Group Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Title: Berry/vegetable times. September 2003.
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Title: Berry/vegetable times. September 2003.
Uniform Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Physical Description: Newspaper
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Publication Date: September 2003
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087388
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: University of Florida
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, U) UNIVERSITY OF
9. FLORIDA Berry/Vegetable Times


EXTENSION %P September 2003 k
]nticute ot Fr d and Agrcultural ScemnCs .. *


In this issue...
Intermittent Sprinkler Irriga- Page 2
tionfor Establshment of
Bare Root Trans-
plants
How tot Deal with Anthrac- Page 2
nose Disease
Runner Plants
Inspect Transplants for In- Page 3
sects and Mites
Sap Beetle Facts Page 4

BriefOverview ofReduced Page 4
Restrictions for Telone Soil
Fumigants
Check lstfor Gooc Page 5
when using Vapam/K-Pam


How Colorful is Your Diet?


Page 5


Take time to remember the heroes
of September 11, 2001.










9 ar' ; H l I Extension Ofice, Seff-
g.l3745


2003 Strawberry Cultivar
Update
Craig Chandler
GCREC-Dover

Listed below are some comments
on strawberry cultivars currently of
interest to growers in west central
Florida.

* Strawberry Festival is quickly
becoming the main cultivar in
west central Florida.
Productive; easy to harvest;
firm, medium sized fruit;
uniform color development;
attractive shape; large showy
calyx; low cull rate. Very
susceptible to angular
(bacterial) leaf spot.

* Treasure has high yield
potential; ripens from tip
toward the shoulder; deep red
color; resistant to abrasion.


* Camarosais a vigorous plant;
large, firm fruit; very
susceptible to anthracnose fruit
rot.

* Carmine a new cultivar from
the Univ. of Florida. High
early season yield potential.
Small to medium sized fruit;
dark red, but glossy.
Moderately resistant to
anthracnose and Botryis fruit
rots. Some off-types observed
in 2002-03 plantings.


* Gaviota a less vigorous plant
than Camarosa. Large fruit
with good flavor.

* Camino Real a new cultivar
from Univ. of California. Less
vigorous than Camarosa.
Large, dark red fruit.

* Ventana another new cultivar
form Univ. of California.
Vigor similar to that of
Camarosa. Bright red fruit.

To obtain high December and
February yields, plant early.

Trials conducted at the
Dover research center during the
2001-2002 and 2002-2003 seasons
suggest that bareroot plants of
'Festival' and 'Carmine' strawberry
should be planted before October
10th to obtain the highest possible
December and February yields, and
between October 17th and 25th to
obtain relatively high January
yields.


11w Institute t it Fo anrd Agricultural 5k6"rs (II "'P 1,-n Ih ti .1 Irn wLmmt Oppmrtunily Atffrmative Actio Employer inuthorwir tw provider &crch, euductinon
intonatioun and other servioes only to individuals and institutions that function without Tegalrd to race, color, wN, age, handicap or national origin.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICU LTURE, COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, U NIVERSfIlT OF FLOR[DA, WAS. Florida A. & M. UNIVERSITY
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION IROCRAM, AND BOA RDS Or, CONT, MfYCOMMISSIONERS COOPERATING-


Volume III Issue 9


Berry/Vegetable Times








Volume III Issue 9 Berry/Vegetable Times


Intermittent Sprinkler
Irrigation for
Establishment of Bare
Root Strawberry
Transplants
J.R. Duval and E.A. Golden
GCREC-Dover

