• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Natural history for children
 Back Cover






Title: Wood's Natural history for children
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087371/00001
 Material Information
Title: Wood's Natural history for children
Alternate Title: Natural history for children
Wood's Illustrated natural history
Physical Description: 248 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wood, J. G ( John George ), 1827-1889
Dawson, Douglas ( Editor )
W.B. Conkey Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: W.B. Conkey Company
Place of Publication: Chicago
Publication Date: c1898
 Subjects
Subject: Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Zoology -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by J.G. Wood ; adapted for juveniles by Douglas Dawson ; with new illustrations by eminent artists.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087371
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002225275
notis - ALG5547
oclc - 262616603

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Natural history for children
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
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From col. Chi. Acad. Sciences.


AMERICAN BALD EAGLE.
Y4 Life size.


pre nIlght 1 C
N' ure Stnmly IPub. Co., 1i89, Chicago.


`
~-~-~i~-






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY

FOR


CHILDREN


BY REV. J. G. WOOD M. A., F. L. S.


ADAPTED


FOR JUVENILES


DOUGLAS DAWSON


WITH


NEW ILLUSTRATIONS


BY

EMINENT ARTISTS


OHIOAQO
W. B. OONKEY COMPANY













































Entered according to act of Congress, in the year z898,

by W. B. Conkey Company,

in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington













PREFACE.


The fame of "Wood's Natural History" is world wide, and it does not
need any commendation beyond the name of the originator of so great a stand-
ard work. This edition has been carefully adapted to meet an ever grow-
ing demand for a natural history to place in the hands of boys and girls.
The chief aim has been to avoid technicalities and anatomical expressions
that confuse the juvenile mind and prevent an enjoyment of the elementary
studies, so conducive to a correct estimate of the marvels of creation, and the
profound wisdom of an Almighty Creator. In the compilation of this work
the fact has been borne in mind that the most beneficial instruction is enter-
taining; and it is firmly believed that every intelligent boy and girl will not
only receive valuable lessons from a perusal of this book, but will be fasci-
nated by the wonders of Nature and become wiser and happier from the
knowledge thus gained. Practical wisdom does not demand a wearisome
trudge through columns of Greek and Latin names. In this volume a sincere
effort has been made to present authentic information in plain English.





qqV^



















LIST OF CONTENTS

WITH

ILLUSTRATIONS


PAGE
African Bull-Frog................ ................... .................................... 141
African Crocodile at Home. .................................. ........................... 127
Alligator .............. .. ........................................................................ 172
American Black Bear................... ................................................ 222
American Fox ....................... ................................... 78
American Monkeys............................... ... ................................... 19
A naconda ............. .......................... .......................................... 17
Angel Fish. ................. ............................. .................. 16
Angela Star-Throat .................... ... ...... ......................... 245
A nolis........................................ ...... ................................... 96
Ariel Gazelle ................................ ....... .................................... 230
A rm ad illo ................ .. .............................................................. 198
Azure-Throated Bee-Eatr. ..................... ... ..................................... 231
Bald-Headed Eagle................... .................................................... 131
Barn Owl .............. ... ............ .............................................. 91
Bead Snake .................................... ........................................... 135
Beautiful Trogon............. ......... ........... ....................... .............. Ito
Beech Marten ................................ ......................... .... 140
Belted Kingfisher.............................. ............ ...................... 65
Bi-colored Tree Frog ......................................... ................................. 116
Blackbird. .................. ..... ...................... 58
Black Snake............. ........................ ....................................... 155
Blindworm .......................... ... ............................................ I57
Bloodhound ............................ ............ ................ ................... 22
Blue-Bird............................... ......... ......................................... 229
Blue Titmouse ................................ ........................................... 22
Bobolink ............. ................................................................. 234
B ox T ortoise ............ ................. ................................................ 47
Brazilian Eagle ................... ............... .................................. 225
Brazilian Kite. ......................... .................................... I88
Brazilian Porcupine ......................... .......................................... 97
Brindled Gnu............ ............................................................... 95
Brown Owl................................... .................. .... .................. .06
Bull-D og ................. ................................................................. 87
Buzzard ......................... ......................................... ............. 13
Cat .................................................. 228
C at-B ird ....................................................................................... I8
C edar B ird ... ........... .................................................................. 112







AGE
Chaffinch ............................................. ... ..... 247
Chameleon ..................... .................... ................... ............ 113
Chimpanzee ................................ .......... ......................... 212
Chinchilla ...................................... ............................................. 74
Clydesdale Cart Horse......................................... .......... ................ 6
Coach-Whip Snake ...................................... .................. ... .. 54
Cock of the Rock.......................... ..................................... 183
Columbian Thornbill. .................. ................... ......... .. ............. 149
Common Skink............................ ........... ............................ 69
Common Tree Creeper.............. ........... ........................ ............... 45
Condor .................. .... ......................................... 159
Coyote ................................................ 75
Crowned Cranes and Demoiselle Crane ............. .. ............ .............. .. 87
Crowned Grakle ....... .... .............. ..... ............ .............. 219
Curved-Billed Creeper...................... ................................. 23
Danish Dog. ............................... ..................................... 121
De Lalande's Plover-Crest ....................... ................. ............ 15
Dhole .......................................... ............................ 176
Diamond Bird ..... .................................................. .......... .... 64
Dipper...... ...................... .................... .. ....... ... ............ 68
Dog-fish................................................. ........... ............... 09
Eagles and Nest....................... ................... ................... .. 99
Egyptian Vulture ............................ .. .. ...................... 37
English Setter................................... ............... .......................................... 36
European Lynx..................... ................... ... ...................... 202
Eyed Lizard ......................... ..... ..... .......... ... ............ 137
Flying Dragon .......... ... ....................... ..... .. ..... .. ........... 34
Flying Fox ......... .... ......................... .................. ........ 244
Foxhound ....... ........... .. ........... .. .. ........ .... 194
Friar Bird .......... .... ... ... ....... . ................. .. ...........1. 24
Garrulous Honey-Eater............. .......... ................... .................... 122
Garrulous Roller ............................. ............. ........... 08
Giant Breve.......................................... ........ 178
Gigantic Salamander ............................... ....... ............ 53
G iraffe ........................ ................................................................ 76
Glass Snake ................... ................................ 161
Golden Oriole................. ... .................... ............................. ... 216
Golden Tree-Snake and Langaha. ..... ........ ................ . .. 204
Golden-Winged Manakin ............. .. ...................................... ............ 138
G orilla ........................................................................................ 41
Goshawk ........ ............... ............................ ....................... 145
Gould's Neomorpha .... ................................................. ............. 134
Great-Billed Tody ................ ....... ......................... .............. 30
Great-Eared Goat-Sucker ..................... ........... .. ................ .. 40
Great Northern Diver ................................... .... ............. 33
Green Lizard ...................................................................... ........... 137
Green Tody ...................... .............................. .. ....... ................ 67
Green Turtle ............ ................................ ........................ 163
Greyhound.................................................................... 32
Grizzly Bear.............................. ............... 201
G round Pig ........... ......................................................... 125
Ground Squirrel............... ... .............................. ............. 70
Group of Baboons......................... ........................ .................. ......... 5
Group of British Shrews............................................ ............ 17
Group of British Wagtails ...................................................................... 133
Group of Humming-Birds ............................ . ............. 115
6







PAGE
Group of Kingfishers ............... ................... ................... .. ......... ... 119
Group of Rodent Animals............ ................ .................................. III
Group of Vultures................... ................................... ............... 62
Guinea Pig................... ..... .............................. ...................... 223
Hartebeest .................................................................................... 55
Hawksbill Turtle ....................................................................... 158
Hedge Sparrow........................................................................... 79
Hemigale .................... .. .............................................. ...... 61
Highland Sheep ................................. ........... .............. ................... 224
Hippopotamus............................................................................. 193
Hobby .................. ...................... ...................................... 46
Honey Buzzard ................. ................... .. ................................. 120
Hooded Cobra...................................... ................... .................. 129
Hoopoe. ......................................... .. ........................................... 209
Horned Frog ........................................................................... 73
House Martin.................... ............................... 16o
Iguana..................................... 31
Imperial Eagle .................. ..................................................... 69
Incomparable Bird of Paradise ...................... .................................. 153
Indian Rhinoceros............................................. ...... .. .......................... 218
Jacamar .................................... ...................................... 186
Japanese Singlethorn ................. .... ......................... ............... 211
Jardines Harrier............................................................................... 2
King Bird ................... ................ .. ................. 18
Kingfisher.. ................................. 21
King Tody ..................... .............. ............................................ 132
King Vulture.............. ..... ................................ ...................... 75
Leadbeater's Cockatoo. ................... ...... ................... .......... 174
Leopard ..................................241
Linden's Helmet Crest............................ .. .............. ..................... 168
Lion....................... .... ..................................................... 83
Long-Tailed Titmouse. .................................................................... 243
Long-Winged Goat-Sucker ...................................................... ........... oo
Lyre-Tailed Goat-Sucker ..................................... .................... ...... .. 84
Malachite Sun-Bird......................................................................... 126
Maltese Dog............................................... ............................ 7
Mandrill................................ ................................. ............. 22
Matamata ................... .................. ....... .............. 14
Merian's Opossum............................... ........... .................. .................... 205
Mink ......................................................................... 27
Missel Thrush ........................................................................... 65
Mississippi Kite ....................... .................... ............... ....... 77
Mocking-Bird....................... .................................................. 173
Moose................................... ..................................................... 197
Motmot............................................... 26
Mud Tortoise.................................................... .......................... 171
Musk Rat............... ................ ..................................... 242
Natal Rock Snake ............. ... ..................................... ............... 64
Newfoundland Dog........... ....................... ................................... 150
Nightingale ............. .... .......................................................... 203
Nilotic Monitor ......................... ....................................... 123
Northern Chimera .............. .......................... ............................ 208
Nyula ............................... ........ ... ............................. 139
Opossum Mouse ...................... ................................................... 13
Osprey........................... ........... ........................................ 24
Otter .................................... ............................................ ... ...1 42







