In this issue
Good and Bad Thrips in Strawberries Page 2
Strawberry Latent Ringspot Virus Page 3
Found in North America
UF Expected to Release New Page 4
Strawberry Cultivar this Spring
Value-Added Producer Grant Page 4
Highlights on Diagnostics and Late Page 5
Season Disease Control
Site Made Available for Strawberry Page 5
Museum and Hall of Fame
Can't Live with 'em, Can't Page 6
(Shouldn't) Shoot 'em.
Asian Soybean Rust and Its Effect on Page 6
Pesticide Registrations and Actions Page 7
March i/plIIl 1 10
Pesticide Tsingil 'Co iEtni
A monthly newsletter of the University of Florida IFAS,
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, and Florida
Cooperative Extension Service
Hillsborough County Cooperative Ext Service
5339 CR 579, Seffner, FL 33584
(813) 744-5519 SC 541-5772
Alicia Whidden, Editor Mary Chernesky, Director
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
14695 CR 672, Wimauma, FL 33598
Christine Cooley, Layout and Design
Jack Rechcigl, Director
http //gcrec ifas ufl edu
From Your Extension
Agent.... Alicia Whidden
2005 Bird Damage Survey
The last page of the
newsletter is a survey about the bird
damage this year in the strawberry
fields. It is very important that
everyone complete the survey and
return it to me. To effectively
combat this problem in the future, the
industry needs to be able to show
government officials the economic
impact this is having on individual
growers and the industry as a whole.
A large number of completed surveys
also shows that this is an industry-
wide problem and not just the
problem of a few growers.
If you have a crop other
than strawberries, and robins or other
birds such as cedar waxwings have
caused damage please fill out the
survey and tell me what crop is being
affected and the type of bird. This
information helps provide a case for
all farmers to be able to protect their
Botrytis Blossom Blight
on Southern Highbush
This article is based on a paper by
Dr. Philip Harmon which is available
at EDIS http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/
Botrytis is an important
disease of many fruits and
vegetables. It is caused by the
fungus, Botrytis cinerea, which
usually causes infection through
wounds or by living on dying plant
tissue. In strawberries and
blueberries it can cause infection in
the flower when the petals do not
drop away after the flower has been
pollinated. Frost or freeze damage
can cause wounds on tender growth
or delay petal drop and this gives the
fungus an entry point to cause
infection. Since Botrytis can survive
very well as a saprophyte, meaning it
can live on dead tissue, spores of the
fungus can be present at bloom time
to infect flowers.
Corollas of southern highbush blueberry
infected with 5I. -I t, cinerea and exhib-
iting typical symptoms of .s r t, -. blos-
som bhght. Disease has progressed into
the peduncle ofthe ...
Long periods of high
relative humidity favor fruit
becoming infected and the disease
spreading. Overhead irrigation for
freeze protection during bloom can
increase Botrytis blossom blight.
This fungus grows in a wide range of
temperatures- from 32' to over 70.
When leaves are wet for more than
24 hours the chance ofbotrytis is
significantly increased. The rain we
had the last weekend in February
(Continued on page 2)
IFAS is an Equal Employment Opportumty-Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin U S Departmeqt of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M
University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating
and the first of March could cause increased Botrytis
Blossom blight in blueberries this year.
Botrytis blossom blight can infect one fruit in a
cluster and if conditions are right can produce enough
spores to infect other berries in the cluster making the
whole cluster of fruit unmarketable. Sometimes the
pathogen can lie dormant and after harvest while in
storage it can begin growing and cause postharvest rot.
Common Trade .
Common Trade Activity Relative efficacy
name name prevent control
hexamid2 50 WDG contact **
2 Switch local
f l 62.5 WG systemic *** **
pyraclos- Pristine system
trobin2 systemic *** **
captain Captan contact
50 WP c t
pyraclos- Cabrio local
trobin2 EG systemic *
iprodione2 Rovral local
'*** provides greatest efficacy under disease-
** good management tool under moderate to low dis-
* provides some control, best used in rotation or tank
mix with other chemistries
2 Risk of resistance. Resistance management required
for these fungicides.
The table above lists of fungicides labeled for
blueberries. You will see they are the same chemicals
used for strawberries so they are readily available in our
area. Please read the complete label before using and
follow the label for resistance management strategies. It
is very important to follow the label so these chemicals
will continue to be of use in controlling disease for a
long time. Relative efficacy data in the table were taken
from results of trials not conducted in Florida. No
endorsement or criticism of any product listed or
omitted is intended or implied.