Bare rooted strawberry transplants
set in black polyethylene mulched
beds are established by irrigating
continuously for approximately 8
hours daily with overhead
sprinklers for 10 to 14 days.
Irrigation is provided to reduce the
water stress from high surface
temperature of the black mulch
and dry weather condition usually
present at time of transplanting
through evaporative cooling.
Without irrigation, transplants
become defoliated; this results in
considerable plant mortality and /
or a delay in fruiting.
In experimentation
conducted at the GCREC-Dover
by Albregts and Howard,
transplants were subjected to
intermittent establishment
irrigation. The irrigation intervals
(min on/ min off) tested were:
3/17, 5/25, 5/15, 10/20, 15/15 and
continuous, which served as the
control, the first season, and, 5/25,
5/15, 5/10 and continuous the
second season. Irrigation lasted for
12 days. Normal irrigation was
then resumed for the remainder of
the season.
The longer the "off
interval" the greater the leaves lost
by the end of establishment
period. Irrigation intervals of 3/17
and 5/25 increased plant mortality.
Yield of strawberries were not
significantly different for 5/15,
10/20, 5/10, and 15/15 intervals
and the control.
In summary, foliage
should not wilt, low humidity and
wind speeds >10 mph accelerate
leaf drying, and during the heat of
the day, foliage should receive
irrigation before drying from the


previous irrigation cycle. Keen
observations during the
establishment period will
determine intermittent irrigation
cycles of transplants that can
reduce water usage and fertilizer
leaching without affecting early or
seasonal fruit yield. If your farm
has the capability to pulse irrigate
during establishment significant
reduction in the amount of water
used can be obtained using this
method without reductions in
yield.


How to Deal with
Anthracnose Disease in
Strawberry Runner
Plants
Jim Mertely
GCREC -Dover

One year ago in Berry/
Vegetable Times I wrote, "Runner
plants will begin arriving from
northern nurseries later this
month. Early indications are that
some of these plants will be
infected by the anthracnose fungus
Colletotrichum acutatum". The
same situation seems to be
developing this season. Growers
should be prepared to deal with
infected runner plants.
Fortunately we have more
experience, and new strategies to
lessen the problem this season.
Are my transplants
healthy? There is no way of
knowing for sure, short of testing
every plant. While this is not
possible, growers should open two
or three boxes from each shipment
of plants, and carefully inspect
about 100 plants per box. C.
acutatum produces dry, dark,
sunken lesions on the leaf stalks
petioless) of infected plants (photo
1). These lesions often appear on
young petioles which have not
completely elongated. Diseased
petioles may be curved, twisted, or
broken at the point of infection.


Other pathogens, including other
species of Colletotrichum,
produce similar symptoms.
However, C. acutatum is usually
responsible for lesions of this type
on northern transplants. If no
lesions are found after a
reasonable number of plants are
carefully examined, disease
pressure was probably low in the
nursery. If lesions are present
even in low numbers, collect
several diseased plants, and bring
them to the University of Florida
Strawberry Lab for diagnosis. An
ideal sample would consist of
several whole plants with
characteristic petiole lesions. If C.
acutatum is already producing
spores in the lesions, a rapid
diagnosis is possible. When no
sporulation is present, the petioles
are incubated or isolations are
made onto petri plates to identify
the pathogen. These procedures
typically require several days
before a diagnosis can be made.


Petiole lesions caused by C. acutatum.

If my transplants are
infected, what can be done? We
have an option this season which
was not available to Florida
farmers last year. Two products
are now labeled for pre-plant dip
treatment of strawberry
transplants. They are Abound
(Quadris), a strobilurin fungicide
with a supplementary label for dip
treatment, and Oxidate, a
hydrogen peroxide disinfectant
with dip treatment instructions on
the main label. In a UF study last
year, both products increased the


(Continued on page 3)


Volume III Issue 9


Berry/Vegetable Times








Volume III Issue 9 Berry/Vegetable Times


survival rate and the vigor of
transplants that were naturally
infected by C. acutatum.
Although Abound has systemic
activity, neither product should be
expected to cure all the infected
plants or free a shipment from
disease. Surprisingly, the majority
of plants in an infected shipment
are probably not diseased (see
footnote*). However, these
"healthy" plants are often covered
by contaminated soil and spores
from diseased plants. Dip
treatments provide major benefits
simply by destroying this
inoculum and allowing healthy
(but infested) plants to grow
without the risk of early infection.
When making the decision to dip
treat transplants, read the label
carefully. Labels of this kind
often recommend setting the
transplants as soon as possible
after treatment. Avoid treating
more plants than can be
reasonably transplanted the same
day.