PAGE
O un ce ................ .. .. ......... .................. .. ...................... ... 238
Paradise Flycatcher................................ ........................................... 154
Perch ......................................... ............................................ 29
Pinc-Pinc............................................................ ..... ............... 210
Piping Crow Shrike ......................... ........................................... 147
Pointers ................ ........................................... .. ............ 232
Polar Bear.............................................................................. 101
Prairie Dog ................... ................................................... 81
Puff Adder ................... ............................ ................. 82
Puma ...................... ... .......... ...... ....................................... 128
Quadrumana.... ............. ............................... ... ...................... 8
Rattlesnake .......... ...................................................................... 217
Raven.................................. ................................................ 104
Redbreast................... ....................................................... 226
Red Fire-fish ................. ............. .. ........................................... 57
Redwing ............................................... ............................. 195
Resplendent Trogon ..................... ..... ... ....................................... 98
Ringed Boa .............. ............ ................................................ 9
R inged Snake................. ................... .. ..................... ............... 66
Ruby-Throated Humming-bird.... ......... ............................................ 28
Sable ..................................................... .... ............................ ii8
Sable Antelope ............................ .. ............................................. 185
Sacred Ibis and Glossy Ibis. ................. ................................................... 39
Salamander............................... ............................. So
Salle's Hermit Humming-bird ............. .... .................... ...................... 151
Salt-W after Terrapin ...... ........... ......................................................... 71
Sand-Bear ............................. ................................... ............. 182
Sand Lizard ............... ......... ..................................... ............... 92
Sappho Comet and Yarrell's Woodstar ............... . .... .. ................ ..239
Savannah Cricket Frog ....................... ............................................. 38
Saw-Fish ...... .............. .. ... ...................... .................... 207
Scaly Lizard.............................................................................. 25
Scarlet Drepanis ..................................................... ...... ........... 52
Scorpion Lizard.................. ........ ............................................. 148
Sea Leopard........................... .. ............................................... 86
Sheep................................................ 59
Shepherd's Dog..................... .................... .......... ...... ... ....... 246
Shetland Pony......................................................................... 0o2
Shovel-Fish and Spoonbill Sturgeon ................. ........ ....... ...................... 199
Skunk............................ ..................................................... 43
Skye Terrier................................... ........................... ............. 146
Slepez Mole Rat ......... ............. ............................................... 144
Snapping Turtle................................ ... ...................................... 167
Snow-cap Humming-bird and Spangled Coquette................ ........... ....................... 50o
Snowy Owl.......................... .. .......... .................... .... ........... 24
Sooty Amphisbaena ............................... ......................... .............. 18
Sparrow Hawk............... ................ ........................................ 56
Spermaceti W hale .............................. ....... ...... ............................... 227
Spotted Eft...... ............................................ .......................... 25
Spotted Ground Thrush ............ ... .................................... ........ ... 236
Spring-Bok........................ .......................................... .......... 233
S qu irrel ............................................................ ................... 152
St. Bernard's D og ..... .................... ................................ .............. 89
Stonechat and Whinchat............. ................................................. 94
Sturgeon............... ....... ............................................. ............. 63
Swallow........................... ................... ............................... 200
8






PAGE

Swallow-Tailed Falcon.................. ................. ............................. 248
Superb Plume Bird............................................................. ........... 196
Ternate Kingfisher............. ........ ................ .................................. 143
The Virginian Goat-Sucker.................... ......................................... 213
Tiger..................................................................................... 2
Titmouse................................................................................. 72
S Toad....................................... .................... ..................... 44
Tree Frog and Tree Toad................ .................................... ...... 192
Turkey Buzzard ................... ................................................... 36
Twelve-Thread Epimachus ............................... .................................... 05
Umbrella Bird .............. ...... .. ...... .................... .......................... 240
V am pire Bat.............. ....... ................................... ... .............. 48
Vigors' Bush Shrike.................... ................... ............................. 117
Wagtails ...................................................... 206
Wall Creeper ................... ...................................................... 35
Walrus.............................................................. ...................... 189
Wandering Pie .......................................................................... 42
Wapiti............ .................... .................................................. 215
Water Rat........................ ........................................ ........... 03
Water Viper..................... ... ........................ ........ .................. 88
Weasel. .................. ............................................................ 114
W hite Shark ............................... ...... ........................ ...... ......... 49
White Tiger.............................................................................. 177
W ild Boar...................... .. .............................. .... .. ............. 235
Wild Cat ................. ......................................... ....... 237
Wire-Tailed Swallow ................................................ ........ .......... 162
W ombat.................... ................ 184
Woodchat Shrike ........................................ ........................... ..... 166
Wood Swallow ..................... ................... ........................ ............ 156
Wren................ .................. ....................... ............. 191
Yellow-Breasted Chat.. ........ ................. ................. . ... 170
Yellow Scorpana.............. .... .................................................. 190
Zebra............................................................. ... .......... ........... 93






WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY
-FOR-
CHILDREN
c H I LD R E N


.- \"


LION, LIONESS AND HER YOUNG, ALSO LEOPARD AND WOLVES.





TIGER.
This beautiful creature lives in many parts of Asia. Some places are
infested by the fierce animal and the appearance of a "Man-eater" as the
Tiger is called, always fills the natives with terror. There is no animal that
can hide itself better than the Tiger. It is very clever in finding spots where
it can watch the approach of its prey, itself being couched under the shade of
foliage or behind some friendly rock. It lies in wait by the side of roads,
choosing spots where the shade is deepest and where water may be found
to quench the thirst that it always feels when it is eating its prey. When
the prey is near, the Tiger gives one terrible leap, and the victim nearly
always feels the Tiger on him before he sees it. It is very seldom that a Tiger
makes more than one spring at its prey. The creature is so cunning that it
takes up its post on the side of the road which is opposite its lair, so that
it does not have to turn and drag its prey across the road, but walks straight
to its den. Should the Tiger miss his leap, he generally is so bewildered and
ashamed of himself, that instead of trying again, he sneaks off humiliated.


















The chief weapons of the Tiger are his enormous feet, with their sharp sickle-
like talons, which cut like so many knives when the animal strikes a blow
with his powerful limbs. The simple stroke of a Tiger's sledge-hammer paw
is strong enough to knock down an ox. In the districts where these terrible
animals live, the natives often meet tigers unexpectedly. They get so care-
less and the Tigers become so daring, that at some of the crossings where the
water-courses run, a man or a bullock may be carried off daily, and yet the
natives will not do anything to stop the danger, except carry a few charms
or amulets which they think will frighten away the dread beast. Sportsmen,
when out hog spearing, often come across a Tiger lazily resting in the heavy
grass. At such times the native horses are so terror-stricken that
they plunge and kick in their attempt to escape from the fearful enemy,





BUZZARD.

The Buzzard is a large bird, but not a handsome one, although it is
interesting, especially when it has been tamed. Then it has many queer tricks.
A story is told about a tame Buzzard which could not bear strangers, and had
a habit of flying at them and knocking their hats over their ears. Another
trick of this bird was to fly on its master's feet and untie his shoe-strings.
The Buzzard is an affection-
ate bird and takes good care
of its young; when in captiv-
ity it has been known, also, to
sit upon hen's eggs and rear
the chickens with as much
tenderness as though they
were young Buzzards, al-
though it would not adopt the
chickens after they had been
hatched by the hen herself,
looking upon them then as
prey. When a tame Buzzard
wishes to build her nest she
scratches holes in the ground
and breaks and tears every-
thing she can get hold of, much
as a canary will do on a small- -.
er scale. A tame Buzzard
which had hatched a brood of
chickens, tried to feed them
upon meat, and it seemed to
worry her because her charges _
did not like it as well as seeds -
and grain. Buzzards have a
taste for mice and other small
creatures, but they also eat
worms and grubs, as well as insects of various kinds. The Buzzard in its
wild state builds its nest in a tree or upon the rocks, using grass and other
vegetable material, weaving in long soft roots and lining it with wool, leaves,
and matter of that kind. The Buzzard has been known to drive crows from
their nest and move into it, relining it with the fur of hares and rabbits.
The eggs of the Buzzard are from two to five in number. They are grayish
white in color, with a few spots of pale brown. At times this bird is very
lazy, perching upon a branch as though it had no object in life but to rest,
pouncing down now and then to seize its prey if anything which it fancies
is unlucky enough to come near, and then returning again to its dreams.
But sometimes, too, it rises high in the air and flies with great power and
grace. It then seems like a different bird. The Honey Buzzard is from
twenty-two to twenty-four inches long, the female being always the larger,
and it has a general brownish black color, with the top of the head yellowish.





MATAMATA.
The Tortoises are not any of them pretty or graceful creatures, but the Ma-
tamata is the ugliest of them all in looks. It has a broad, flat head, a neck nearly
as broad and also flat, webbed feet, so that it can move through the water
quickly, and a rounded shell, broader toward the head than the tail. It is a large
and ugly creature, reaching a length of three feet when fully grown. Its head is
very odd in shape, and has queer little tufts or knobs on it, while the snout

^A/ ^* ^ ^\\/





~La--




.-- --.__..

is very long and forms a kind of tube. On the top of the head the skin is
lengthened out to look like ears, and the chin has two fringed membranes,
or skin-like pieces, hanging from it, while the throat has four, and on the
upper surface of the neck are two rows of small tufts with deep fringes, much
like those on the chin and throat except in size. The tail is short and the
limbs are very strong. The feet have claws with lobes between them. The
shell is formed into rows of raised shields, the shape of which can be seen
from the picture. They are sharp at their tips, and there are three in each
row. The Matamata is a water animal. It eats only animal food and that
only while in the water. When it swims the whole of the shell is kept under
the surface. The Matamata is one of the oddest-looking animals in the
world. Its home is in South America. It used to be found in great num-
bers, but its flesh is so well liked for food that it has been killed off so that
the ranks have been thinned. It lives near lakes and rivers, and is a good
swimmer. Its food consists of fish, reptiles and other creatures, which it
catches in its sharp beak with a sudden snap. It does not often chase its
prey, but hides among the plants along the bank of the river or lake, and as
its victim passes, stretches out its long neck with a quick movement and
snatches it from its path. Sometimes, however, it comes out with a rush,
darts through the water and seizes a fish, reptile or water-fowl, which it
takes back to its former hiding-place. The Matamata has a great appetite
and is a good hunter. He has a queer habit of bending back his neck when at
rest, under the side of the carapace, or back covering. He has what is
called a contractile neck; that is, he can make it longer or shorter as he
wishes, drawing it back or stretching it out to quite a considerable length.






