions to the WPS How-to-Comply
Manual, D. Dubberly, FDACS
Worker Training, G. Lopez, UF Pesticide
Information Office


This is a very important meeting for owners, managers
and supervisors to attend. Please RSVP to Alicia Whidden,
813-744-5519 ext, 134 by 5 pm. May 4.


IFAS is an Equal Employment Opportumty Affirmative Action Employer authorized to prode research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin U S Department ofAgnculture, Cooperative Extension Service, Uunversity of Flonda, IFAS, Florida A & M
Umnversity Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating


NIESITY0'


March 2006


BerryNegetable Times







Berry/Vegetable Times


Soil Moisture Monitoring Equipment
Grower Meeting and Mini Farms
Program
Alicia Whidden
Hillsborough County Extension Service

On Tuesday, April 4th a grower meeting
on soil moisture sensors will be held at the
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in
Balm from 1:30 till approximately 3:00. This
meeting is designed to update growers of any
crop- citrus, vegetables, strawberries,
ornamentals, fruit or agronomic crops- on
some of the soil moisture probes that are
available today. Dr. Larry Parsons of the UF/
IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center
will present information on several types of
probes and cover the advantages and
disadvantages of each type. Some of the
newer equipment can give a grower a
permanent record of changes in soil water
status or show when water reaches a certain
depth in the soil. Managing irrigation is an
important part of best management practices
(BMPs) and soil probes are useful for
scheduling irrigation to help reduce pumping
costs and leaching of fertilizer. This program is
sponsored by the University of Florida/IFAS
and the Southwest Florida Water Management
District's Manasota Basin Board. CCA credits
have been applied for. For more information
contact Alicia At 813-744-5519, ext. 134.
There is a new cost share program for
growers being sponsored by the Florida Dept.
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Office
of Agricultural Water Policy. The Mini Farms
Program will purchase small items used on the
farm such as the soil moisture monitoring
devices Dr. Parsons will be talking about on
April 4. This meeting will be a great
opportunity to learn about these devices and
then to use the Mini Farms Program to help
purchase them for your operation. Use of
these monitoring devices will be one
component of the BMP (Best Management
Practices) program. Other equipment, such as


pH meters, salt meters, weather station, or a
permanent mixing station, is eligible for the
program. The maximum cost share amount
available to an ag operation is $8,000. The
cost share rate is 85%. We will have
brochures on the Mini Farms Program at the
meeting. Also a representative from the
Office of Ag Water Policy will be there to
answer any questions about the Mini Farms
Program.
Look forward to seeing you on April


New fungicide labeled for Florida-
Forum
Alicia Whidden
Hillsborough County Extension Service

Forum, a new fungicide by BASF, is
now available in Florida. It is labeled for
cucurbits, bulb vegetables, fruiting
vegetables, leafy brassica greens lettuce
(leaf and head types), potato and tomato.
Forum is a new formulation of
dimethomorph which is a cell wall synthesis
inhibitor. It is in the Group 15 fungicide
category. It has a caution label. The label
states it is not to be sprayed alone but is to be
tank mixed with fungicides that are not in the
Group 15 category. This is for resistance
management so this fungicide will continue
to work for a long time. The reentry
interval (REI) will be 12 hours.
Forum has activity for downy mildew
and late blight, Phytophthora infestans. For
eggplant, pepper and tomatillo it can
suppress Phytophthora capsici. A limit of 5
applications per season of a 6 oz per acre rate
is on the label. Spray Forum no more than 2
applications in a row. Harvesting can be
done on the day of the last application after
the spray has dried.
There are plant back restrictions for
Forum. You can plant back with the labeled


March 2006







Berry/Vegetable Times


crops at anytime. For planting back with
strawberries after cucurbits or tomatoes where
you have sprayed Forum you would need to
wait 12 months.



Strawberry Diagnostic Summary and
Strategies for Control of Early
Diseases on Cucurbit Crops
Following Strawberries
Natalia Peres and Jim Mertely