Root necrosis caused by C. acutatum.
With respect to
anthracnose disease, not all
strawberry cultivars (varieties)
were created equal. Numerous
cultivars including Aromas,
Camarosa, and Treasure are highly
susceptible to C. acutatum. These
cultivars are harder to protect from
infection in the nursery, and
require more intensive disease


management programs to control
anthracnose fruit rot in the
production field. Infected
transplants of these cultivars are
difficult to "water in" or fail to
establish due to a root necrosis
disease caused by C. acutatum
(photo 2). Other cultivars such as
Carmine and Sweet Charlie are
rarely affected by root necrosis
disease or anthracnose fruit rot
under normal fie Id conditions.
'Strawberry Festival' lies
somewhere between these two
extremes. When an adequate
fungicide spray program is
maintained, growers see fewer
epidemics of anthracnose fruit rot
in Festival than in more
susceptible cultivars.
Aside from dip treatment
and selecting a resistant cultivar,
what else can be done? The
answer to this question is summed
up by the acronym T.L.C. We
have observed that weakened
transplants are more vulnerable to
stunting and mortality caused by
C. acutatum, and recover more
slowly from root necrosis disease,
than transplants which were less
stressed. These observations
formed the basis for advice to dig
and plant susceptible cultivars
later in the season. Early -dug
runner plants are less "hardened"
and have lower starch reserves
than late dug plants. In addition
they are planted earlier when
temperatures above the plastic
mulch are likely to be high.
Holding plants in cold storage is
probably not a good alternative,
since green top plants deteriorate
fairly rapidly in storage. Any
practice which reduces stress on
the transplant (e.g., proper
management of overhead
watering) should be helpful.

*If large proportion ofplants
were infected, symptoms would
have been visible in the nursery,
and the field would have been
destroyed. At least two
nurserymen plowed under fields


last year to avoid sending infected
plants to their customers. Some
may be facing the same decision
this season.



Inspect Transplants for
Insect and Mites
Jim Price
GCREC-Bradenton

Soon transplants will
arrive and a new strawberry
season will begin... and a new pest
management season too. The fact
is that some of our insect and mite
problems accompany the
strawberry transplants and their
presence must be considered at the
very beginning of the season.
To minimize losses to
infested transplants, growers
should purchase stock from the
most reputable transplant
producers and even then, must
insist on high quality transplants.
Still, after these precautions, some
insect and mite pests will go into
the field with transplants.


Spider mites and aphids.
Four insect and mite
species easily can be problems on
transplants. They are: Twospotted
spider mite, cyclamen mite,
strawberry root aphid (and
sometimes the melon aphid), and
corn earworm, sometimes called
the "strawberry budworm" in the
local strawberry industry.
Transplants should be inspected as
they arrive to prepare for
management tactics for any
accompanying pests. It is wise to
inspect a 100 transplant sample
from each similar group of
transplants. A similar group


(Continued on page 4)