DE LALANDE'S PLOVER-CREST.
This bird has one of the most striking forms seen among humming-birds.
Its plume is high and ends in a single feather, which is unlike the crests of
most birds which have them at all, as they are usually double at the end.
This crest is bright green in color, except the long single feather, which is
jet black. The top of the head is also bright green. The upper surface is
green tinged with bronze, and the lower r
portion is a deep shining violet. There is
a small white streak behind the eye, The
female has no crest. The home of this
bird is in the southern part of Brazil. It
builds a very pretty nest, which it care-
fully and skilfully weaves into a tuft of
leaves or twigs at the end of some very /,\
slender branch, so that the whole droops
downward. The nest is long in form, and
made of dainty bits of moss, roots, and
spiders' webs. Not so striking as the
Plover-crest, but still very lovely, is the__
little Sparkling-tail humming-bird of Mex-
ico. It is a very tame little creature, and r
visits the homes of man with great trust,
flying about the gardens where there are
blooming flowers, and seeming to have no
fear at all. This bird builds a tiny nest,
rounded and woven from different delicate
fibers, cottony down, and spiders' webs, ,
and covered with lichens. Its eggs are f
hardly larger than peas, and are two in
number; they are pearly white in color,
and look like the eggs of the common -
snail. The nest is always placed upon a
leaf, or some slight twig, and fastened to
it with spider's webs. In coloring and form the male and female are quite
different. The male is bronze green above, except the bold white feathers
on the lower part of his back. The throat is rich, metal-like blue, turning
to velvety black in some lights, because each feather is black at the base and
blue at the tip. The wings are rich, dark purple brown. There is a broad
snow white band around the neck, and the whole under surface of the body
is bronze green, except a little band of white near the tail. The tail is very
odd and has many tints. The two central feathers are shining green; the
next are green marked with bronze; the next dark brown, with white spots
on them; the other two are dark brown for half their length, then there is a
broad band of rusty red, afterwards a broad white band, then a brown band,
and the tip is white. The tail is about four inches long. The female is of
a rich bronze green on the upper surface of the body, with marks of buff below.





ANGEL FISH.
Although on some parts of the British coasts it is known as the Kingston,
this dark-skinned, wide-mouthed, leather-finned, and fawn-backed fish which
is shown in the illustration, is properly known throughout many parts of Eng-
land, France and Italy by the name of the Angel Fish. As a matter of fact, this
is as hideous a fish as can be found in the waters, and from all accounts it is
as unprepossessing to the inhabitants of the sea as to those of the land, as it
is particularly greedy, and reaches a very great size that causes it to be a


-7












most undesirable foe to the many fishes on which it feeds. Occasionally it
is known by the name of Monk Fish, in consequence of its round head, which
is thought to bear some resemblance to the shaven crown of a monk. In
other places again, it is called the Shark-ray, because it seems to be one of
the connecting links between the sharks and the rays, having many of the
characteristics of both. It has many of the habits of the flat fishes, keeping
near the bottom, and even wriggling its way into the muddy sand of the sea
bed, so as to conceal its entire body. As in the course of these movements
it disturbs many soles, plaice, flounders, and other flat fishes that inhabit the
same localities, it sweeps them up as they endeavor to escape, and devours
great quantities of them, so that it is really a destructive fish upon a coast.
It is most common upon the southern shores, and many of very considerable
size have been captured, some attaining a weight of a hundred pounds. In
earlier days, its flesh was eaten, and consequently was of some value, but
in the present time, it is thought to be too coarse for the table, so that the
creature is useless to the fisherman, who do not desire to catch it, but
revenges himself by killing the creature whenever he can. The skin, how-
ever, is of some value, as it is very rough and can be used by some manu-
facturers. Another queer creature inhabiting British waters is the Picked
Dog-fish. It is very destructive to the fish trade, not only on account of
its large appetite and the number of fish it consumes, but because it
cuts the hooks away from the lines with its sharp teeth. It is very
plentiful, some twenty thousand having been captured at one haul.






ANACONDA


The color of the Anaconda is a rich brown. Two rows of large, round,
black spots run along the back, and each side is decorated with a series of
light golden yellow rings, edged with deep black. Compression is the only
method employed by the Anaconda in killing its prey. It is not venomous, nor
is it known to injure man, but the natives of the country it inhabits stand in great
fear of this reptile, never bathing in waters where it is known to exist. Its
common haunt, or rather domicile, is always near lakes, swamps and rivers,
likewise close to water ravines produced by inundations of the periodical rains;
hence, from its aquatic habits, it is sometimes known as the Water Serpent.
Fish, and those animals which go there to drink, are the objects of its prey.
The creature hovers watchfully under cover of the water, and while
the unsuspecting animal is drinking, suddenly makes a dart at its nose.
17





CAT-BIRD.
The Cat-bird is a most courageous little creature, and in defence of its
young is as bold as the mocking-bird. Snakes especially are the aversion of
the Cat-bird, which will generally contrive to drive away any snake that may
approach the beloved spot. The voice of this bird is mellow and rich, and is
a compound of many of the gentle trills and sweet undulations of our various
woodland choristers, delivered with apparent caution and with all the attention
and softness necessary to enable the performer to please the ear of its mate.
Each cadence passes on without faltering, and if you are acquainted with the
songs of the birds he so sweetly imitates, you are sure to recognize the man-
ner of the different species. It is a most lively and withal petulant bird in a
wild state, performing the most grotesque maneuvers, and being so filled
with curiosity that it follows any strange being through the woods as if irre-
sistibly attracted by some magnetic charm. In its disposition the Cat-bird
appears to be one of the most sensitively affectionate birds on the face of the
earth, as will appear from the following interesting account of a pet Cat-bird,






I J







called General Bern: Well, General Bern went home with us at once,
and was immediately given his liberty, which he made use of by peer-
ing into every closet, dragging everything from its proper place,
which he could manage, pecking, and squalling, dashing hither and
thither, until at night he quietly went into his cage as if he was nearly or
quite positive that he must commence a new career on the morrow; it was
evident that he had to begin the world over again. Bern looked wise, but
said nothing. The next morning we gave him water for a bath which he
immediately used, and then sprang upon my head, very much to my surprise;
then he darted to the window, then back to my head, screaming all the time
most vociferously, until finally I went to the window for peace' sake, and stood
in the sunshine, while Bern composedly dressed his feathers, standing on my
head first on one foot, then on the other, evidently using my scalp as a sort of
foot-stone, and my head as a movable pedestal for his impudent generalship
to perch on. In a word, he had determined to turn tyrant; if I had had the
purpose of using him as a mere toy, he had at least the coolness to use me.
18






AMERICAN MONKEYS.


It is curious to observe how the same idea of animal life is repeated in
various lands and various climates, even though seas separate countries in
which they dwell. The lion and the tiger of the eastern continent are repro-
duced in the western world in the shape of the jaguar and puma. The dogs
are spread over nearly the whole world, taking many kinds of form, color and
size, but still being dogs. So with Monkeys. The four handlike paws and
other peculiarities'point out their position in the animal kingdom, while many
differences of form show that the animals are intended to pass their life under
conditions which would not suit the Monkeys of another part of the world.
The group of Monkeys shown in the illustration are purely of the American kind.
As we see the Monkeys in a menagerie, so they frolic in their native haunts.






JARDINES HARRIER.
TheJardines Harrier is one of countless numbers of birds inhabiting that
land of wonders, Australia. It is mostly found in plains and frequents the
wide and luxuriant grass flats that are found between mountain ranges. Like
all birds of this kind, it is never seen to soar, but sweeps over the surface of
the ground seeking mice, reptiles, birds, and other creatures on which it feeds.
It is very fond of small snakes and frogs, and in order to obtain them, may be
seen hovering over the marshes or beating the wet ground. It is seldom
known to perch on trees, preferring to take its stand on some large stone or
elevated hillock from which it may
see the surrounding land. The nest
of this bird is built on the ground
-_--- in the shadow of some bush or
tuft of grass and placed upon the
top of one of the numerous "scrub"
hills. The color of the Jardines
Harrier is very remarkable, and
cannot fail to attract considerable
/ attention. The head and cheeks
are dark streaked chestnut, the
streaky appearance being given by
a deep black line down the center
of each feather. A gray collar or
Band passes around the neck at
the back of the head. The tail is
marked with dark brown and gray
stripes. The back is dark gray,
sprinkled with a number of little
white spots, and the entire under
surface is a bright ruddy chestnut,
covered profusely with nearly cir-
cular white spots of considerable
size. The legs are yellow, and
the bill is dark slaty blue, becom-
ing black at the extreme end. An-
other very handsome bird is the
Marsh Harrier, a native of Eng-
land. It is not a very uncommon bird, being very plentiful upon marshy
ground where it can obtain a large supply of food. It generally preys on
water-birds, mice, water-rats, reptiles, frogs, and fish. It is rather fond of
young game, and is apt to be a dangerous neighbor to a preserve, snatching
the young partridges and pheasants from their parents. It is sometimes so
bold that it will enter a farm and carry away a young chicken or a duckling.
Rabbits also, both old and young, fall victims to this greedy bird, which
sweeps on noiseless wing over the fields, carefully choosing the morning and
evening when the rabbits are almost sure to be out of their burrows. The
Marsh Harrier never takes up its abode in dry places, but always prefers the
marshy district, no matter whether it be the coast or distant inland places.






