Group Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Title: Berry/vegetable times. October 2003.
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Title: Berry/vegetable times. October 2003.
Uniform Title: Berry/vegetable times.
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Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Publication Date: October 2003
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Volume ID: VID00021
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9. FLORIDA Berry/Vegetable Times

EXTENSION October 2003 a
]mntlute ot Frwd aind Agracultural SceWnCs 0 1

In this issue...
SBreedingPto- Page 2
gram Trials

Be Proactive to Control Page 2
Look for Cyclamen Mltes Page 2
Early 1 Fields

Pesticide Regulations and Page 4


WPS Train the Trainer Pro- Page 5

Pesticide Potpourri Page 6

n0 r l

Oc.1-6-ubl Arclua xo

From your E.\'iwi\in
This is a hectic month for all
the strawberry industry as everyone
is busy setting plants. We also have
several meetings coming up in our
area. Please check the calendar of
events and all meeting announce-
ments in this newsletter.
The first meeting will be on
Oct. 16 at GCREC-Bradenton from
7-9 pm and is on organic agricultural
marketing. FOG and IFAS are pre-
senting this free seminar so if you
have ever considered organic produc-
tion this is an excellent opportunity to
learn what is involved and get an-
swers to your questions without hav-
ing to travel a great distance. Please
see the announcement in the newslet-
On Nov. 7th there will be a
WPS Train the Trainer program
from- 12 at the Extension Office in
Seffner. This meeting will give you
the information you will need to be
able to train your workers and also
cover things such as what signs need
to be posted at each work site. Fines
are getting tougher- one operation in
Colorado was fined over $200,000
for not having their workers properly
trained. 2.5 CEUs will be given.
There is a notice of the meeting in the
newsletter; please see it for reserva-
tion information.
IFAS Research and Exten-
sion will be having Strawberry
School 2003 at the Dover Strawberry
Lab on Nov. 18th from 9:00 till mid-
afternoon. The program will cover a

range of topics from BMPs, fertiliza-
tion, bird predation to sprayer cali-
bration. CEUs and CCAs are being
requested. Lunch will be provided
by Chemical Dynamics. An added
feature will be a question and answer
session on fertility to water manage-
ment. We would like to have the
questions in advance. Please send
your questions ahead of time to Dr.
John Duval at 13138 Lewis Galla-
gher Rd. Dover, Fl, 33527 or e-mail
them to him at JRDuval@ifas.ufl.
edu. Also please RSVP by Nov. 14
to Christine Cooley at the lab (813)
744-6630 X60 or
For those who have not
heard, Dr. Natalia Perez from Sao
Paulo, Brazil will be joining
GCREC-Dover this coming straw-
berry season. She has accepted the
position of assistant professor of
plant pathology. Welcome Natalia!

Alicia Whidden

A monthly newsletter of the University of Florida
IFAS, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center,
and Florida Cooperative
Extension Service
Hillsborough Co Cooperative Ext Service
5339 CR 579, Seffner, FL 33584
(813) 744-5519 SC 541-5772
Editor Alicia Whidden,
Director Mary Chernesky
Gulf Coast REC
13138 Lewis Gallagher Rd Dover, FL 33527
http //gcrec ifas ufl edu
(813)744-6630 SC 512-1160
Design & Layout Christine Cooley
Director Jack Rechcigl

Th1 Institute oft Foo anrd Agricultural 5cieness (II '1 i in t Ii l -.mpl'wrnmnt Opportunity Atirmative Action Employer authorized to povidr re rch, t educational
infonnation and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.

Volume III Issue 10

Berry/Vegetable Times

Volume III Issue 10 Berry/Vegetable Times

Strawberry Breeding
Program Trials -
Craig Chandler
This season we are continu-
ing an active breeding program
aimed at identifying strawberry
genotypes that produce firm, attrac-
tive, and flavorful fruit and are resis-
tant to important fruit, crown, and
leaf diseases. Here are the specifics:

* 7,000 seedlings (stage 1) are
being screened for desirable
fruit quality traits.

* 200 selections (stage 2) are be-
ing evaluated for consistency of
fruit quality.

* 15 advanced selections (stage
3) are being evaluated for ease
of harvest, production pattern,
fruit size, post-harvest fruit
quality, and resistance to pow-
dery mildew.