Gray sporulation of J. -rt r, cinerea is observed
on southern highbush blue-
after an extended period ofhigh
relative humidity. Corollas do not se-
nesce and turn brown on the plant but
.still white. Brown
corollas that remain on the bush and gray sporu-
lation are good diagnostic symptoms of5. .- r., I.
Good and Bad Thrips in
S.I. Rondon and J.F. Price
Florida possesses two types of thrips that are
very important to successful strawberry production. One
is a good thrips and the other is a bad thrips. This article
discusses the two groups of thrips and makes comments
on their impact.
The Bad Thrips. Even though it can be a downer to
bring up the bad item first, management of this bad item
has a bigger impact on our strawberry production than
the good item, so the bad shall be first.
Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), the flower
thrips (Fig. 1), is the principal thrips of concern to
strawberry producers in Florida. It is a small, very
slender insect, less than 1/16 inch long or about the size
of the most recent splinter tweezered from your finger.
Usually we find flower thrips on Plant City area
strawberries when oaks and citrus begin to bloom in
February and March.
Thrips perform poorly at flying because their
fringed and feathery wings are better suited for carrying
(Continued on page 3)
them with wind currents. Adults are usually yellow but
can vary from light yellow to dark brown. Nymphs are
white or pale yellow (Fig. 2). Immature stages are
wingless but they can move very quickly around the
strawberry flower or small fruit.
Damage and Biology. Thrips injure the plant by
rasping and sucking the exuding sap of the strawberry
bud, flower and leaf tissues. Thrips feeding on
strawberry blossoms can cause the stigmas and anthers
to turn brown and wilt prematurely (Fig. 3). As fruits
develop, thrips feeding may cause a russeting of the fruit
around the cap, however, this injury is seldom
economic. Thrips also can scratch tissues around the
achenes of very small, developing fruit. That damage
later can look like the bronzing also caused by adverse
weather and other factors.
Thrips develop through several generations a
year in Florida. The egg to adult development period is
approximately 2 weeks at our warm late-winter
Monitoring. To avoid losses to thrips, growers should
start checking strawberry flowers for thrips when the
first flowers begin to open. These insects are small and
a 14X hand lens is helpful. To sample thrips, randomly
collect flower blossoms and strike flowers onto white
paper or "huff' air at your lips onto the flowers. Then
quickly look into the flower with the lens to see the
thrips running about.
Control. The insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus
(Figs. 4 and 5), is an important naturally occurring
enemy of flower thrips and helps to keep thrips
populations in check. But when flowering is in progress
and thrips suddenly increase to about eight or more per
flower, it is time to consider an insecticide treatment.
Low impact insecticides such as Spintor can control
thrips and spare beneficial parasites and predators.
Good Thrips. The sixspotted thrips, Scolothrips
sexmaculatus (Pergande), is a predator. Its shape and
Figure 1. Flower thrips adult (Frankhnella
bispinosa). Credt S.I. Rondon, UF
Fig. 2. Flower thrips nymphs. Fig. 3. Thrips damage to
Credit M Hodle, Umv. Calif strawberry. Credit S.I. Rondon,
Fig. 4. .' 1. bug adult (Orus
insidiosus). Credit Entomos, Inc.
Fig. 5. ... bug Fig. 6. Sixspotted thrips adult
nymph. Credit Entomos, (Scolothrips exmaculatus).
Inc. Credt J.K. Clark, Umv. Calif
to the more common flower thrips and is usually tan,
yellow or light brown. Most thrips at rest hold their
wings extended straight down the top of their backs.
Patterns in wings of resting sixspotted thrips form three
pairs of dark spots along the distance of the wings,
making the insect's back appear as though it has six
spots (Fig. 6).
We regularly see sixspotted thrips at work in
Plant City area strawberries once spider mites appear.
Sixspotted thrips routinely are major agents in cleaning
up abandoned, spider mite-infested fields.
Biology. Sixspotted thrips eggs are laid in leaf tissue
where they hatch in about 1 week. This species hunts
for food, including small mites, their eggs, and small
insects on strawberry leaf surfaces. Thrips nymphs
(immatures) can eat about 100 spider mite eggs during
their development and an additional 60 spider mite eggs
every day of their approximately month-long adult life.
Broad spectrum insecticides such as Lannate kill these
beneficial and limit their usefulness to growers.
The management of the two groups of thrips is
very important to successful strawberry growing.
