Group Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Title: Berry/vegetable times. February 2006.
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Title: Berry/vegetable times. February 2006.
Uniform Title: Berry/vegetable times.
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Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Publication Date: February 2006
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087388
Volume ID: VID00041
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Berry/Vegetable

Times

February 2006


A monthly newsletter of the University of Florida
IFAS
Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
Hillsborough County
5339 CR 579, Seffner, FL 33584
(813) 744-5519 SC 541-5772
Alicia Whidden, Editor
Mary Chernesky, Director
and
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
14625 County Road 672, Wimauma, FL 33598
(813) 634-0000 SC514-6890
Christine Cooley, Layout and Design
Craig K. Chandler, Co-Editor
Jack Rechcigl, Center Director
http://gcrec.ifas.ufl.edu
http://gcrec.ifas.ufl.edu


From Your Agent
Important Changes in WPS Enforcement Policy

Most growers are aware that the Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) has increased the
number of farm inspections for Worker Protection Standards
(WPS). Ten new inspectors have been hired statewide. An
article that appeared in the Tampa Tribune on January 24
called for more funding and tougher regulations. Due to
increased public pressure the Legislature may propose new
legislation on worker safety. Word has just come down for
DACS in Tallahassee of new changes in the enforcement
policy for WPS. These changes are mainly for vegetable
growers and nursery/greenhouse producers. The following is
taken directly from the communication from DACS.

Notice
EFFECTIVE February 15, 2006

The following violations of the Worker Protection
Standard will result in penalty assessment of $250 for first
time violators in the following areas:

Pesticide safety training, not including isolated errors or
omissions;

Failure to comply with agricultural worker or handler
restricted entry intervals;

Failure to post treated areas to prevent entry during a
restricted entry interval; or

Failure to provide essential personal protective
equipment.

In the past, first time infractions usually would receive
a warning letter but now fines will be issued. Our inspectors
(Continued on page 2)


IFAS is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authonzed to prode research, educational information and other services onlyto individuals and institutions that
function without regardto race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin US Department of Agnculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Flonda, IFAS, Florida A & M
University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating


February 2006


BerryNegetable Times








Berry/egetable Times


(Continuedfrom page 1)
have been very good in working with
growers to help them be in compliance; now
they will have no choice but to give a grower
a fine.
Also note that The Worker
Protection Standard for Agricultural
Pesticides-How to Comply Manual has
been updated. The revised 2005 manual now
supersedes the 1993 version. Be sure to get
the 2005 version to follow the new
regulations to stay in compliance. Paper
copies or a CD version are available from
Gempler or to download a copy or order a
paper copy or CD go to http://www.epa.gov/
agriculture/htc.html.




Advances on Irrigation and
Nitrogen Rates Studies with
Strawberry Varieties
Bielinski M. Santos
GCREC, Weed Science/Horticulture

Current recommendations for
nitrogen (N) fertilization and drip irrigation
greatly differ from those used by most
strawberry growers. For instance, UF-IFAS
advises drip-applying 100 gal of water per
100 ft row per week, and between 0.6 and
0.75 lb of liquid-N per acre daily. However,
growers often apply as much as 150% more
liquid-N fertilizer and drip irrigation during
the crop production peaks. Because of this
discrepancy, a team of researchers and
extension from UF (including Eric Simonne,


John Duval and Alicia Whidden) has conducted
field studies during the last three years to
compare the effect of diverse irrigation and N
fertilization rates (see Page 2) on the yield of
'Strawberry Festival', 'Ventana' and 'Winter
Dawn' strawberries.
Under the small-plot conditions of these
studies, it appears that it is plausible to reduce
irrigation and liquid-N rates to the UF-IFAS
recommended levels, without significantly
affecting fruit quality and weight for each
strawberry variety. Beside the obvious
environmental benefits of reducing water usage
and N leaching, these results might help
growers to cut the cost of fuel to pump water in
their strawberry fields. For example, changing
from 120 gal/100 ft/week (218 min of water
pumping) to 80 gal/100 ft/week (145 min)
represents an approximately 33% reduction of
pumping time, which might translate in
substantial savings in diesel fuel.
A contrary argument might indicate that
growers will not allow their soil to become "too
dry" by reducing the irrigation rates, because
later it would be too hard to get enough
moisture in the beds. However, these studies
have shown that the beds receiving only 60
gal/100 ft/week still retain during the
production peak between 13 and 15% moisture
at four days after irrigation. To further validate
these results, studies for next strawberry season
will concentrate on testing irrigation and N-
rates in large-plot fields, as well as to calculate
the economic feasibility of these
recommendations.