* Trials to evaluate FL 95-269,
FL 99-56, FL 99-140, FL 01-
89, and FL 01-216 for resis-
tance to Botrytis fruit, anthrac-
nose fruit rot, and angular leaf

* A "time-of-planting" trial to
determine the effect of planting
date on the fruiting pattern of
'Strawberry Festival' and

Be Proactive to Control
Plant Diseases -
Jim Mertely

A good disease manage-
ment program usually starts early.
In annual strawberry, the grower
should be prepared to initiate fungi-
cide sprays fairly quickly after the
transplants are watered in. During
establishment, overhead sprinkling
creates an artificial environment
characterized by mild temperatures,

high humidity, and prolonged leaf
wetness. These conditions favor the
production and spread of spores by
Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum
acutatum. Young, emerging leaves
are highly susceptible to infection
by these spores, and serve to carry
the pathogens over the winter. They
senesce and die in January and Feb-
mary, and produce new inoculum
which fuels epidemics of Botrytis
fruit rot (gray mold) and anthrac-
nose fruit rot in the spring. While
early applications of captain or
thiram don't cure infections that oc-
curred during the watering in period,
leaves protected in November will
not contribute to the start of an epi-
demic later on. During the winter
period, temperatures are cool and
inoculum levels are relatively low.
Spray coverage is also quite good
due to small plant size. For these
reasons, fungicides can be applied at
low label rates from November to
mid-January. The keys to success
during this period have more to do
with starting early and spraying
regularly than with hitting the patho-
gen with maximum levels of active
One can attempt to manage
plant diseases reactively. We all
know the drill. Scout the field regu-
larly. When the first diseased fruit
are found, initiate an intensive fun-

major bloom period from mid-
January to mid-February. This pe-
riod often passes before Botrytis -
diseased fruit are commonly seen in
the field.
The anthracnose fruit rot
situation is a little different.
Abound (Quadris), Captan, and Cab-
rio are labeled for anthracnose con-
trol in strawberry. Two other straw-
berry fungicides (Switch and
Thiram) also suppressed anthrac-
nose in our trials. Unfortunately,
none of these products will stop an
epidemic of anthracnose fruit rot in
a susceptible cultivar when the
weather favors disease development.
Waiting too long before initiating an
intensive anthracnose control pro-
gram is a gamble. By the time a few
anthracnose-diseased fruit are spot-
ted, the pathogen has invisibly colo-
nized large numbers of plants, and
visibly blighted some blossoms.
This low level of inoculum is suffi-
cient to start an epidemic during
rainy spring weather in susceptible
cultivars. However, if the cultivar is
sufficiently resistant (Carmine,
Sweet Charlie, and maybe Festival)
or if the weather turns dry, the gam-
ble may pay off. There hasn't been
enough research on this topic to ac-
curately calculate the odds.

gicide spray program immediately to Look for Cyclamen Mites
prevent epidemics from starting. Eay in Sy
Unfortunately, this strategy often Early in Strawberry Fields
results in costly failures. In the case Jim Price
of Botrytis fruit rot, most diseased
fruit are the result of flower infec- The cyclamen mite can be a
tions which occurred 20 to 30 days very serious pest of Florida straw-
earlier. If susceptible young flowers berries. Infested plants are stunted
are not well protected during the and produce a late and reduced crop.
major bloom period, fruit losses will The cyclamen mite is found fre-
occur regardless of any changes in quently on ornamental crops in Flo r-
the fungicide spray program. This is ida, particularly those crops pro-
because none of the available fungi- duced in greenhouses. However,
cides have enough systemic and infestations in Florida strawberry
curative activity to eliminate Botry- fields occur only occasionally. In
tis from most colonized fruit. the northeastern United States, Cali-
Therefore, applications of Elevate, fornia and the Pacific Northwest
CaptEvate, Thiram, or Switch cyclamen mites in strawberry crops
should be timed to coincide with the are common. The following sum-