Weekly scouting with a 14X hand lens and informed
choices of insecticides can help strawberry growers limit
losses from the bad thrips and maximize benefits form
the good thrips.
Strawberry Latent Ringspot Virus
Found in North America
Strawberry latent ringspot virus, a problem for
the past 30 to 40 years in Europe, has just been
discovered in North America by Agricultural Research
Service (ARS) scientists and cooperators. Scientists
with ARS, Oregon State University, and Elmhirst
Diagnostics and Research of British Columbia found the
virus on 17 percent of the California strawberry samples
and on four percent of British Columbia strawberries.
The virus was also found in a variegated mint. The
virus, which can dramatically decrease yields, is spread
by nematodes, so the scientists were surprised to find the
virus in California strawberries, as most are planted in
Plant pathologist Robert R. Martin of the ARS
Horticultural Crops Research Unit in Corvallis, Ore., is
leading the agency's efforts in studying and preventing
the virus. The group discovered the virus by doing a
broad-spectrum test to look for viruses that may be
involved in strawberry decline and variegation of mint.
They compared nucleic acid and protein sequences of
the virus from strawberry and mint to those in databases.
The scientists believe that the virus has been in this
country for many years on an ornamental mint sold
throughout the United States--popular because of its
bright-yellow color--without anyone noticing. It turns
out that the color partially comes from the ringspot
Many of the chemicals that have been used to
control this and other viruses transmitted by nematodes
are being pulled from the market because of
environmental concerns. Martin and ARS colleague
Jack Pinkerton are studying alternative ways to control
nematode-transmitted viruses, such as rotating a crop
that is not a host for the virus so that the nematodes lose
the virus and are no longer able to transmit it.
While the virus has only been found on mint and
strawberries in the United States, it can infect many
Left: Leaves and stems of a strawberry plant infected by
five viruses including strawberry latent ringspot.
Right: A mint plant-sold widely as an ornamental-
infected by the ringspot virus and two others.
UF Expected to
Cultivar this Spring
The release of FL 97-39,
tentatively named 'Winter Dawn', is expected by the
University of Florida this spring. During the second half
of February, this selection surged past other cultivars in
total yield. The few growers trialing 'Winter Dawn' this
season have been very pleased with its performance. It
isn't going to be competitive with 'Festival', in terms of
overall fruit quality, when berries are plentiful, but it can
help growers increase their early season output. My
recommendation is for growers to plant not more than 5
to 10% of their acreage in 'Winter Dawn' and to stop
harvesting it by the end of February -- before we have
much hot weather. This acreage can then be devoted to
a double crop. Taking acreage out of production at the
end of February will lower the amount of fruit on the
market in March, which will hopefully help to extend
'Winter Dawn' fruit are firmer and more
resistant to abrasion than the fruit of 'Sweet Charlie',
but they are not as firm as the fruit of 'Festival'. Also,
this fruit is not as resistant to rain damage as the fruit of
'Festival'. On the positive side, 'Winter Dawn' is
moderately resistant to Botrytis and anthracnose fruit
rot. The recommended planting period for 'Winter
Dawn' in west central Florida is September 25th to
Highlights on Diagnostics and Late
Season Disease Control
Natalia Peres and Jim Mertely
Strawberry diseases have been at very low
levels this season. Amazingly, only one strawberry
sample was received during the whole month of
February at our Diagnostic Clinic. This sample had an
abiotic problem, and wasn't even diseased. The dry
weather from mid-January to February 24 may explain
this low disease pressure.
Nearly two inches of rain fell from February 25
to 27, and with the weather remaining relatively cool,
conditions have been ideal for the development of
Botrytis fruit rot. Fields that were flowering during this
period should have been protected by applications of
fungicides with good activity a'ainist 1r, Ii cinerea,
such as Pristine, Elevate, Switch, or Scala. In our
experiments, Botrytis is controlled more effectively by
early applications during peak bloom than by late
applications during the main harvest period. Because
Botrytis fruit rot is suppressed by hot weather, special
applications ofBotryticides are usually not needed after
February. However, if the disease has caused losses in
February, and the weather remains mild, alternating
applications of a Botryticide and a protectant fungicide
captainn or thiram) should be continued.
Very little anthracnose fruit rot, caused by the
fungus Colletotrichum acutatum, has been observed this
season. At this late date, it is unlikely that an epidemic
will occur since the season is near the end and there is
not enough time for the inoculum to build up. However,
if symptoms are present, applications of a protectant
fungicide such as captain, alone or tank mixed with
Abound, Cabrio, or Switch should protect the crop until
the end of the season.