Considering our diagnostic clinic as an
indicator, strawberry diseases were very minor
in the late part of this season. From January to
March, the diagnostic clinic received only 20
samples, compared to 52 samples from
October to December. In the early part of the
season, approximately 70% of the samples
received had crown rot diseases caused either
by Colletotrichum or Phytophthora. In
contrast, no major problem was observed on
the samples brought in the second part of the
season. In fact, many of those plants were
brought in because of slow growth and low
yield problems where no pathogen was
detected. Some of those problems may be
related to the unusually warm temperatures in
Canada in the weeks prior to digging of
transplants. For more information, please refer
to Dr. Chandler's article in the January issue.
With the end of the strawberry season,
growers who are double-cropping with
cucurbits should start considering control
early-season diseases on those crops such as
Downy mildew and Gummy Stem Blight.
Downy mildew is one of the most important
foliar diseases of cucurbits and it is caused by
the pathogen Pseudoperonospora cubensis.
Symptoms of this disease first appear on the
upper surface of older leaves as small and
slightly chlorotic to bright yellow lesions
(Fig. 1). Lesions expand quickly and often
coalesce resulting in necrosis of extended areas


and defoliation, which results in sunburned
fruit. The disease is spread by wind, worker
movement or rainfall. The pathogen requires
a period of at least 6 hours of leaf wetness
for infection and temperatures ranging
anywhere from 41 to 86F. Control of downy
mildew is obtained with a combination of
resistant cultivars and fungicide applications
(Table 1), but it can be very difficult to
control this disease when highly susceptible
cultivars are used and environmental
conditions are favorable.
Gummy stem blight occurs on leaves, stems,
and fruits and it is caused by the fungus
Didymella bryoniae. Symptoms on leaves
appear as circular, tan to dark brown spots
that enlarge rapidly to blight the entire leaf
(Fig. 2). The fungus survives between
seasons on plant debris and weed hosts. The
disease is spread by rain and the optimum





I .
*- 6
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:::" :i -* ? *
k/' ^,


Fig. 1 Downy mildew Credit: T.
Kucharek, UF, Plant Pathology


Fig. 2 Gummy stem blight. Credit:
T. Kucharek, UF, Plant Pathology
(Continued on page 4)


March 2006








Berry/Vegetable Times


temperatures are between 68 and 77F. For control of gummy stem blight, it is essential to use
treated seeds, and a 2-year rotation cycle. There are no resistant cultivars currently available
and control may be achieved by regular application of protectant fungicides (Table 1).



Table 1. Fungicides for control of downy mildew and gummy stem blight on cucurbits*
Fungicide Downy Mildew Gummy Stem Blight

Acrobat 50 WP + + 0
Aliette 80 WDG + 0
Amistar 80 DF + + + +
Bravo + + + +
Cabrio 2.09 FL + + + +
Dithane + +
Equus or Echo + + + +
Flint 50 WDG +/0 0
Gavel 75 DF + 0
Maneb 75 D + +
Manex II FLs + +
ManKocide 61 DF + + +
Manzate + ++
Penncozeb + +
Pristine 38 WG + + + +
Quadris 2.09 FL + + +
Ridomil Gold Bravo 81W + + +
Ridomil MZ WP + + +
Tanos 50 DF + + ?
Topsin M 0 + +
Various copper formulations + +

'++ = highly effective, + = may be effective; 0 = not effective
* partially reproduced from Extension Plant Pathology Report no. 15, Disease control Program for watermelons by
Tom Kucharek and Pam Roberts.


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose ofproviding specific information.
It is not a guarantee or warranty of the products names and does not signify that they are approved to the ex-
clusion of others of suitable composition.
Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label


March 2006







Berry/Vegetable Times


Vegetative Windbreaks to be
Studied at GCREC
Craig Chandler, Don Rockwood1, and Michael Andreu2

The potential benefits of windbreak
plants include their use as a management tool
to protect crops, and as plants that are
themselves marketable (e.g., windbreak trees
can be harvested for pulpwood, mulch, or
energy wood). In Florida, however, little is
known about the specific influence of
windbreaks on the performance of citrus,
strawberries, and vegetables, as few, if any,
controlled studies have been conducted in the
state.
GCREC-Balm appears to be an ideal
site for these types of studies. The center sits
on 475 acres of flat, open land, and this land,
combined with a large commercial vegetable
field just north of the GCREC property, make
for an area that is often quite windy. Windy
conditions can cause fields to be eroded when
they are tilled between crops. They can also
cause damage to vegetable and strawberry
crops by hindering plant establishment,
breaking stems, scaring fruit, and spreading
bacterial and fungal pathogens. Thus, we have
begun planting vegetative windbreaks at
GCREC that should start reducing wind speeds
in the cropping areas within the next few years.
This is part of a larger effort proposed
by us and seven other IFAS faculty. We have
submitted a grant proposal titled "Windbreaks
for Florida's Agriculture" to UF's 2006 Seed
Grant Program. If fully funded this grant will
provided $100,000 for research to determine
the best plant species, designs, and
management techniques for windbreaks.
In the study at GCREC, we plan to
evaluate nine windbreak species; five row
configurations (1, 2, 3, 4, and 8-row
configurations); two within row spacings (3'
and 6'); and several cultural regimes (initial
irrigation only as a minimal culture to
irrigation + compost + mulch as the most
intensive culture). During the week of March


10-17, we planted windbreak trees and shrubs
on the north and west borders of the strawberry
production area, and the south border of the
vegetable production area. Additional
windbreak plants will be planted as time and
resources permit, with most of the windbreaks
being completed later this year.