Volume III Issue 9


Berry/Vegetable Times








Volume III Issue 9 Berry/Vegetable Times


would be those transplants of the
same source, variety and week of
harvest.
The examiner should look
for twospotted spider mites and
aphids on undersides of leaves.
Cyclamen mites (http://creatures.
ifas.ufl.edu/orn/cyclamenmite.htm)
should be suspected when
transplants have mature leaves with
short petioles and wrinkled
thickened blades. Emerging leaves
from crowns of suspect plants
should be inspected with a 14X or
greater hand-lens for tiny, clear to
light brown cyclamen mites and
very tiny, clear oblong eggs in leaf
folds. Cyclamen mites missed in
this inspection should be suspected
a few weeks later when transplants
fail to develop normal roots, petioles
and leaf blades.
Corn earworms (http://
creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/veg/
cornearworm.htm) are rare and
often, when present, are in the egg
stage and difficult to find. Early,
intensive scouting of the planted
field may be the best way to detect
that corn earworms traveled with the
transplants. "Ragged" young leaf
blades emerging from the crown can
indicate this problem.
Control measures should
be applied when cyclamen mites
(diazinon, Kelthane or Thodan )
or corn earworms (Bacillus
thuringiensis, Lannate or
SpinTor ) are detected by this
method. Scouting should continue
to determine success of the control
measures. Biological or chemical
controls for spider mites can be
withheld until about 5-8% of the
leaflets are infested. Providers of
Savey miticide suggest, however,
that if their product is chosen, the
most advantageous application time
is as mites infest 2%-3% of the of
the leaflets. Controls for aphids
usually can be withheld until natural
enemies end their threat or until
honeydew becomes a problem on
leaves and fruit.


Sap Beetle Facts
Silvia I. Rondon, James F. Price,
and Daniel J. Cantliffe
University of Florida

Didyou know that ... ?


* Sap beetles are members of
the family Nitidulidae
(Coleoptera).
* They are called sap beetles
because they are attracted to
wounds on trees.
* They have a well developed
sense of smell and they can
respond to chemicals from
long distances.
* They feed on a large range of
food types including flowers,
fruits, fungi, and decaying
and fermenting fruits.
* Sap beetles can injure the
strawberry fruit by burrowing
inside. The damage makes
the fruit unmarketable.
* Removing damaged berries
from the field and early har-
vesting can decrease sap bee-
tle populations. Dropping
damaged fruit to row middles
hastens fruit deterioration and
aids in sap beetle manage-
ment.
* Some biological controls can
be found in nature.
* Pitfall traps set into the
ground with fermenting yeast
as bait can be used to monitor
initial populations.


,s,
-' -


Brief Overview of Re-
duced Restrictions for Te-
lone Soil Fumigants
(Edited from a memo sent out by
Dow Agro Sciences)

Two important changes have been
made to the shanked-in formulations
of Telone. PPE requirements have
been eased.
Tractor drivers, applicators
and shovelmen will not be
required to wear respira-
tory protection when per-
forming "pre-bed, row"
applications. This includes
the Yetter prebed rig as
well as other methods.
Workers that do not have
"liquid contact potential"
are only required to wear
shoes, socks, long pants,
loose-fitting and long-
sleeved shirt and eye pro-
tection (plus a half-face
respirator for broadcast and
in-bed applications only).
Workers considered not to
have liquid contact poten-
tial include: applicators,
tractor drivers, shovelmen,
workers on the treated field
during the day of applic a-
tion that do not disrupt the
soil at the depth of injec-
tion and early re-entry
workers ( day 1 to day 5)
that do not disrupt the soil
at the depth of injection.
No workers are required to
wear a full-face respirator,
unless air concentrations of
chloropicrin exceed 0.1
ppm (identical to other pic
fumigants)

Buffer zones have been reduced
form 300 feet to 100 feet from
an occupied structure.

The labels can be viewed at
www.dowagro.com and www.
cdms.net.


Volume III Issue 9


Berry/Vegetable Times








Volume III Issue 9 Berry/Vegetable Times


Check list for Good Effi-
cacy when using Vapam/
K-Pam
Edited from a Presentation by Mike
Herrington at AMVAC Meeting

Determine target pests and
location
Soil preparation (seed bed
ready) and determine soil
type
Soil moisture (60-80%
field capacity)
Avoid skips in the treat-
ment zone
Obtain a good seal
Post application rainfall
can diminish efficacy near
the soil surface
Dissipation window (14-21
days)

Recommendations for drip chemiga-
tion application of K-Pam:

Begin with good soil mois-
ture
Firm bed compaction
Thoroughly pre-wet the
bed-pulsing: (2 hours
on--1 hour off)
Determine rate per treated
acre-apply K-Pam at a uni-
form rate throughout the
duration of the anticipated
run time
Purge (thoroughly flush)
the drip lines
Wait 14-21 days for MITC
to dissipate
No worker exposure