This research is being funded by the Hillsborough
River and Alafia BASING Boards and Southwest
Florida Water Management District


I. Irr r W r t ra


gal/100 ft/week
60
80
100*
120


min/100 ft/week
109 (1 h 49 min)
145 (2 h 25 min)
182 (3 h 2 min)
218 (3 h 38 min)


Ib/acre/day
0.4
0.6*
0.8


*UF-IFAS recommendation (drip tape
maximum: 0.58 gal/100 ft/min)


February 2006







Berry/Vegetable Times


Label Plant Back Restrictions and
Resistance Management
Considerations in Double Cropped
Strawberry
James F. Price and Curtis Nagle

Intercropping and double cropping
spring and summer vegetables with a
concluding strawberry crop offers means to
enhance a season's profitability. There are
arthropod management implications related to
this practice and this article discusses the most
important points of interest to Florida
strawberry growers.
Likely second crops to follow
strawberry include various cucurbits (such as
summer squash, zucchini, cucumbers,
cantaloupes, other melons), pepper and
eggplant. All of these, especially eggplant,
can be damaged by strawberry's perennial
pest, the twospotted spider mite. Spider mites
easily can infest the second crop if transplants
or weeds from strawberry remain at the time
of establishing the second crop. Other
arthropods such as sap beetles, fruit flies
(vinegar gnats), or pameras, may be numerous
at the end of the strawberry crop, but pose
little threat to these second crops. Episodes of
aphids, armyworms and thrips likely would be
ended in strawberry by that period, but scouts
must watch for them.
A farmer's successful transition to the
new crop requires that spider mites from
strawberries be controlled, even on weed
hosts such as Carolina geranium, a difficult
task in the warm, dry spring. The best
approach would be to have the spider mites
under biological control with an agent such as
the Phytoseiulus persimilis predatory mite
before the new crop is established. The
predator can transfer to the new crop along
with the few spider mites that survived this
hunter earlier. Extended benefits of the
predator would depend on pesticides to be
applied and other factors.
If chemical control was relied on for


the strawberry crop and is to be used again,
then care should be taken to scout the new
crop weekly and treat when spider mites
threaten. Some product labels limit
applications to a crop to reduce resistance
among the target mites. If the maximum
applications have been made to strawberry,
then it would be unwise to apply the permitted
amount to the same mite population. This
dilemma reduces the number of miticide
applications available to the second crop.
Table 1 presents popular second crops
that could be affected by observing miticide
application limits to a mite population that
started on strawberry then relocated to the
second crop. Strawberry growers intending to
produce a second crop that would be infested
by spider mites from the strawberry should
consider managing strawberry with predator
mites, Acramite? or Savey' (or other miticide
not available to the cucurbits, eggplant, or
pepper), practice good weed management and
destroy strawberry transplants before
introducing the second crop. Some Agri-Mek
? applications should be withheld from
strawberry and reserved for use on the
cucurbit, eggplant or pepper second crop and
likewise, some Vendex' applications should
be withheld for use on eggplant.
Plant-back restrictions apply to some
pesticides and must be carefully considered in
strawberry if double cropping is planned.
Plant-back restrictions prohibit the planting of
certain crops within a stated period if certain
pesticides are applied to the strawberry crop.
Some strawberry pesticide plant-back
restrictions include:

1. Acramite: Do not plant another crop
within 30 days of the last application of
Acramite. (Acramite is permitted on
cucurbits, eggplant and pepper).
2. Brigade: Crops for which bifenthrin
tolerances exist may be rotated at any time
(Continued on page 4)


February 2006








Berry/Vegetable Times


3. Oberon: Immediate plant back for fruiting
vegetables (including eggplant and
pepper), cucurbits, tuber vegetables and
strawberries. For all other vegetable
crops, 12 months must elapse before
planting.
4. Savey: Do not plant rotational crops other
than those on the label within 120 days of


application (cucurbits, eggplant, and
pepper and are not on the label).
Good insect and mite control in the second
crop depends a lot on how the arthropods were
managed in strawberry. Early planning and
careful attention to management details can
produce important payoffs in intercrop or
double crop culture.


Table 1. Miticides possessing labels that restrict numbers of applications to spider mites on
strawberry and are permitted on cucurbits, eggplant, and pepper.


Second Crop


Strawberry/Vegetable

Miticide1

Acramite

Agri-Mek
Capture (=Brigade
)
Danitol
Kelthane
Oberon
Vendex


E-._-I'. !.t


Cucurbits


Pepper


1 Miticides include those registered and likely to be used on strawberry, possess label restrictions on numbers of applications, and also are
registered on eggplant, cucurbits, or pepper. Additional, unaffected miticides are available. Applications on the second crop beyond those
allowed on strawberry may enhance resistance in the spider mite population that developed on strawberry and relocated to the second crop.