Site Made Available for
and Hall of Fame
On Tuesday, February 2,
2005 the Hillsborough Board of
County Commissioners voted
unanimously to transfer property to
The Florida Strawberry Research and Education
Foundation (FSREF) for the development of a Florida
Strawberry Museum and Hall of Fame. The 21-acre
parcel currently houses the Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center at Dover. The University of Florida
faculty at the Dover Center will be transferred to the
newly constructed Gulf Coast Research Center in Balm.
Ribbon cutting for the Balm facility is slated for April 1,
2005 (no fooling). The strawberry community has long
sought a means to display the unique archives of the
century old Florida strawberry industry. The vacating of
the Dover facility, itself rich in strawberry history, made
the location for the Florida Strawberry Hall of Fame and
Museum a natural. This is but the first step toward
making the Florida Strawberry Hall of Fame and
Museum a reality. FSREF is looking for artifacts and
development resources within the community. If you
have an interest in being a part of this endeavor, please
contact the Florida Strawberry Growers Association at
The Florida Strawberry Growers Association
and the Florida Strawberry Research and Education
Foundation are non-profit organizations that serve the
Florida strawberry industry as partners in research,
promotion and member/community service.
Can't Live with 'em, Can't
(Shouldn't) Shoot 'em.
John R. Duval
This has been a terrible season for avian pests.
Robins arrived early and have severely worn out their
welcome. The best we can hope for is warm weather to
our north so that the little ,#"o$^A! will move on.
Damage to the crop being grown at the GCREC-Dover
has been monitored in our cultural management trials.
During the first two weeks of the scourge, active efforts
to deter the birds were performed. However, after
February 10th minimal effort went in to scaring off the
birds. The chart below shows how the damage has
progressed in our field. Damage peaked on January 31st
and again on Valentine's day then progressively
decreased as birds have moved north (or have gotten
full). The area of our field where this data was collected
is near a heavy traffic area which probably lessened
damage to those experimental plots. However, in more
remote sections of our field, entire experiments were
Besides examining damage at our own field,
we scouted four commercial fields. For each 10 acre
block, data was collected from forty plants in a single
row. Samples were taken between 100 and 500 feet of
the tree line from a section that had not been harvested
for at least 1 day. This was repeated 2-3 times across
the fields. Robin control measures at these farms
consisted of minimal efforts (reflective tape in field) to
heavy use of shotgun shells and fireworks to scare the
birds. We found an overall damage at 8.4%, with a
range of 3.3% to 11.8%. What was surprising was that
similar levels of control measures had very different
results. In addition, minimal efforts produced similar
results to those obtained by farms using the heavy
artillery. Damage seemed to be most heavy on farms
that were situated in areas with the greatest acreage of
berries, and where farms were more isolated, there was
This data, possibly combined with economic
analysis, is a documented basis to request research funds
and permits in the future for the control of robins.
contact Laura M. Miller at 813-744-5519 x 147 or
Stephen Gran at 813-272-5506.
Date: Wednesday April 13, 2005
Time: 1:00 pm 5:00 pm
Location: Hillsborough County
Cooperative Extension Service Office, Large
Conference Room, 5339 County Road 579,
11271205 2/Y2C05 2/1012005 21171 2DJ5 2( 241 20C6
Do you have an idea for a value-added
agricultural product and need funding to get the project
off the ground? The Hillsborough County Cooperative
Extension Service, Hillsborough County Agriculture
Industry Development Program, and the USDA are
teaming up to provide a workshop on the USDA Value
Added Producer Grant Program. For the past few years,
the USDA has been awarding grants to farmers,
cooperatives, producer groups, or producer-based
business ventures for business planning activities, such
as conducting a market analysis or developing a
marketing plan, to establish a value-added marketing
opportunity for an agricultural product, acquire capital
to establish or improve a value-added agricultural
enterprise, and capital for farm-based renewable energy.
The maximum award per grant has been $500,000 and
matching funds are required.