KINGFISHER.
The nest of the Kingfisher is always made in some convenient bank at the
end of a hole which has been occupied by the water-rat or some animal of a
similar character. The Kingfisher makes the hole larger to suit itself. Some-
times the nest of this bird has been found in the deserted hole of a rabbit-
warren. Sometimes the nest is placed in the natural cavities formed in the
roots of trees growing on the water's edge. In many cases it is easily dis-
covered, as the birds are very careless about the concealment of their nest
even before the eggs are hatched, and after the young have made their ap-
pearance in the world, the noise they make when crying for food is so great
that they can be heard at a considerable distance. This bird is very gor-
geously decorated. The straight glancing flight of the Kingfisher as it shoots
along the river bank, its azure back gleaming in the sunlight, is a sight
familiar to all those who have been accustomed to wander by the side of rivers,
whether for the purpose of angling, or merely to study the beauties of nature.
So swift is the flight of this bird, and with such wonderful rapidity does it
move its short wings, that as it passes through the air, it seems little more


.... .... .. ..














than a blue streak of light. The food of this bird consists mainly of fish.
Seated upon a bough or rail that overhangs the stream where the smaller fish
love to pass, the Kingfisher waits very patiently until he sees an unsuspecting
minnow or stickleback pass below his perch, and then with a rapid movement
drops into the water like a stone and secures his prey. Should it be a small
fish, he swallows it at once, but if it should be a rather large one, he carries
it to a stone or stump, beats it two or three times against the hard substance,
and then swallows it without any trouble. Sometimes the bird has been
known to fall a victim to ils hunger. One day a man saw floating on the river
a Kingfisher, from whose mouth protruded the tail and part of the body of a
fish. The struggles of the choking bird became more and more faint and had
well-nigh ceased, when a great pike protruded his broad nose from the water,
seized both Kingfisher and fish, and disappeared into the regions below.






BLOODHOUND.
The magnificent animal which is known as the Bloodhound, on account of
its peculiar ability for tracking a wounded animal through all the mazes of
its devious course, is very valuable. In times gone by, this hound was used
for the purpose of capturing robbers, who in those days made the country
unsafe and practiced blackmail. Sheep stealers, who were much more com-
mon when the offence was visited with capital punishment, were oftentimes
detected by the delicate nose of the Bloodhound. Water holds no scent, and
if the hunted man is able to take a long leap into the water, and to get out
again in some similar fashion, he may set at defiance the Bloodhound. When
the Hounds suspect that the quarry has taken to the water, they swim back-
ward and forward, testing every inch of the bank on both sides, and applying
their noses to every leaf, stick, or even frothy scum that comes floating by.
The Bloodhound is generally bad tempered, and therefore it is rather a dan-

















gerous animal to meddle with. So fierce is its desire for blood, and so utterly
is it excited when it reaches its prey, that it will often keep its master at bay
when he approaches, and he will not venture to come near until his dog has
satisfied its appetite on the carcass of the animal which it has brought to the
ground. It is used very often for hunting the deer, and when on the track of
this animal, the Bloodhound utters a peculiar, long, loud, and deep bay, which,
if once heard, will never be forgotten. The color of the good Bloodhound
ought to be nearly uniform, no white being permitted except on the tip of the
stern. The tints are a blackish tan or a deep fawn. The tail of this dog is
long and sweeping, and by certain expressive wavings and flourishings of that
member, the animal indicates its success or failure. When a Blood-
hound is used in deer shooting, it is sent after a deer that has been
shot, but not sufficiently to prevent its escape. As soon as the deer
dashes away, the hound is let loose, and guided by the blood drops,
keeps the trail, and is sure to come up with the wounded animal.
22






CURVED-BILLED CREEPER.
This peculiar-looking bird is about the size of an English blackbird, and
its home is in the forests of Brazil. Its name is taken from its bill, which is
very long in proportion to the size of the bird and is curved like a scythe.
Although so long, the bill is quite strong, and its purpose is to serve in draw-
ing the insects on which the bird feeds from the crevices of the bark in which
they dwell. The tail feathers are stiff and sharply pointed, and upon them
the weight of the body is rested when the bird supports itself in an upright
position upon the trunks of trees, its long, curved claws hooked into the uneven
bark. It wanders over the tree trunks
in its search for food, using these
curved claws to hang on by. The
S\ color of the Curved-billed Creeper is
-W brown, but it has a wash of cinnamon
upon the greater part of the surface.
The head and neck are of a grayer
S brown and spotted withwhite. There
S are many kinds of Creepers of very dif-
ferent forms. They are small, excepting
Sthe lyre-bird of Australia. The beaks
of these birds are always long and in al-
S\most every case slender, with more or
less of a curve. They are sharp at the
2 end, and the nostrils are placed in a
little groove at the base. The feet
are very strong and have sharp, round
claws, with which the birds cling to
the tree trunks where their prey is in
hiding. The Oven-birds also belong to
Sthe family of Creepers and take their
name from the form in which they
build their nests. This large house
would not be expected of so small a
F i builder, and it is very interesting. It
is in the shape of a dome with an en-
trance on one side, looking much like an ordinary oven. The walls are fully
an inch in thickness and are made of clay, grass, and different kinds of veg-
etable materials, woven and plastered together in a wonderful way, and the
nest is hard and firm when the sun has dried it. The Oven-bird knows the
strength of its home, and takes no pains to hide it, but builds upon some open
spot, like the large, leafless branch of a tree, the top of palings, or even the
inside of houses or barns. The Oven-bird adds to the safety of its dwelling
by separating it into two parts, building a partition which reaches nearly to
the roof, the eggs being placed in the inner chamber. The number of the
eggs is generally about four. The Oven-bird is a bold little creature, fearless
of man and as fearless of other birds, attacking them fiercely if they approach
too closely to its abode, and screeching defiantly all the time. It is very active
tripping over the ground in search of its prey, accompanied by its mate.






SNOWY OWL.
The Snowy Owl is one of the handsomest of the owls on account of its
beautiful white mantle and its large orange eyeballs that shine like jewels set
in the snowy feathers. This bird is a native of the north of Europe and
America, but it is sometimes found in other regions. Like the hawk owl, it
is a day-flying bird, and is a terrible foe to some of the smaller animals and to
a number of birds. It has been known to swallow young rabbits whole and
also young birds, plumage and all, although it usually tears a bird to pieces
while it swallows a mouse whole. The Snowy Owl is a great hunter. It has
even been known to chase the hare and to carry off wounded grouse before
the sportsman could pick up his prey. The owl is also a good fisherman,
taking up its position at some point overhanging the water and grasping the
unlucky fish with strong claws as it passes beneath. Sometimes, too, it sails
over the surface of the stream and snatches the fish as they rise for food, but
usually it watches from the bank as described before. It is a great lover of
lemmings. The large round eyes of this bird are very beautiful. Even by
daylight they shine like gems; but in the evening they are still more brilliant,
and look then like balls of fire. Sometimes ships have been visited by as
many as sixty of these birds which were so tired that they could not fly away
and so were captured by the crew. The color of an old Snowy Owl is pure
white without any markings at all, but when it is younger its plumage is

















covered with dark brown spots and bars, for each feather has a dark tip. Upon
the under side these markings form short curves, but on the upper surface
they are nearly straight. The beak and claws are black. The length of the
male Snowy Owl is about twenty-two inches, and that of the female twenty-
six or twenty-seven. There is a funny little long-legged owl in America
which is found in the home of the prairie dog and lives with this animal in a
very friendly fashion, although really the owl is too lazy to make its own
nest and so forces itself upon its busy companion. It feeds upon insects.






SPOTTED EFT.
This creature is a native of North America, and is found in some num-
bers in Pennsylvania. Its eggs are not deposited singly, and in the water,
but are laid in small packets and placed beneath damp stones. The head of














the Spotted Eft is thick, convex, and with the muzzle rounded. Its color
is deep violet black above, and purple black below, with a row of singular or
yellow spots along the sides. The genus to which this Lizard belongs is
rather large, containing about eleven species. One of them, which is known
as the Mole-like Ambystome, derives its name from its habit of burrowing
in the ground after the fashion of the mole. It lives in South Carolina, and is
found in the sea-islands. The fore limbs are short and stout, and the body thick.
SCALY LIZARD.
The color of this little Lizard is very variable, and in general the uppi
parts are olive brown, with a dark brown line along the middle of the back,
this line being often broken here and there. Along each side runs a broader
band, and between these bands are
sundry black spots and splashes.
1^ The upper parts are orange spotted
/with black in the male, and olive
Sgriay in the female. The total
Length of the Scaly Lizard is about
six inches. This is one of the rep-
tiles that produces living young,
the eggs being hatched just before
the young ones are born. With
reptiles, the general plan is to place
the eggs in some spot where they
S-- are exposed to the heat of the sun-
beams; but this Lizard, together
with the viper, is in the habit of ly-
ing on a sunny bank before her young ones are born, for the purpose of
gaining sufficient heat to hatch the eggs which are covered by a membrane.
25