Vegetable Grower Spring Meeting


Tuesday evening, March 14
SWFREC, Immokalee
Dinner at 6 PM
Program: 6:30- 8:00
RSVP to 863-674-4092


Wednesday noon, March 15
Popi's IV Restaurant, Ellenton
Lunch at 12 noon
Program: 12:30- 2:00
RSVP to 941-722-4524


These meetings are being sponsored by Rotam International to introduce their new product, Aba-
cus (abamectin) and to provide growers with an update on research and recent results on a medley
of pest topics.A total of 1.5 CEUs (both RUP and CCA) have been requested. Please RSVP to your
respective county Extension Offices (see numbers above) or call for additional information.


February 2006








Berry/Vegetable Times


Current Goals of the GCREC Strawberry Breeding Program
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Program's Most Promising Selections
Craig Chandler

The number one goal of the program is to develop an early fruiting cultivar that
produces fruit that are more flavorful and have a better shelf life and more uniform shape than
'Winter Dawn'. A second goal is to develop a high quality mid to late season cultivar. There
may be future opportunities, with rising fuel prices, for the west central Florida industry to
return to the days when the industry (profitably) harvested fruit well into April. A third goal is
to incorporate easy harvestability, and at least moderate rain and fruit rot resistance into any
new cultivar we release.


Selection number Strengths Weaknesses Plans for the Future

Higher early season Northern latitude trans- Large size grower trials
yield than 'Festival'; plants produced some during 2006-07 season.
FL 01-116 better flavor and shape misshapen fruit on the
than 'Winter Dawn'; second hand during
resistant to rain damage. 2005-06 season.
Steady, moderate pro- Susceptible to rain dam- Medium size grower
FL 00-51 duction of large, flavor- age. trials during 2006-07
ful fruit; plant easy to season.
harvest.
Produces firm, glossy Plants produced some Medium size grower
FL 99-164 fruit; flavor equal to misshapen fruit on sec- trials planned for 2006-
'Festival' in Feb. taste ond hand during 2005- 07 season.
panel. 06 season.
From the same cross Not as early or as firm- Will be trialing this
FL 95-269 that produced fruited as 'Festival'; selection in some for-
'Festival'; conically orange-red color. eign production areas
shaped fruit on long where fruit firmness is
stems. not as much of an issue.
Produces fruit that are Low early season yields Small size grower trials
FL 02-45 firm, glossy, and flavor- but produces high during the 2006-07 sea-
ful. quality fruit late into the son.
season.
FL 99-117 Uniformly shaped fruit; Produces many medium Small size grower trials
low susceptibility to to small fruit; fruit are during the 2006-07 sea-
Botrytis fruit rot. orange-red in color; son.
susceptible to rain dam-
age.


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose ofproviding specific information. It is not a guarantee orwarranty of
the products names and lllb nI,, 'inh ili than thlr are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.
Use pesticides safely. Read andfollow directions on the manufacturer's label


February 2006








Berry/Vegetable Times


Angular Leaf Spot Research Trials
Natalia Peres

Angular leaf spot, caused by
Xanthomonasfragariae, is a bacterial disease
that is important on winter strawberry
production
worldwide. The first
symptoms of the
disease begin as small,
water soaked lesions
on the undersurface of
the leaves. As the
disease develops, the
lesions enlarge to
form reddish Fig.1. Translucent spots of
form reddish-brown Angular Leaf Spot
spots that later
become necrotic. A practical way to recognize
the disease is to place the leaves against a
source of light where the translucent spots can
be seen (Fig. 1). Disease development is
favored by moderate to low temperatures (65-
700 F), cold nights, and high relative
humidity. Its spread is facilitated by rainfall,
overhead irrigation, and harvest operations.
ALS is ideally controlled by the use of
pathogen-free transplants. However, studies in
Florida have shown that the bacteria can
survive on dry infested leaves and tissue
buried in the soil for up to 1 year. Little is
known regarding the effects of ALS on yield
and control measures are limited once the
disease appears in the field. Thus, we are
currently investigating the effect of the
disease on yield of 'Strawberry Festival'. We
are also testing a wide variety of products,
including traditional and new formulations of
copper fungicides, for the control of the
disease. Because some of these products are
new to strawberry, phytotoxicity effects, plant
growth, and yield are also being evaluated.
The severity of ALS in our research
farm at the GCREC Wimauma has been
moderate to severe or grave this season. Thus,
we have been also evaluating the level of
resistance to ALS of different commercial


cultivars and advanced selections from the
breeding program as well as of a germplasm
collection of wild strawberry. Sources of
resistance can potentially be used in the
breeding program to develop cultivars with
higher levels of resistance to ALS. In addition,
we are working on the characterization of
strains of the bacteria from different strawberry
fields in Florida. Growers who have been
experiencing severe problems with this disease
are encouraged to submit samples to our
disease diagnostic clinic to be included in this
study. Forms and instructions for the sending
samples are available at the GCREC website
(http://gcrec.ifas.ufl.edu).