Volume III Issue 10

Berry/Vegetable Times

Volume III Issue 10 Berry/Vegetable Times

marizes points concerning this pest
that are important to Florida straw-
berry growers.
Symptoms of Attack on
!.., i ..!! ic from Hillsborough
County: When local strawberry
fields are infested we find that straw-
berry leaves are small, chlorotic,
highly wrinkled, thickened, and pos-
ses short petioles. Runners often-
times have numerous small "thorns"
rather than a smooth texture. Addi-
tional symptoms include dark brown,
dry flowers, russeted berries and
poorly developed root systems. Ex-
amination of plants under a stereomi-
croscope reveal cyclamen mites in
the crevices of leaf wrinkles, on un-
opened and opened flowers, on
newly formed fruit and in the plant
bud. Some plants contain as many as
a few hundred of these mites.
Development of the Prob-
lem on Strawberries: Problems with
the cyclamen mite on strawberries in
Florida develop from setting infested
plants imported from the north. In
more northern climates, where straw-
berries are grown for late spring
fruiting, cyclamen mites overwinter
as adult females in the crowns of in-
fested strawberry plants. Populations
begin to develop in the early spring
and reach peaks in midsummer.
Cyclamen mites move along
runners from mother plants to daugh-
ter plants. New fields established
from the daughter plants are rarely
heavily infested unless the daughter
plants had been severely infested ear-
lier. Plants grown for a second year,
such as mother plants, are much
more heavily infested and thus,
should not be used as planting stock.
This pest, once introduced
into fields in Florida, can move along
runners to infest neighboring plants
or can be carried by bees, other in-
sects, birds, field workers or machin-
ery to infest other fields. The move-
ment of mites along the soil or on
plastic mulch is not likely since the
mite requires the humid environment
of plant surfaces.

Appearance and Develop-
ment of the Mite: All forms are so
small that they are only faintly vis i-
ble without optical magnification. In
the field, they can be seen with a
14X hand lens. Eggs, nymphs and
adult females are the forms most fre-
quently observed. Eggs are about
half as large as adult females, oval
and smooth, opaque white. Several
eggs may be found bunched together.
The adult female is slightly tan with
its hind legs reduced to thread-like
structures. Males are smaller and
with hind legs modified with claspers
to hold onto and transport adult fe-
males and immobile pupae. Nymphs
(larvae) are opaque white with a tri-
angular enlargement on their posteri-
Distribution and Host
Plants: The cyclamen mite is distrib-
uted worldwide. It has been reported
mostly on flowers and shrubs from
Europe, Asia and the Hawaiian Is-
lands as well as from throughout
North America.
Controlling a Cyclamen
Mite Infestation: Control of an out-
break of cyclamen mites is difficult
to achieve, so strategies should be
directed toward pre venting an out-
break through the use of plants certi-
fied to be free of the pest. To control
cyclamen mites established in a fruit-
ing crop in Florida, it is extremely
important to detect the infestation
early before plant growth has been
significantly affected and before the
numbers of mites have become too
large. A regular program of crop
scouting should insure the earliest
detection of this pest.
Thiodan" endosulfann),
Kelthane" (dicofol) and diazinon are
the miticides available for cyclamen
mites on strawberries, but none pro-
vides the rapid control of this pest
that is desired. Thiodan" should be
applied at 2 pounds of active ingredi-
ent in 400 gallons of preparation per
acre. This material cannot be applied
more than once in 35 days. There is a
4-day waiting period between appli-

cation of the product and the earliest
permissible harvest.
Kelthane" should be ap-
plied twice at 1.5-2 pounds of active
ingredient in 400 gallons preparation
per acre at 10 to 20-day intervals.
There is a 3-day waiting period be-
tween application of Kelthane" and
the earliest permissible harvest.
Diazinon should be applied
at 1 pound of active ingredient in 100
gallons of preparation per acre and
directed to the plant crown and
leaves. A maximum of four applica-
tions can be made, but no application
should be made within 5 days of har-
High volumes of spray
preparations are favored for miti-
cides to contact the mites deep in the
plant bud. At least 150 psi is required
to penetrate the strawberry canopy
and contact mites in crevices. Appli-
cation machinery and methods must
be adjusted in order to achieve
proper delivery of Thiodan" or
Kelthane All pesticide label re-
strictions must be observed.
Special predatory mites are
sold to control cyclamen mites, how-
ever the predators cannot control an
infestation sufficiently quickly under
our conditions to avoid excessive

Summary of Precautions Against
Cyclamen Mites:
1. Plant inspected strawber-
ries free of cyclamen mites.
2. Plant only first year
daughter plants.
3. Inspect fields regularly
for outbreaks.
4. Restrict movements of
possibly contaminated personnel and
machinery into noninfested sites.
5. Provide the greatest sepa-
ration in time and distance that is
practical between infested and newly
planted fields. This may require an
agreement from managers of infested
farms to destroy their completed crop
as early as possible.
6. As the cyclamen mite has

Volume III Issue 10

Berry/Vegetable Times

Volume III Issue 10 Berry/Vegetable Times

few weed hosts on which to survive
the noncropped summer, the elimina-
tion of cultivated and noncultivated
strawberry plants from the area of an
infested farm is important to prevent
reinfestation in the following year.
7. Kelthane and Thiodan
should be used to control any infesta-
tions discovered.