MOTMOT.
The Motmots are named from their cry which sounds like the syllables
"mot-mot," called over and over again. The home of these birds is in tropical
America and parts of the world
S near to it. There are many kinds
t Sm of these beautiful birds, but their
habits and forms are all very much
alike. They have large bills and
n a bearded tongue and are some like
Sthe toucans. But their feet are
different in form, and instead of
Flocking together as the toucans do,
They live alone in the deep forests.
SThe Motmots have wedge-shaped
Stalls and sometimes the two central
feathers have a naked space just
above the end. The Brazilian
Motmot, like all the rest, is fond
of its own company, and it is sel-
dom seen except in the midst of
some tropical forest. It likes to
sit quietly upon some branch where
it can look out across an open
space or path leading through the
woods, and there it perches as
Though it were made of stone, until
some insect flies within easy reach.
__. -- It then dashes for its prey, seizes it
/-: in its bill and returns to its perch
again, where it sits as silent and
motionless as ever. The wings of
the Motmot are short and rounded
so it is not formed for very long or rapid flight. Its plumage, too, is loosely
set. Some writers say that the Motmots steal young birds out of their
nests and also eat the eggs. They are all about the size of the common
magpie and are very handsome birds, their plumagebeing green, blue, scarlet
and other brilliant colors. The Brazilian Motmot is bright green on the
upper parts of the body, except a spot of black on the head edged with green
behind. The chief feathers are blue, and the under portions are green marked
with crimson, while there is a black spot on the breast. The bird is beautiful
and interesting, but it keeps too much by itself to be an easy subject for study.
It is very hard to tell just where the Motmots should be placed in the
bird world. As has been said, they are like the toucans in some ways,
but added to the points of difference given before, their cry is not the
same. The toucans have very hoarse and unpleasant voices, and also
a habit of sitting together in flocks on the branches of trees, placing
a guard to warn them of danger, while they chatter and clatter and gossip.
26





MINK.
This creature is known by some people as the Musk Otter, sometimes as
the Water Polecat, while in a few places it is called the Smaller Otter. It is
found in the most northern parts of Europe and also in North America. Its
fur is generally brown with some white about the jaws. Some specimens
are of a much paler brown than others; in some, the fur is nearly black about
the head while the white patch that is found on the chin differs very
greatly in size. It likes the banks of ponds, rivers and marshes, seeking the
stillest waters in autumn and the rapidly flowing currents in spring. Its food
consists almost wholly of fish, frogs, crawfish, water insects and other
creatures that are found either in the water or near by. The body of this
creature is shaped in such a manner that it partly resembles the ferret and









-------



the otter. The teeth, however, are nearer those of the polecat than the
otter; and its tail, although not so hairy as the polecat, is not quite so muscu-
lar and tapering as the otter's. The feet are very useful for swimming on
account of a slight webbing between the toes. The fur of this animal is
excellent in quality and is by many persons valued very highly. The furriers
pass it under the name of Moenk," and it is known by two other names,
" Tutucuri and Noers." The fur is very like that of the sable, and manu-
facturers oftentimes sell it for that article. This is really unfortunate as the fur
is excellent, handsome in appearance, and very warm. A very plucky
mother rat was one day guarding a litter of young ones when a ferret came
along. The rat did not try to escape, but every time the ferret drew near
she flew at him and knocked him over, inflicting a fresh bite on every attack.
At last two of the baby rats were so frightened that they clung to their
mother, and the ferret seized her. The ferret's master who had seen the
plucky fight made the ferret let go, when the mother rat again flew at him.
The man then held the ferret by its tail and was carrying it away when the
rat ran up the man's leg and body, along his outstretched arms, and bit the
ferret once more before she could be driven away. An excellent Ferret was
once so cowed by the ill-result of a defeat in single combat with a rat, that
it would never afterwards even face one of these animals. The training of a
Ferret is a work of difficulty and a good animal can be spoiled very easily.






RUBY-THROATED HUMMING-BIRD.
The Ruby-throated Humming-bird is named for the glowing, ruby-like
feathers upon its throat, which gleam in the sunshine as though they were on
fire. This exquisite little creature is found in North America and is one of
those birds which change their home to suit the season of the year. In sum-
mer it sometimes goes as far north as the lands of the Hudson Bay region.
It passes over a very wide range of country. The general color of this lovely
creature is light shining green tinted with gold. The under parts of the body
are grayish white mixed with green, and the throat is ruby color, as has been
said. It is thought that they
make their journeys during the
night as in the day time they are
always seen feeding as though
they had plenty of time. They
fly very fast, but can be seen
only for a short distance, they
are so small. They rise and fall
during their flight, in a sort of
curve and have great power of
wing. On account of this
power, the Ruby-throat is not
afraid of hawk, or owl or eagle,
and although it is only about
three inches long, it will boldly
attack any bird of prey that
happens to come too near its
home. This tiny creature is a
great tyrant and guards its own
territory very closely, not per-
mitting any other bird to come
into it. It has even been known
to attack the eagle, perching
upon its head and pulling out the
feathers in such a stream that
the great bird was frightened
and dashed through the air with
screams of terror, unable to get
I\ rid of its little foe. The Ruby-
throat can be tamed without
much trouble, and is a loving little thing. It seems, too, to remember its
friends even after a winter south, and will return to the people who have
tamed and fed it, to again prove its love and trust. The nectar which these
birds have been fed upon when tamed is made of two parts fine loaf-sugar to
one part of fine honey and ten of water. This they sip eagerly. The birds
have a queer habit about seeking their nests. They rise suddenly straight
into the air until they are out of sight, then at last they fall just as swiftly
straight down upon the spot where the nest is placed. The nest is very dainty.






PERCH.
The common perch is one of the handsomest river fish, and on account
of its boldness, and the greedy manner in which it takes the bait, and the
active strength with which it struggles against its captor, it is a great favorite
with many anglers. It is a very hardy fish, living a long time when removed
from the water. It will endure being transported for a considerable distance,
if it be only watered occasionally. In some countries, where fish is a common
article of food, these fish are kept in ponds, caught in nets, put into baskets
in grass, which is always kept wet, and taken to the markets, where they re-
main through the day, and, if not sold, carried back to their pond in the
evening and replaced. The Perch is a truly greedy fish, feeding upon all
kinds of aquatic worms, insects and fishes, preferring fish as it becomes older
and larger. The smaller fish, such as minnows, young roach, dace, and
gudgeons are terribly persecuted by the Perch, and a bait formed of any of these
fishes, will generally tempt the finest Perch to the hook. Although generally
living in mid or deep water, it will sometimes come to the surface to snap up a
casual fly that has fallen into the water. The flesh of a Perch is white, firm, well-
flavored, and thought to be both delicate and nutritious. The Perch is not a large
fish, from two to three pounds being considered rather a heavy weight. The














color of the Perch is rich greenish brown above, passing gradually into golden
white below. Practical fishermen say that the Perch is the only fish which
the pike does not venture to attack, and that if a pike should make one of its
rushing onslaughts on the Perch, the intended prey boldly faces the enemy,
erects its back fin with its array of formidable spines, and thus beats the ever-
hungry pike. The Perch is not often seen in the middle of a stream, as it
prefers to haunt the banks, and from under their shadow to watch the little
fish, and other creatures on which it feeds. This habit is common to many river
fish, the pike and trout being also bank lovers, and having special retreats
whither they betake themselves, and which they will not suffer any other
fish to approach. Deep holes by the bank are favorite resorts of the Perch,
and on a fine day when the water is clear, it is often possible to see them in
their home swimming gently to and fro, and never stirring from its limits.






GREAT-BILLED TODY.
This bird is rather thick built and has a stout, heavy-looking body with a
great boat-shaped beak. This beak is very wide, thick and strong, rounded
up on the upper side and hooked at the point. The two parts of the beak
are of about the same length, and the color is blue. The home of the bird
is the Indian Archipelago, and it is found in the greatest numbers in the
inland portions of Sumatra, where it haunts the banks of rivers in search of
its food. It lives mostly upon insects, worms and creatures which it finds in
the water. Its nest is built of slender twigs, woven into the form of a globe,
or very nearly so. and this nest is fastened to the end of some branch which
hangs over the water, so that the young and eggs are safe from their enemies.
The eggs are from two to four in number and are pale blue in tint. The
Great-billed Tody has rather handsome plumage. The general tint of the
upper part of the body is a dead black and that of the lower parts a dark red.
A broad belt of feathers of a stiff wiry kind and red in color run around the
throat, probably to defend the eyes, as they
point upward on each side. At each side of
the bill, also, there are several stiff, bristly
hairs pointing upward. The top of the wing
is a pure white, which looks very pretty
--- 'lying against the black of the other parts of
the back. This portion is also very sharp,
which makes it stand out in even greater
contrast. At the upper end of each wing
there is an orange line with a white spot on
the inside. The tail is shaped like a wedge
and is black; the thigh is a blackish brown,
and the legs are brown. The color of the
eyes is blue, which changes to green soon
after the death of the bird, and then fades
into dullness. All the birds of this family are
handsome and they have many different
names. One of them, for example, with a
very long name, the Great Eurylafmus, has a very wide beak, hooked in
form and of a bright rosy hue, and it has a great gape when it opens its
mouth. The plumage is colored in a striking manner. It is mostly black,
but has a large white mark on the middle of the wing and another at the end
of the tail, with a small scarlet patch of long feathers in the center of the
back. Most of the birds which are nearly related to the one just mentioned
have the same colors, although there is one with a bright plumage of blue,
green and yellow, much like that of the paroquets. Indeed this bird might
almost be taken for a paroquet if its bill had the same shape, its coloring is
so nearly like that of the bird mentioned, and its long blue tail-feathers are so
much like his. As it is the little creature is very handsome and has a place
of its own among birds so that it has no need to claim relationship to any ex-
cept its own family. But it is interesting to compare birds or animals which
look alike, even if they are not to be classed together or studied together.
80





IGUANA.