'Don Rockwood is a UF Professor of Forestry based in
Gainesville. Dr. Rockwood specializes in forest tree
improvement.

2Michael Andreu is a UF Assistant Professor of Forestry
based at GCREC-Plant City. Dr. Andreu specializes in
forest systems.




-- __


March 2006







Berry/Vegetable Times


Abandoned Citrus and Strawberries
Don't Mix
James F. Price

A second case of citrus root weevil,
Diaprepes abbreviatus, has been diagnosed at
GCREC and likely there are many
undiagnosed cases.
An affected strawberry plant wilts,
dies, and turns brown to appear as though it
has died from anthracnose. A quick method to
separate the two causes of death is to gather the
recently dead leaves into a bunch and attempt
to pull the entire plant from the bed. A plant
that has died of anthracnose will hold fast to
the bed while one that died from the citrus root
weevil will readily come up because most of
the anchoring roots have been eaten way.
Digging around a strawberry plant
recently killed by the citrus root weevil will
usually yield one to a half dozen 3 inch or
smaller white, legless beetle grubs that appear
much like white grubs of lawns (the lawn kind
usually have three pairs of legs though).
The immigrant citrus root weevil is
widely distributed throughout central and south
Florida in ornamentals and particularly in
citrus. The problem in strawberries begins
when a citrus orchard is abandoned or not
managed carefully. Weevil populations feed
and build up on roots. Adults can fly or walk,
usually not much more than 1,000 feet, to a
strawberry field, particularly when the orchard
is uprooted for development.
Since strawberry fields are fumigated
pre-season, most problems cannot begin until
after that point, and since the grubs require
many weeks to kill a strawberry plant, damage
usually appears mid to late season. Yield
reductions may occur earlier on living affected
plants.
Effects of elimination of methyl
bromide fumigation of strawberry fields on
citrus root weevil are unknown. Ending the
practice probably will compound the problem.
Brigade (Capture) bifenthrin has


been used as a broadcast soil application in
citrus for control of this weevil. Soil
applications via trickle irrigation may be
effective in strawberries, but no studies have
been performed to determine efficacy and plant
safety at an efficacious rate. Additional
investigations must be performed.
Photos of various life stages and
additional information on this insect are found
at the University of Florida IFAS EDIS http//
edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN147 and at http//
edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN151




Pesticide Registrations and Actions

?? The Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services (FDACS) registered
the fungicide cyazofamid (Ranman) for
control of diseases on cucurbits, potato,
and tomato. The EPA registration number
for the ISK Biosciences product is 71512-
3. (FDACS PREC Agenda, 1/12/06).

?? The EPT has extended the time-limited
tolerances for the fungicides fenbuconazole
in grapefruit and thiophanate-methyl in
fruiting vegetables until 12/31/08. (Federal
Register, 12/21/05).

?? On January 12, the FDACS conditionally
registered the insecticide flonicamid for
use on pome and stone fruit, potato,
cucurbit/fruiting/leafy vegetables
(Beleaf), and cotton (Carbine). The
EPA registration number for the ISK
Biosciences Corp. product is 71512-9.
This is an cyanomethany tribluoromethyl
nicotinamide insecticide with a different
mode of action that other products. It is
effective against aphids, thrips,
leafhoppers, plant bugs, and other sucking
pests. It provides rapid anti-feeding
(Continued on page 7)


March 2006








Berry/Vegetable Times


behavior and in non-toxic to beneficial
insects. (FDACS PREC Agenda 2/2/06).

?? In a new and historically unusual move,
the EPA has classified the soon-to-be
registered soil fumigant iodomethane as
"Not likely to be carcinogenic to humans
at doses that do not alter rat thyroid
hormone homeostasis." There is
compelling evidence indicating that
iodomethane induces thyroid follicular cell
tumors through an antithyroidal mode of
action (MOA). Although the fumigant has
been shown to be mutagenic in vitro, the
weight of evidence supports the
antithyroidal MOA, as evidence by the
observation that only male rodents exhibit
increases in thyroid tumors, a common
response for this MOA. In addition, the
increases of cell growth (hyperplasia)
progressing to follicular cell tumors were
only seen in the presence of thyroid/
pituitary hormone changes, thus exhibiting
a pattern of both dose and temporal
concordance. Do to this classification, and
the fact that the material is quickly
degraded or metabolized into non-toxic
degradates, the EPA has granted an
exemption from the requirement of a
tolerance for iodomethane when applied
as a pre-plant fumigant for pepper,
strawberry and tomato.