Pesticide Registrations
and Actions
Chemically Speaking, Aug./Sept.

S On July 15, the FDACS issued a
letter stating that the EPA had
issued a specific exemption un-
der the provision of Section 18
of FIFRA, for the use of Top-
sin fungicide (thiophanate-
methyl) for control of white
mold on fruiting vegetables
(tomato, pepper, and eggplant).
The exemption will expire on
March 31, 2004. The products
acceptable for use carry the EPA
registration number 4581-408,
73545-8, or 4581-377. The ma-
terial can only be applied by
ground application at a rate of
0.7 lb ai/A (1 lb/A of product)
and a maximum of four applic a-
tions per crop may be made at 7
to 14 day intervals. The crop
limit is 2.8 lb ai/A. The REI is
12 hours and PHI is 2 days. Up
to 43,800 acres of tomato,
21,600 acres of pepper, and
1,600 acres of eggplant may be
treated. (FDACS letter of

* Based on issued Section 18's, a
tolerance has been established
for residues of the fungicide
thiophanate-methyl (Topsin)
in or on fruiting vegetables -
group 8 (0.5 ppm). The toler-
ance expires on 12/31/05.
(Federal Register, 7/23/03).

* Based on request by BASF Cor-

portion, tolerances have been
established for residues of the
fungicide boscalid in or on ber-
ries-group 13 (3.5 ppm), cu-
cumber (0.20 ppm), grape (3.5
ppm), head lettuce (6.5 ppm),
leaf lettuce (11.0 ppm), peanut
(0.05 ppm), peanut oil/meal
(0.15 ppm), mint ( 30 ppm),
strawberry (1.2 ppm), brassica
vegetables-subgroup 5A (3.0
ppm), brassica vegetables sub-
group 5B (18 ppm), bulb vegeta-
bles-group 3 (3.0 ppm), cucur-
bits except cucumber (1.6 ppm),
fruiting vegetables-group 8
(1.2 ppm), legume vegetables-
subgroups 6A/6B/6C
(1.6/0.6/2.5 ppm), root vegeta-
bles-subgroup 1A (0.7 ppm),
and tuberous and corm vegeta-
bles-subgroup 1C (0.05 ppm).
(Federal Register, 7/30/03).

* Based on a request by DuPont
Crop Protection, tolerances have
been established for residues of
the fungicide famoxadone in or
on potato (0.02 ppm), tomato
(1.0 ppm), fruiting vegetables
except tomato-group 8 (4.0
ppm), and cucurbit vegetables-
group 9 (0.30 ppm). (Federal
Register, 7/2/03).

* Based on a request by IR-4, tol-
erances have been established
for residues of the fungicide cy -
moxanil (Curzate ) in or on
head lettuce (4.0 ppm), cucurbit
vegetables-group 9 (0.05 ppm)
and fruiting vegetables-group
8 (0.2 ppm). (Federal Register,

* The FDACS issued the Special
Local Needs [24(c)] registration
number FL-030011 to Crompton
Manufacturing Company for use
of Terramasteri fungicide
(etridiazole) to control pythium
and phytophthora root rot in
greenhouse tomatoes. The EPA
registration number for the prod-
uct is 400-422. (FDACS letter of


* On August 29, FDACS sent a
letter to Florida Fruit and Vege-
table Association to inform them
that the EPA had granted a spe-
cific exemption for the use of
Aim (carfentrazone-ethyl) her-
bicide (EPA Reg. #279-3241)
for control of paraquat-resistant
nightshade, purslane, and mom -
ing glory on fruiting vegetables
(tomato, pepper, eggplant). The
exemption expires on May 31,
2004. (FDACS letter of

sor one night seminar on
organic agricultural marketing, regu-
lation, and certification cost share in
Bradenton on October 16, 2003.
Contact: Marty Mesh, Florida Certi-
fied Organic Growers and Consum-
ers, Inc. (FOG) (352) 377-6345
Florida Certified Organic
Growers and Consumers, Inc.,
(FOG) and the University of Flor-
ida's Institute for Food and Agricul-
tural Sciences ( IFAS), with support
from the Florida Department of Ag-
riculture and Consumer Services
(FDACS), is pleased to announce a
seminar on the global organic ma r-
ketplace, opportunities, and regula-
tions in organic agriculture to be held
in Bradenton on the night of October
16, 2003. Among the topics to be
covered during this free seminar are
the following:
Bill Pischer will speak
about his experiences in producing
and marketing organic products us-
ing direct and wholesale markets for
many years. Bill Pischer has been a
successful small scale grower of or-
ganic crops for many years and cur-
rently owns and manages Desoto
Lakes, a successful organic farm that
currently does direct marketing
rough a farm stand.