This workshop will help participants learn
more about value-added agriculture, opportunities that
may exist locally, and how to apply for the USDA
Value-Added Producer Grant. Some of the topics will
include: a description of value-added agriculture,
potential value-added strategies, and resources to assist
value-added agriculture projects. This workshop is free
but seating is limited. Please register by calling Traci
Buck at 813 -744-5519 x 104. For more information
Asian Soybean Rust and Its Effect
on Central Florida
On March 1 it was announced that Asian
Soybean Rust (ASR) was found near Dade City in
Pasco County on kudzu. Even though we do not grow
soybeans, ASR is still of great concern for us. This is
the southern most finding of the disease and there are
now 18 counties with confirmed rust. The problem for
us in central Florida is that beans and peas are also hosts
of ASR and we do grow those. Also we have several
thousand acres of Iron Clay peas as a cover crop during
the summer. On March 3 the first ever forecast of the
potential of epidemic spread of this disease was made
due to the Dade City find and the weather patterns. The
North American Plant Disease Forecast Center issued a
moderate threat outlook with a strongly moderate risk
for susceptible plants in central and northern Florida
except the panhandle.
Asian Soybean Rust is caused by Phakopsora
pachyrhizi. It was first detected in 1902 in Japan and
since then it has slowly moved around the world. It
went from Asia to Africa and then to South America
where it has been an important disease in soybeans in
Brazil. It has been a disease of major concern to watch
for in the US and last November it was found in
Louisiana and within a few weeks it was found in 9
southern states. It is believed that Hurricane Ivan
brought the disease to the US. Besides soybeans it has
been found on over 90 other bean species and we have
many of those in the state.
ASR can be difficult to identify in the early
stages since it can look like other foliar diseases.
Usually lesions are seen on the lower part of the plant
canopy. At first the leaves will have a yellow mottled
appearance but as the disease progresses the leaves turn
yellow then brown or red pustules will appear usually on
the bottom of the leaf. There will not be a yellow halo
around the lesion like with bacterial diseases. The
lesions can be on any above ground part but are usually
seen on the leaves first when scouting. The only way to
be sure it is ASR is to do a molecular test called PCR
which is done at a state testing lab. Since we have about
850 acres of peas and beans as well as all the acres of
cover crop peas, it is important if you see any leaf
problems to call me so a sample can be collected and
testing done to correctly identify the problem. The only
control measure in soybeans at this time is fungicides
labeled for ASR.
Contact information: Alicia Whidden,
Hillsborough County Extension Service, 813-744-
5519. ext. 134, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Examples of soybean rust on leaves and pods.
GCREC Balm Update
As of April 1st, the faculty and staff of the
Dover research center will begin research at the new
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center Balm. The
450-acre center is already home to the former Bradenton
faculty and staff, and the arrival of the Dover staff will
bring the total number of researchers and support staff
for the center to nearly 70.
The following is a listing of the new telephone
numbers for the Dover faculty and staff for your use and
Main Phone Line
tront entrance or Ul( A nalm.
Dr. Jay Scott's lab is
up and running. Dr.
assists with the tomato
The official address for the center is:
14625 C.R. 672, Wimauma, FL 33598
Name Extension Direct Room
Jack Rechcigl 3103 813-633-4111 103
Craig Chandler 3148 813-633-4136 169
JohnDuval 3150 813-633-4137 171
Natalia Peres 3141 813-633-4133 161
James Mertely 3136 813-633-4131 151
And, here's Dr.
James Price hard at
work in his new
Name Extension Room
Christine Cooley 3101 Lobby
Teresa Seijo 3137 153a
Sr. Bio. Scientist, Plant
James Sumler, Jr. 3145 167a
Bio. Scientist, Strawberry
Elizabeth Golden 3149 170a
Bio. Scientist, Plant
Jose Moreno 3203 112
Field Crew Staff, OPS Lab
Technicians, and graduate
students may be reached by
dialing '0' for the operator.
Pesticide Registrations and Actions
* Three label revisions have been made on the
Telone products which currently have 24(c)
registrations in the state of Florida (FL-990003, FL-
990004, and FL-990005). In addition to the
removal of the statement concerning no treatment
within 100 feet of drinking wells (because this
statement is already on the national label), the SLN
labels now reflects that chisel injection is not the
only means of application. Additionally, the
statement regarding training has been modified to
state that the material is available only to people
who have a restricted use pesticide license.
(FDACS letter of 12/22/04).
* The methyl bromide CEUs were signed in the final
moments of 2004. In Florida for 2005, the fumigant
may be used by growers of tomato, pepper (all
varieties), strawberry, and eggplant, specified
growers of flowers, trees, and turfgrass, as well as
some golf courses. If you need methyl bromide, be
prepared to deal with documentation and keep good
records, as the penalties for misuse can be
financially crippling. (FFVA Bulletin #68,
* A recent Plant Health Progress bulletin reported
widespread occurrence of strobilurin-resistant
gummy stem blight in Georgia watermelon fields.