?? The FDACS registered the biological
Nematicide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain
251 (Melocon WG) from Prophyta on
November 4. The EPA registration
number for this product is 72444-2. This
fungus affects root-know, burrowing, and
cyst nematodes in a variety of crops, which
includes citrus, vegetables, strawberry,
ornamentals, and turf. (PREC Agenda,
12/1/05).


Pesticide Potpourri

?? Odors from foods ranging from garlic and
onions to ginger and strawberries may be
nutritional signals that the human nose has
learned to recognize. Researchers Stephen
A. Goff and Harry J. Klee reported in
Science that, "Studies of flavor preferences
and aversions suggest that flavor
perception may be linked to the nutritional
or health value" of foods. Flavor is
complex and uniquely challenging to plant
breeders, they note, and as a result has not
been a high priority. The story explains
that Klee and Goff analyzed two types of
tomato, the wild cerasiforme and the
commercial variety Flora-Dade. Except for
one chemical that also affects color, the
sugars, organic acids and volatile
compounds associated with tomato flavor
were reduced in the commercial product.
For example, one of the volatile
compounds associated with the "tomato" or
"grassy" flavor is called cis-3-hexenal,
which is also an indicator of fatty acids that
are essential to the human diet. They
found that the wild tomato contained more
than three times the amount of that
chemical than the cultivated version. Two
other contributors to tomato flavor, 2- and
3-methylbutanal, are indicators of the
presence of essential amino acids and are
also three times more common in the wild
tomato. In addition to tomatoes, those
chemicals are also important constituents
of the flavors of apple, strawberry, bread,
cheese, wine and beer. Goff and Klee also
noted that the scent compounds produced
in many spices are associated with health
properties. (AP, 2/9/06).

?? In a breakout of the benefits of pesticides
to agriculture, the CropLife Foundation has
determined that Florida receives about nine
(Continued on page 8)


March 2006








Berry/Vegetable Times


times the return on investment (ROI) for
herbicides, and 32 times the ROI on
fungicides. Over 90 percent of citrus,
cotton, peanut, strawberry, sugarcane, and
tomato are grown with herbicides in
Florida, and the $96 million spent on weed
control provides $841 million in benefits.
In addition to weed control component
which considers production and value,
herbicide use also reduces erosion (140
million pounds) and the need for hand
labor (100,000 workers). Over 95 percent
of the citrus, cucumber, pepper, tomato,
and watermelon are treated with fungicides
in Florida, and the $59 million spent on
disease control provides almost two billion
dollars worth of produce. (CropLife
Foundation presentation by N. Reigner).

?? On November 16, the EPA released
voluntary labeling guidelines to aid
manufacturers in their effort to reduce
resistance to pesticides. The guidelines
provide examples of symbols and
statements on avoiding pest resistance that
could be added to product labels. The
basic black on white narrow rectangle
should appear in the upper right quadrant
with the appropriate class, based on IRAC,
HRAC, or FRAC groupings. These
guidelines are similar to those in Canada,
as well as those in Australia, which are
mandatory. (Chemical Regulation
Reporter, 11/28/05).




Two New Faculty Members for
GCREC
Christine Cooley

Gulf Coast REC is pleased to announce
the addition of two new faculty members. Dr.
Bielinski Santos has already begun his new
position as an Assistant Professor of


Horticulture. Dr. Santos has been a part of
GCREC for several years as a research
associate. He has worked with both
vegetables and fruit crops, and will be a great
asset to the GCREC horticultural program.
In June, GCREC will welcome Dr.
Amy Shober as an Assistant Professor of
Landscape Nutrient/Runoff Management. Dr.
Shober received her PhD at the University of
Delaware and studied soil chemistry. She
spent several years conducting research on a
topic of national importance-water quality.
Her skills and expertise will benefit the
GCREC research program in the new and
rapidly growing field of landscape
management.


Dr. Bielinski Santos, Assistant
Professor of Horticulture.


Dr. Amy Shober, Assistant Professor of
Landscape Nutrient/Runoff
Management.


March 2006




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