Ie, is r e-l a- r. It






_- -9k_ -v
~ -','-- / -










N









A family of lizards is known under the general title of Iguana. These
reptiles can mostly be distinguished from the rest of their tribe by the forma-
tion of their teeth, which are rounded at the roots, swollen, and rather com.
pressed at the tip, and notched on the edge. The Common Iguana, in spite
of a very peculiar shape, is really a handsome lizard. It is a native of Brazil,
Cayenne, The Bahamas, and neighboring localities, and was at one time very
common in Jamaica. In consequence of the fineness of the flesh and eggs, the
Iguana is greatly persecuted by mankind, and its numbers considerably
thinned. The creature is very bold, having but little idea of running away, and
in general is so confident of its power to frighten away its enemy by looking
ferocious, that the poor creature is captured before it discovers its mistake.





GREYHOUND.
It is hardly possible to think of an animal which is more entirely formed
for speed and endurance than a well-bred Greyhound. Its long slender legs,
with their whip-cord-like muscles, denote extreme length of stride and rapid-
ity of movement; its deep, broad chest, affording plenty of space for the play
of large lungs, shows that it is capable of long continued exertion; while its
sharply pointed nose, snake-like neck and slender, tapering tail, are so formed
as to afford the least possible resistance to the air, through which the creature
passes with such exceeding speed. The chief use of the Greyhound is in
coursing the hare, and exhibiting in this chase its marvelous swiftness, and
its endurance of fatigue. In actual speed the Greyhound far surpasses the
hare, so that, if the frightened chase were to run in a straight line, she would
be soon snapped up by the swifter hounds. But the hare is a much smaller
and lighter animal than her pursuer, and, being furnished with very short
forelegs, is enabled to turn at an angle to her course without a check, while














'N"







the heavier and longer limbed Greyhounds are carried far beyond their prey
by their own impetus before they can alter their course, and again make after
the hare. On this principle, the whole of coursing depends, the hare making
short quick turns, and the Greyhounds making a large circuit every time
that the hare changes her line. Two Greyhounds are sent after each hare,
and matched against each other, for the purpose of trying their comparative
strength and speed. Some hares are so crafty and so agile, that they baffle
the best hounds, and get away fairly into cover, from whence the Greyhound,
working only by sight is unable to drive them, no matter how fine the hounds.






GREAT NORTHERN DIVER.
The Great Northern Diver is common on the northern coasts of the
British Islands, where it may be seen pursuing its way through and over the
water, sometimes dashing through the air, but very seldom coming to the
shore. Perhaps there is no bird so clever as this creature in its powers
beneath the surface of the water. Its broad webbed feet are set so very far
back that the bird cannot walk properly, but tumbles and scrambles along
much after'the fashion of a seal, pushing itself with its feet and scraping its
breast on the ground. In the water, however, it is quite at its ease, and, like
the seal, no sooner reaches the familiar element, than it dives away at full
speed, twisting and turning under the surface of the water in the most
delighted manner. So swiftly can it glide through the water, that it can
chase and capture the speedy fish in their own element. Like many other
diving birds, it is able to sink itself in the water, the head disappearing after










: -- -- 7 -- -_ _. -----~ -








the body and neck. The eggs of the Northern Diver are generally two in
number, and of a dark olive brown, spotted sparingly with brown of another
shade. They are laid upon the bare ground or a rude nest of flattened
herbage near the water, and the mother bird does not sit but lies flat on the
eggs. If disturbed, she scrambles into the water and dives away, taking care
to keep herself out of range of gunshot, and waiting until all danger is past.
Should she be driven to fight, her long bill is a dangerous weapon, and is
darted at the foe with great force and rapidity. The head of the full grown
Northern Diver is black, glossed with green and purple, and the cheeks and
the back of the neck are black without the green gloss. The back is black,
ornamented with short white streaks lengthening towards the breast, and the
neck and upper part of the breast are white, spotted with black, and marked
with two collars of deep black. The length of the bird is not quite three feet.






FLYING DRAGON.
Perhaps the most curious of all the reptiles is the little Lizard which is
well known under the title of the Flying Dragon. This singular reptile is a
native of Java, Borneo, the Philippines and neighboring islands and is tolerably
common. The most conspicuous characteristic of this reptile is the singularly
developed membranous lobes on either side, which are strengthened by
certain slender processes from the first six false ribs, and serve to support the
animal during its bold leaps from branch to branch. Many of the previously
mentioned Lizards are admirable leapers, but they are all outdone by the
Dragon, which is able, by means of the membranous parachute with which
it is furnished, to sweep through distances of thirty paces, the so-called flight





















being almost identical with that of the flying squirrels and flying fish. When
the Dragon is at rest, or even when traversing the branches of trees, the
parachute lies in folds along the sides, but when it prepares to leap from one
bough to another, it spreads its winged sides, launches boldly into the air,
and sails easily, with a slight fluttering of the wings, towards the point on
which it had fixed, looking almost like a stray leaf blown by the breeze.
As if in order to make itself still more buoyant, it inflates the three mem-
branous sacs that depend from its throat, suffering them to collapse again
when it has settled upon the branch. It is a perfectly harmless creature, and
can be handled with impunity. The food of the flying Dragon consists of
insects. The color of this reptile is variable, but is usually as follows : the
upper surface is gray with a tinge of olive, and daubed or mottled with
brown. Several stripes of grayish white are sometimes seen upon the wings,
which are also ornamented with an angular network of dark blackish brown.





WALL CREEPER.
The Wall Creeper is a native of central and southern Europe, and is found
plentifully in all suitable localities. It is called the Wall Creeper because it
frequents walls and perpendicular rocks in preference to tree trunks. In its
movements it does not resemble the common Creeper; for, instead of run-
ning over the walls with a quick and even step, it flies from point to point
with little jerking movements of the wing, and when it has explored the
spot on which it has alighted, takes flight for another. The food of this bird
is similar to that of the common Creeper, but it is especially fond of spiders
and their eggs, finding them plentiful in the localities which it fre-
quents. Old ruined castles are favorite places
of resort for this bird, as are also the precip-
iitous faces of rugged rocks. The nest of the
1 Wall Creeper is made in the cleft of some lofty
rock or in one of the many holes which are so
Splentifully found in the old ruined edifices
which it so loves. In color the Wall Creeper
S is a very pretty bird, the general color of the
SI plumage being light gray, relieved by a patch
of bright crimson upon the shoulders, the
larger wing-coverts, and the inner webs of the
secondaries. The remainder of the quill-
feathers of the wing are black and the tail is
black tipped with white. It is a much larger
bird than the Creeper of England, measuring
il' j about six inches in total length. There is a
curious genus of the Creeping-bird, known by
the name of Climacteris. It will sometimes
feed upon the seeds of different plants, espe-
cially preferring those which it picks out of the
fir-cones. Beechmast also seems grateful to its
-palate. They are generally found upon the tall
gum-trees, traversing their rugged bark with
^ jf /r great rapidity, and probing the crevices in
Sr -- search of insects, after the manner of the com-
mon English Creeper. They do not confine
themselves to the bark, but may often be seen running into the "spouts," or hol-
low branches, which are so often found in the gum-trees, and hunting out the
various nocturnal insects which take refuge in these dark recesses during the
hours of daylight. The Nuthatches form another group, and are represented
in England by the common Nuthatch of our woods. They are all remarkable
for their peculiarly stout and sturdy build, their strong, pointed cylindrical
beaks, and their very short tails. The Nuthatch, although by no means a
rare bird, is seldom seen except by those who are acquainted with its haunts,
on account of its shy and retiring habits. As it feeds mostly on nuts, it is
seldom seen except in woods or their immediate vicinity, although it will some-
times become rather bold, and frequent gardens and orchards where nuts are
grown. The bird also feeds upon insects, which it procures from under the bark.
35





ENGLISH SETTER.
As the Pointer dogs get their name from the habit of standing still and
pointing at any game they may discover, so the Setter dogs have earned their
title from the habit of "setting" or crouching when they perceive their game.
There are several breeds of these animals, among them being the English
Setter (as in the picture), the Russian Setter, and the Irish Setter. Each of
these dogs has some particular qualities which are carefully cultivated by
hunters. The Russian Setter is a curious animal in appearance, the fur being
so long and woolly, and so thoroughly matted together that it is difficult to
see the form of the dog. It is a very uncommon animal, but it is a very
clever worker, seldom starting game without first marking them, and its
power of scent is wonderfully delicate. The muzzle of this animal is bearded
almost as much as that of the deer-hound and the Scotch terrier, and the over-
hanging hair about the eyes gives it a look of intelligence that reminds one of




,A












the bright expression on the face of a Skye terrier. The soles of the feet are
well covered with hair, so that the dog is able to bear plenty of hard work
among heather or other rough substances. The Irish Setter is very similar
to the English animal, but has larger legs in proportion to the size of the body.
It is easily distinguished from the English Setter by a certain Irish air, that
is not easy to describe, but is very remarkable. The Setter, as well as the
fox-hound, is guided to its game by the odor that comes from the bird or
beast which it is following, but the scent reaches its nostrils in a different
manner. The Fox-hound, together with the beagle, follows up the odors
which are left on the earth by the imprint of the hunted animal's feet, or the
accidental contact of the under side of its body with the grass. But the
pointer, Setter, spaniel, and other dogs that are employed in finding victims
for the gun, are attracted at some distance by the scent that comes from the
body of its game, and are therefore said to hunt by the aid of "body scent."