Volume III Issue 10

Berry/Vegetable Times

Volume III Issue 10 Berry/Vegetable Times

Marty Mesh, Executive Di-
rector of FOG, will speak about the
opportunities and challenges that ex-
ist in the worldwide organic market-
place today. He will also discuss
the regulatory requirements of the
new National Organic Program and
introduce the Florida Specialty Crop
Organic Certification Costshare Pro-
Under the Costshare Pro-
gram, sponsored by a grant from
FDACS, qualified certified organic
growers and producers in the State of
Florida can now apply for reimburse-
ment of up to 75% or a maximum of
$500 of certification costs.
The free seminar will be
held from 7 to 9 pm on October 16 at
the IFAS Research and Education
Center located at 5007 60th Street
East, in Bradenton, Florida. For more
information, please contact any of
the following:

David Schuster of IFAS
(941) 751-7636 ext. 247

Marty Mesh of FOG
(352) 377-6345

WPS Train the Trainer
There will be a Worker Pro-
tection Standard (WPS) Train the
Trainer program on November 7th
starting at 10:00am at the Hillsbor-
ough County Cooperative Extension
Service Office in Seffner. Upon
completion of this training you will
be permitted to provide Worker Pro-
tection Training to your employees.
This program is open to all growers,
production managers, personnel
managers, and harvesting managers
who would like to provide your own
in house WPS training. Workers are
only allowed to work 5 days prior to
having WPS training. If you wish to
attend you must call Traci Buck at
813-744-5519 ext. 104 to register for

this free program. 2.5 CEUs will be

Scientific Review Meeting
Planned for Captan
Chemically Speaking, Aug. 2003

Captan has been in use as a
nonselective fungicide for over fifty
years. EPA currently classifies cap-
tan as a "probable human carcino-
gen" (B2) using their 1986 guide-
lines for cancer risk assessment.
Registrants as well as other investi-
gators have developed additional
data that can be used to describe a
mode of action for captain. In 2001,
the Captan Task Force requested that
EPA re-evaluate captain under its cur-
rent draft cancer risk assessment
guidelines. The Agency was not able
to allocate resources to this task, re -
flecting budgetary constraints and
higher priorities. The Agency, how-
ever, saw value in addressing this
issue, particularly with the pending
tolerance reassessments for other B2
compounds, and agreed in principle
with the proposal to reevaluate cap-
tan by using an independent third
party review. This alternative ap-
proach is an option EPA is making
available to the registrants; that is,
while it is noted as a viable ap-
proach, the Agency is not directing

S m e cMWocter Potecon
aurd 0lora
ri~rndltuml PIticida--
iwn Ta Coiify

that a third party review be under-
taken. The document to be reviewed
presents a cancer hazard assessment
and weight of evidence narrative for
captain following EPA's 2003 Draft
Final Guidelines for Cancer Risk As-
sessment. The objective of the meet-
ing was to review the document for
the validity of the arguments and
conclusions regarding the character-
istics of captain.
The meeting was held last
month at the University of Cincin-
nati, and documentation has been
prepared by VJP Consulting, Inc. and
C. Wilkinson, LLC on behalf of the
Captan Task Force. More informa-
tion can be found at http://www.tera.
(Toxicology Excellence for Risk As-
sessment (TERA) Press Release,

Pesticide Potpourri
Chemically Speaking Sept. 03

An Auburn University re-
search believes that sodium azide
may be a good replacement for
methyl bromide, and may be poten-
tially better than this material for two
reasons. Sodium azide applied via
drip irrigation has shown yield re-
sults in Alabama, Florida, and Cal-
fornia that are equivalent to methyl
bromide or better. The material also
breaks down within a couple of
weeks. The chemical's manufac-
turer, American Pacific, is trying to
register the compound under the
trade name SEP100. (Pesticide &
Toxic Chemical News, 8/4/03).

Volume III Issue 10

Berry/Vegetable Times

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