Small Farms Conference

The "South-Central Florida Small Farms
Conference" is part of UF/IFAS Extension's state-
wide initiative to provide education to small-scale
producers who represent 90% of all farms in the
state.

Date: Saturday, 3/18/06
Time: 9:00AM-3:30PM
Subject: "South-Central Florida Small
Farms Conference"

Topics: Marketing, regulations, financing, green-
belt classification, grant opportunities, hydropon-
ics, blueberry production, grape production, bee
keeping, organic certification, pasture management
for livestock, ornamental aquaculture, and commu-
nity supported agriculture

Place: Hillsborough Co. Extension Office in Seff-
ner, FL

Contact: Lacey Marsden or Steffany Dragon
at (813) 744-5519 to register* or for more informa-
tion!

*Lunch and all materials will be included with a
pre-1 ii giih ,i. 'i fee of$10, due by March 10th.
Thank you!


February 2006








Berry/Vegetable Times


2006 Spring Blueberry Field Day Pre-registration

Where: Brookdale Farms, 4806 Bugg Rd., Plant City, Fla.

When: Tuesday, March 7, 2006.




Pre-register now for the Annual FBGA Spring Field Day. Pre-registrations must be post-
marked by February 27, 2006 to guarantee a meal.

About the Field Day On-site registration (meal not included) will begin at 9:45 a.m. The pro-
gram will begin with the FBGA Annual Business Meeting at about 10:15 a.m. Presentations
will be followed by lunch and an afternoon tour of area farms. We are planning to offer Florida
CEU credits for this meeting.

Location of the Field Day- The Field Day will be held at Brookdale Farms (Mr. Chad Dumke) in Hillsbor-
ough County. The address is 4608 Bugg Rd., Plant City, FL 33567.

Directions to the Field Day -

If traveling west on Hwy 60, continue across the intersection with Hwy 39, turn right onto Bugg Rd. This
is the first right after the Hwy 60/39 intersection (about 3% miles past Hwy 39). Look for a large
cell tower on the left side of the road for a landmark. Follow Bugg Rd around a curve to the left
and Brookdale Farms will be on your right soon after the curve.

If traveling from north Florida, take 1-75 south to Hwy 60 in Branden. Go east on Hwy 60 towards Plant
City. Turn left on Bugg Rd (about 2 miles after the Turkey Creek Rd. traffic light. Look for a
large cell tower on the right side of Hwy 60 for a landmark. Follow Bugg Rd around a curve to
the left and Brookdale farms will be on your right soon after the curve.


Florida Blueberry Growers' Association
P.O. Box 163
Island Grove, FL 32654

Thank you for your continued support of the Florida Blueberry Growers' Association!

Please cut here and return to above address.


Name(s) attending the Short Course


February 2006








Berry/egetable Times


Spring Blueberry Field Day
Tuesday, March 7, 2006
Brookdale Farms, Chat Dumke
4608 Bugg Rd., Plant City, 33567
Hillsborough County


9:45 a.m. On-site Registration Meal not included

10:15 a.m. Annual Business Meeting Mr. Joe Keel, president, presiding.

10:30 a.m. Update on Dormex and other blueberry production research -
Dr. Jeff Williamson, horticulturist, Horticultural Sciences Dept., IFAS, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.

10:50 a.m. Management of key insect pests and mites in blueberries using
conventional and reduced-risk insecticides Dr. Oscar Liburd, entomologist,
Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Fla.

11:10 a.m. Pathology research update Dr. Phil Harmon, Department of Plant Pathology,
IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.

11:30 a.m. Overview of blueberry varieties for Florida growers Dr. Paul Lyrene,
blueberry breeder, Horticultural Sciences Dept., IFAS, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Fla.

11:45 a.m. Lunch provided by the following sponsors: Dormex USA, Fresh Harvest
International, Koppert Biological Systems, Inc., and United Agricultural
Services of America.

12:30 p.m. Begin field tours


Location of the Field Day The Field Day will be held at Brookdale Farms (Mr. Chad Dumke
in Hillsborough County. The address is 4608 Bugg Rd., Plant City, FL 33567.

Directions to the Field Day-

If traveling west on Hwy 60, continue across the intersection with Hwy 39, turn right onto Bugg
Rd. This is the first right after the Hwy 60/39 intersection (about % miles past Hwy 39). Look for
a large cell tower on the left side of the road for a landmark. Follow Bugg Rd around a curve to
the left and Brookdale Farms will be on your right soon after the curve.

If traveling from north Florida, take 1-75 south to Hwy 60 in Branden. Go east on Hwy 60 to-
wards Plant City. Turn left on Bugg Rd (about 2 miles after the Turkey Creek Rd. traffic light.
Look for a large cell tower on the right side of Hwy 60 for a landmark. Follow Bugg Rd around a
curve to the left and Brookdale farms will be on your right soon after the curve.


February 2006




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