EGYPTIAN VULTURE.
The Alpine, or Egyptian Vulture, is, as its name imports, an inhabitant of
Egypt and Southern Europe. It is also found in many parts of Asia, and as.
it has once been captured in England, has been placed among the list of
British birds. As is the case with the Vultures in general, the Egyptian
Vulture is protected from injury by the strictest laws, a heavy penalty being
laid upon any one who should wilfully destroy one of these useful birds.
Secure under its human protection, the bird walks fearlessly about the streets
of its native land, perches upon the houses, and, in common with the pariah
dogs, soon clears away any refuse substances that are thrown into the open


streets in those evil-smelling and undrained localities. This bird will eat
almost anything which is not too hard for its beak, and renders great service
to the husbandman by devouring, myriads of lizards, rats, and mice, which
would render all cultivation useless were not their numbers kept within limits
by exertion of this useful Vulture. It has been also seen to feed on the nara,
a rough, water-bearing melon, in common with cats, leopards, mice, ostriches,
and many other creatures. The eggs of the ostrich are said to be a favorite
food with the Egyptian Vulture, who is unable to break their strong shells
with his beak, but attains his object by carrying a great pebble into the air,
and letting it drop upon the eggs. The wings of this species are extremely
long in proportion to the size of the bird, and the flight is very graceful.






SAVANNAH CRICKET FROG.
The Savannah Cricket Frog of America is a good example of the Frogs
known as Tree Frogs, so called from their habit of climbing trees and attach-
ing themselves to the branches or leaves by means of certain disks in the toes.
This creature is very common in its own country, and is found throughout a
very large range of territories in the northern and southern states of America.
It is a light, merry little animal, uttering its cricket-like chirp incessantly,
even while in captivity. Should it become silent, an event that is sometimes
greatly to be wished, it can at any time be roused to utterance by sprinkling
it with water. It is easily tamed, learns to know its owner, and will take
flies from his hand. It likes to frequent the borders of stagnant pools, and is
oftentimes found in the leaves of aquatic plants and of shrubs that overhang
the water. It is very active, as may be readily supposed from the very slender
body and the long hind legs, and when frightened, can take considerable leaps
for the purpose of escaping the object of its terror. The color of this little
creature is greenish brown above, ornamented with several large oblong spots,
edged with white, and a streak of green, or sometimes chestnut, which runs
along the spine and divides at the back of the head, sending off a branch to
g5__ each eye. The legs are banded with
S, dark brown, and the under surface
is yellowish gray, with a slight tinge
of pink. Its length is only an inch
and a half. The Green Toad is
a very handsome creature, and is
found plentifully in the south of
France. It derives its popular name
from the deep green with which its
Supper surface is adorned. It is a very
Remarkable toad in consequence of
its power to change its color in light
and shade, sleeping and wakefulness.
But a queer looking creature is the
warty toad of Fernando Po. It is
remarkable for a number of hard growths on its back. Each growth has a
horny spine in the center. Above each eyelid is a group of horny tubercles,
which make the creature very remarkable in appearance. Its length is about
three inches. Still another queer reptile is the large Agua Toad of America.
This queer creature digs holes in the ground and resides therein. It is one
of the noisiest of its tribe, uttering a loud snoring kind of bellow by night,
and sometimes by day, and being so fond of its own voice, that even if taken
captive, it begins its croak as soon as it is placed on the ground. It is very
greedy, but, as it is thought to devour rats, it has been imported in large
numbers in order to keep down the swarms of rats that infest the plantations
in some of the West Indies. When these creatures were first set loose in
their new home, they began to croak with such good-will, that they frightened
the inhabitants dreadfully, and caused many anxious householders to sit up all
night. This Toad grows to a good size, often reaching a length of seven inches.
38






SACRED IBIS AND GLOSSY IBIS.
The Sacred Ibis is one of a rather 'curious group of birds. With one ex-
ception they are not possessed of brilliant coloring, the feathers being mostly
white and deep purplish black. The Scarlet Ibis, however, is a most magnifi-
cent, though not very large bird, its plumage being of a glowing scarlet,
relieved by a few patches of black. The Sacred Ibis is so called because it
figures largely in an evidently sacred character on the hieroglyphs of ancient
Egypt. It is a migratory bird, arriving in Egypt as soon as the waters of the
Nile begin to rise, and remaining in that land until the waters have subsided,
and therefore deprived it of its daily supplies of food. Its food consists mostly












7. ---









of molluscs, both terrestrial and aquatic, but it will eat worms, insects, and
probably the smaller reptiles. The color of the adult bird is mostly pure
silvery white, the feathers being glossy and closely set, with the exception of
some of the secondaries, which are elongated and hang gracefully over the
wings and tail. These, together with the tips of the primaries, are deep
glossy black, and the head and neck are also black, but being devoid of
feathers have a slight brownish tinge, like that of an ill-blacked boot, or an
old crumpled black kid glove. While young, the head and neck are clothed
with a blackish down, but when the bird reaches inaturity, even this slender
covering is shed, and the whole skin is left bare. The body is little larger
than that of a common fowl. The Glossy Ibis (the smaller of the two birds
pictured) is also an inhabitant of Northern Africa. It is sometimes found in
different parts of America, rarely in the northern States, but of frequent occur-
rence in the south. The habits and food of the Glossy Ibis are very similar.






GREAT EARED GOAT-SUCKER.
The name Goat-sucker comes from a Greek name which means frog-
mouthed, and a glance at the picture will show why the birds are given such
a name. Their mouths surely look very much like those of frogs. These
birds all live in warm climates, their home being the Indian Archipelago.
The Great-eared Goat-sucker has some queer long feathers on its head which
are something like those of the horned owl. It has a very wide mouth, soft
plumage, and great round eyes, and altogether it is very much like an owl
indeed. Its color is a mixture of black, gray, buff and brown, put together in
a queer manner which it would be hard to describe. It is a night bird and
very shy. The Grand Goat-sucker is one of the largest of this family, and is
somewhat different from the Great-eared, while the New Holland Goat-
sucker is a very beautiful bird, with a plumage of mixed black and brown for
the upper surface, while below it is rusty gray, mixed with buff. The tail






















has dark bars. This bird is owl-like in its habits, and has been called the
Owlet Nightjar for that reason. When it is angry, it utters a sharp, angry
hiss like that of some owls, and it also has the same habit of twisting its head
so that its beak is brought back on its spine. The New Holland Goat-
sucker lives in the hollow branches of some kinds of trees in its native land,
and when the sportsman wishes to know whether the bird is inside one of
these hollow places, or "spouts" as they are called, he gives a sharp tap to
the branch with a stick or axe. If the bird is inside it runs quickly to the en-
trance, pops out its head, looks a moment at its visitor, then goes back again.
It does this several times, but at last it gets out of patience and takes to flight.





GORILLA.
The Gorilla is found in the thickest jungles of the Gaboon, far from the
homes and haunts of men. It is very cunning and ferocious. If it sees a man
it attacks him at once, even without provocation. The strength of this creat-
ure is very great. The teeth are heavy and powerful and the tusks project
more than an inch from the jaw. The tusks of the male Gorilla are nearly
double the size of those of the female. The natives of the Gaboon country
hold the Gorilla in great dread. They fear it even more than the lion. The
























Gorilla will hide itself among the thick branches of the forest trees and watch
for some one to approach. Sometimes a happy negro will pass along without
any fear of danger. Immediately he begins to pass under the tree on which
the Gorilla is watching, the great animal will let down one of its terrible hind
feet, grasp the negro round the throat, lift him from the earth and drop him
on the ground dead. The creature does not care to eat man's flesh, but finds
a fiendish delight in the act of killing. It is mere sport for the Gorilla. Once
or twice young Gorillas have been captured, after a furious fight with their
parents, but they have never been known to live long after being taken
prisoners. The natives of Africa believe that these large apes are really men
who pretend to be stupid and dumb in order to escape being made slaves.
The Gorilla's face is very brutal. Its hair is nearly black. One that was five
feet six inches high measured nearly three feet across the shoulders.






WANDERING PIE.
7 / This bird is a native of the Hima-
'//t/ /,, layas, and is found in some numbers
,, spread over a large part of India. It is
called the Wandering Pie on account of
.', i' its habit of wandering over a very large
S' extent of country, traveling from place to
i / i l place and finding its food as it best may,
after the fashion of a mendicant friar.
""- This custom is quite opposed to the
general habits of the Pies, who are re-
S markable for their attachment to definite
S localities, and can generally be found
wherever the observer has discovered
the particular spot which they have se-
elected for their home. Its wandering
.' habit may be occasioned by the necessity
',.- t1 for obtaining subsistence, the Wander-
/, ing Pie feeding more exclusively on
` /f fruits and other vegetable nutriment than
S'li, is generally the case with th ca i te Crow
Wit.'Y', 'tribe, and being therefore forced to
r range over a large extent of land in
l search of its food. Indeed, the short
legs and very long tail of this species
S' would quite unfit it for seeking its living
on the ground, and clearly point out its
.....f.. -._, arboreal habits. The shape of this
species is very remarkable on account
Sof the greatly elongated and elegantly
S' shaped tail, which is colored in a manner
-. .' equally bold with its form. The general
S color of this bird is blackish gray upon
the upper parts, warming into cinna-
mon upon the back. The quill-feathers of
the wings are jetty black, the wings
themselves gray, and the tail feathers
gray, with a large bold bar of black at
their extremities. The under surface
-.',.-'*of the bird is light grayish fawn. The
two central feathers of the tail are ex-
'tremely long, and others are graduated
in a manner which is well exemplified
S in the accompanying illustration. Al-
though it appears to be a rather large
bird, the aspect is a deceptive one, on account of the long tail, which is ten
inches in length, the remainder of the head and body being only six inches.