Fields and transplant house were sampled in 2001
and 2002. Of the 272 isolates collected in 2001,
247 (91 percent) were resistant to azoxystrobin. In
2002, 82 percent of the isolates were resistant to
azoxystrobin. Of the 40 isolates from watermelon
transplants, 39 were positive for resistance. These
results lead Georgia researchers to believe that
resistant isolates in the field may have originated
from seed or transplants and they are now advising
their growers to avoid this class of fungicide (as
well as strobilurins mixed with boscalid). (Plant
Health Progress, 12/7/04).
* On January 6, the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS)
issued the Special Local Needs registration SLN
FL-040011 to Bayer CropScience for a reduced
plant back restriction (from four months to 30 days)
with the use of Scala (pyrimethanil) fungicide on
"other crops" (crops not on the label). (FDACS
PREC Agenda, 2/3/05).
* On January 6, the FDACS issued the Special Local
Needs registration SLN FL-040012 to Nichino
America, Inc., for use of Courier (buprofezin)
insecticide on field tomato to control whitefly
nymphs. (FDACS PREC Agenda, 2/3/05).
* On January 6, the FDACS registered the fungicide
Reason (fenamidone) for use on potato, tomato,
cucurbits, lettuce, and other crops to control
diseases. Fenamidone is a respiratory inhibitor that
has foliar protectant and curative activity against
oomycete (downy mildew) and some ascomycete
fungi, as well as Alternaria. The EPA registration
number for the Bayer CropScience product is 264-
695. (FDACS PREC Agenda, 2/3/05).
* On January 6, the FDACS registered the
biofungicide Sonata (Bacillus pumilus strain QSY
2808) for use on potato, tomato, strawberry,
cucurbits, and many other crops to control diseases.
The EPA registration number for the AgraQuest,
Inc. product is 69592-13. (FDACS PREC Agenda,
* Effective January 7, a quarantine exemption has
been issued for the use of Stratego (trifloxystrobin
and propiconazole) on soybean to control soybean
rust. The EPA registration number for the Bayer
CropScience product is 264-779 and the expiration
date is 12/1/2007. (FDACS letter of 1/19/05).
* Based on a request by Syngenta and IR-4,
tolerances are approved for the insecticide
thiamethoxam (PmImnumi i L Acl .)). Tolerances of
importance to Florida include blueberry, potato,
strawberry, legume vegetable (group 6), and root
vegetable (group 1B). (Federal Register, 1/5/05).
* In at least a temporary diversification away from
genetically modified crops, Monsanto has agreed to
pay about $1 billion to acquire Seminis, the world's
largest producer of fruit and vegetable seeds.
Executives were cited as saying that Monsanto
would develop new vegetable varieties using
conventional breeding, and that the fruit and
vegetable seed business could grow without
biotechnology, based on a consumer movement
toward healthier diets. The new acquisition not
only makes Monsanto the largest supplier of
vegetable seeds in the world, but also, according to
the company's calculations, the largest seed and
biotech company over all. It would surpass
DuPont, which owns the corn seed giant Pioneer
HiBred, in terms of revenues derived from seeds
and biotech traits. Seminis, based in Oxnard, CA,
had sales last year of $526 million, with its leading
products being tomato, cucumber, bean, and pepper
seeds. Its main brands are Seminis, Asgrow,
Petoseed and Royal Sluis and it sells mainly to
farmers, not gardeners. But, with partners, it has
recently started to develop some consumer items,
like the Bambino miniature watermelon and Lettuce
Jammers, lettuce in the shape of a taco shell. Its
main rivals in fruit and vegetable seeds are
Syngenta of Switzerland and Limagrain of France.
Less than one percent of Seminis's sales come from
genetically modified seeds. (New York Times,
2005 Strawberry Bird Damage Survey
Grower Name and/or Farm Name:
Number of acres?
Amount of bird damage:
Very Light Light
Did you see any preference by birds to a certain variety? Yes
If so, which varieties were most and least damaged?
How much have you spent on manpower for bird control?
How much have you spent on supplies?
How much income do you think you have lost due to bird damaged fruit?
Were there any methods you used that you felt worked better to keep the birds out?
Please return to Alicia Whidden, Hillsborough County Extension Service
5339 S. County Road 579, Seffner, Fl. 33584