A monthly newsletter of the University of Florida
IFAS, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center,
and Florida Cooperative
Extension Service
Hillsborough Co Cooperative Ext Service
5339 CR 579, Seffner, FL 33584
(813) 744-5519 SC 541-5772
Editor Allcia Whidden,
Director Mary Chernesky
Gulf Coast REC-Dover
13138 Lewis Gallagher Rd, Dover, FL 33527
http //strawberry ifas ufl edu
(813)744-630 SC512-1160
Design & Layout Christine Cooley
Director Jack Rechcigl


How Colorful is Your
Diet?
Consumer Reports on Health

Eating your greens every
day is not enough. According to the
National Cancer Institute, people
should eat at least one item from the
five color group daily, the reds,
white, blues/purples, yellows and
greens. That advice stems from
studies showing that different-
colored produce contains different
phytochemicals, including antioxi-
dants and other disease-fighting sub-
stances. Below is a list of the possi-
ble benefits of the phytochemicals
in fruits and vegetables of different
colors. For additional information,
go to www.5aday.gov.

Phytochemical: Lycopene and
Anthcaynins
Red fruit or vegetable: Lycopene-
guava, pink grapefuirt, tomatoes,
and watermelon. Anthocyanins-
beets, cranberries, kidney beans,
raspberries, red applies, red cab-
bage, red onions, strawberries, and
cherries.
Possible Benefits: Ly-
copene- reduced pros-
tate cancer risk. Antho-
cyanins-lowered blood pressure;
protection against circulatory prob-
lems caused by diabetes.

Phytochemical: Allicin
White fruit or vegetable: Garlic,
leeks, and white onions.
Possible Benefits: reduced risk of
cancer spread and heart attack, low-
ered cholesterol and blood pressure;
enhanced infection defenses.

Phytochemical: Anthyocyanins and
Phenolics
Blue/Purple fruit or vegetable: An-
thyocyanins-black berries, black
currants, blueberries,
elderberries, purple grapes.
SPhenolics-eggplant,
plums, prunes, and raisins.


Possible Benefits: Anthyo-
cyanins-reduced risk of cancer,
heart disease, and age-related mem-
ory loss. Phenolics-slowing of
some effects of aging.

Phytochemical: Beta-carotene
and Bioflavonoids
Yellow fruit or vegetable: Beta
carotene apricots, butternut
squash, cantaloupe, carrots, mangos,
peaches, pumpkin, and sweet pota-
toes. Bioflavonoids-apricots,
clementines, grapefruit,
lemons, nectarines, or-
anges, papaya, peaches,
pears, pineapple, tanger-
ines, yellow peppers, and yellow
raisins.
Possible Benefits: Beta-
carotene reduced risk of cancer
and heart disease; maintenance of
good vision; increased infection
fighting ability. Bioflavonoids -
together with the Vitamin C in these
fruits, reduced cancer and heart-
attack risk; maintenance of healthy
skin, bones, and teeth.

Phytochemical: Lutein and Indoles
Green fruit or vegetables: Lutein-
broccoli, green peas, honeydew
melon, kale, kiwifruit, leafy greens,
romaine lettuce, spinach. Indoles-
arugula, broccoli, brussel sprouts,
cabbage, cauliflower, kale, rutabaga,
Swiss chard, turnips, watercress.
Possible Benefits: Lu-
, tein-maintenance of good
vision; reduced risk of
macular degeneration and
cataracts. Indoles-reduced risk of
breast and prostate cancer.


trade names in this pubhca-
tion is solely for the purpose ofprovid-
ing specific information. It is not a
guarantee or warranty ofthe products
named and does not signify that they are
approved to the exclusion ofothers of
suitable composition. Usepesticides
safely. I. ,, directions on
the manufacturer's label.


Volume III Issue 9


Berry/Vegetable Times




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