SKUNK.
All weasels are notable for a certain odor which comes from them, but
the Skunk is worse in this respect than any other animal ever known. By
means of this odor, it can defend itself most successfully, as no enemy will
dare to attack a creature that has the power of overpowering its foes with so
offensive an odor that they are unable to shake off the pollution for many
hours. Dogs are trained to hunt this creature, but until they have learned
the right mode of attacking the game, they are liable to be driven off in
consternation. Dogs that have learned the proper mode of attacking the
Skunk, do so by leaping suddenly upon the creature, and killing it before it
can throw off any of the offensive secretion. The odor comes from a liquid
secretion which is formed in some glands near the insertion of the tail.
When the Skunk is alarmed, it raises its bushy tail into an upright attitude,
turns its back on its enemy, and emnits the offensive liquid. Should a single
drop of this horrid secretion fall on the dress or the skin, it is hardly possible
to cleanse the tainted object. The odor of this substance is so penetrating,
that it taints everything that may be near the spot on which it has fallen,
and renders it quite useless. Provisions rapidly become uneatable, and











clothes are so saturated with the vapor, that they will retain the smell for
several weeks, even though they are repeatedly washed and dried. On one
occasion a coach full of passengers was passing along the road when a Skunk
came across the path and tried to push its way through a fence. Being
unable to get through, it seemed to think that the coach was the cause of its
failure, and, ceasing its attempt to escape, deliberately sent a shower of its
vile liquid among the passengers. This animal is so confident of its power
to drive away enemies, that it always appears remarkably quiet and gentle,
and many times entices unwary individuals to approach it and attempt to be
playful with so attractive an animal, but it is needless to say that they always
retire in consternation. There is nothing in nature that is wholly evil, and
even this offensive liquid has some medicinal virtues, and is sometimes used for
the purpose of giving relief to asthmatic people. The chief drawback to the
medicinal use of this substance is that after it has been used for some time, the
patient becomes so saturated with the vile odor, that he is not only unpleasant
to his neighbors, but almost unbearable to himself. The fur of the Skunk is
of a brown tint, washed with black, and having white streaks along its back.






TOAD.
The Toad is a most useful animal, devouring all kinds of insects, vermin,
and making its rounds by night, when the slugs, caterpillars, earwigs and
other creatures are abroad on their destructive mission. Many of the mar-
ket gardeners are so well aware of the Toad's services that they purchase
Toads at a certain sum per dozen, and let them out in their grounds. The
Toad will never catch an insect or any other kind of prey so long as it is still, but
on the slightest movement, the wonderful tongue of the Toad is flung forward,
picking up the fly on the tip, and returning to the throat, placing the morsel
just in the spot where it can be seized by the muscles of the neck and passed
into the stomach. So rapidly is this done, that the sides of the Toad can be
seen to twitch convulsively from the struggles of a beetle just swallowed and
kicking vigorously in the stomach. The Toad will also eat worms, and in
swallowing them, it finds its fore-feet of great use; the worm is seized in the
middle and writhes itself into such contortions, that the Toad would not be

















able to swallow it but by the aid of its fore feet, which it uses as if they were
hands. Sitting quietly down with the worm in its mouth, the Toad pushes it
further between the jaws, first with one paw and then with another, until it
succeeds in forcing the worm far down its throat. Although it is considered
unfit for food, the Toad is eaten by the people of some nations. The Chinese,
however, are in the habit of eating a species of Toad for the purpose of in-
creasing their bodily powers, thinking that the flesh of this creature has the
property of strengthening bone and sinew. This creature is said to possess
the power of remaining alive for an unlimited period if shut up in a complete-
ly air-tight cell. Many stories have been told of Toads which have been
discovered in blocks of stone when split open, and it is supposed that they
were enclosed in the stone while it was still in a liquid state some hundreds
of thousands of years ago, and had remained without food or air until the
stroke of a pick brought them once more to the welcome light of day.





COMMON TREE CREEPER.
This little bird is one of the prettiest and most interesting of the feathered
tribe. It is very small, hardly as large as a sparrow, and slender in shape.
Its food consists chiefly of insects, although it sometimes changes its diet, eat-
ing seeds and such things. The insects on which it feeds live usually under
the bark of rough-skinned trees, and when it is in pursuit of its food it runs
up the trunk around and around, probing every crevice with great eagerness,
its little black eyes glancing with delight. While on the side of the tree
nearest to the spectator its dark brown back and quick, tripping movements,
make it look like a mouse, and as it comes into sight from the opposite side
of the trunk, its white breast gleams suddenly in contrast with the bark. Its
eyes are very keen, and it will discover insects so small that the human eye
can scarcely see them, while it seems even to have the power of finding its
prey beneath moss or lichens, and will bore through the substance in which
they are hidden, never failing to get them
\ ': at last. The Creeper is a timid bird. If
'' it is alarmed at the sight of a human being
""i, it will fly off to a distant tree, or will
S quietly slip round the trunk of the tree on
which it is running, and keep itself care-
fully out of sight. Gaining confidence,
however, if it is not harmed, the little head
Sand white breast will soon be seen, peering
Anxiously around the trunk, and in a few
Minutes the bird will resume its journey
up the tree, uttering its faint, trilling song.
Its flights are short, as it is usually content
with flitting from tree to tree. Although
Sso timid, the Creeper soon becomes
familiar with those whom it is accustomed
to see, and will even take food from their
hands. It has sometimes been supposed
that in climbing the Creeper uses its beak,
after the manner of parrots and other climbing birds, but this is not the case.
The beak is used only for the purpose of digging into the bark, the long,
curved and sharply pointed claws alone serving to take the little creature
along the tree trunk. But these claws retain their hold so firmly that
Creepers have been found hanging by them long after being shot, so tight a
grasp had they taken. The Creeper is a very nervous bird and may be
stunned for a time by a sharp blow upon the tree or branch where it is run-
ning. A little patch of gum was once found on the trunk of a tree at a
spot where a number of branches came together, and this was supposed to
have been placed there by the Creepers,' as they were constantly visiting
the place. Their human friends brought crumbs of bread, seeds and little
pieces of meat, placing them in the cup or hollow which had been formed
from the gum, and the birds liked this food very well, coming often to gather
it up. Altogether the Creeper is one of the most interesting of birds.





HOBBY.
This bird appears to favor inland and well-wooded lands rather than the
seashore or the barren rocks; thus presenting a strong contrast to the Pere-
grine Falcon. We may find an obvious reason for this preference in the fact
that a considerable proportion of its food is composed of the larger insects,
especially of the fat-bodied beetles, which it seizes on the wing. Chaffers of
various kinds are a favorite prey with the Hobby, and in several cases the
stomachs of Hobbies that had been shot were found to contain nothing but
the shelly portions of the
larger dung-chaffer. As there-
fore the common cock-chaffer
is a leaf-eating insect and fre-
quents forest lands for the
purpose of obtaining its food,
the Hobby will constantly be
found in the same locality for
the object of feeding on the
cock-chaffer. And as the
dung-chaffer swarms wherever
cattle are most abundantly
nourished, the Hobby is attract-
ed to the same spot for the
sake of the plentiful supply of
food which it can obtain.
Larks, finches, and various
Small birds, fall victims to the
swift wings and sharp claws of
the Hobby; but its predilec-
tions for insect-hunting are so
great, that even when trained
for the purpose of falconry and
flown at small birds, it is too
apt to neglect the quarry to
which its attention was direct-
i; 1ed, and to turn aside after a
passing beetle or grasshopper.
Although it is by no means a powerful bird, and seldom of its own free will
attacks any prey larger than a lark, it has been successfully traified to fly at
pigeons, and has even been known to strike down so comparatively large a
quarry as the partridge. The nest of the Hobby is almost invariably built
among the branches of a lofty tree, and is never placed upon a rocky ledge
except under very peculiar circumstances. The eggs are from two to five in
number, these being the usual orange, and some of a grayish white tint,
irregularly speckled over their whole surface with spots of reddish-brown.
When in a state of domestication, the Hobby's food consists chiefly of the
smaller birds, and it may also be fed upon beef cut into small pieces and very
fresh. Its temper is gentle, and its disposition mild and docile. It is easily tamed.






BOX TORTOISE.
The Box Tortoise belongs to America and is found all over the Northern
States. It is seen in large numbers in those places which it chooses, and al-
though it is a small creature, it is so formed that it can protect itself against
almost any foe, being able to draw its limbs, head and tail into the shell and
close the opening, so that it is impossible to get at it. Many of the Tortoises
can draw back into their shells, but if the openings for the head, limbs, and tail
are left open, the animal can be killed, or hooked out by a foe. The jaguar is
able to get his paw within the shell and scoop out the creature within by
means of its sharp claws. But if the opening is closed, the shell must be













broken, which no animal can do, except, perhaps, an elephant. Several kinds
of Tortoises can thus close their houses from the enemy, but the Box Tortoise
does it the most perfectly of all, and has no cause to fear any foe excepting
man and the boa constrictor. He is cruelly roasted by the former, and
the latter swallows him shell and all. There are certain other animals which
have little houses growing on their backs, or rather a kind of armor such as
soldiers used to wear in ancient times, only in the case of the soldiers it could
be removed at will. The hedgehog like the Tortoise is able to shut himself
up in his armor, but a sharp-pointed instrument can enter between the spines,
so he is not so safe after all, for the skin is soft. There are other animals also
guarded by scales which form a covering when the body is rolled up within
them, but these scales when curled up leave a passage for the arrow or spear
between them, so they are not a sure protection, and the Box Tortoise after
all stands at the head of animals which have armors. The colors of his shell,
too, vary so much that they make him very interesting, and in this respect
there are few Tortoises which are so remarkable. The Chicken Tortoise also
lives in North America, and is common in ponds, lakes, or marshy ground,
where the creature may be seen resting on logs, stones, or branches of
fallen trees. They are very shy, and as soon as danger comes near,
the first one that sees it falls into the water with a great splash that
frightens all the others, and they go tumbling and splashing on
all sides until not a Tortoise is left in sight. They are seldom
over ten inches long. The flesh resembles that of a young chicken.






VAMPIRE BAT.
This creature is a native of southern America. It is not a very large
animal, the length of its body and tail being only about six inches. The
color of the fur is a mouse tint, with a shade of brown. Many tales have
been told of the Vampire Bat and its fearful attacks upon sleeping men. It
will boldly creep into houses and seek the uncovered foot of any sleeping
inhabitant. Poising above the foot of its prey, the Vampire Bat will fan the
sleeper with its spread wings, cooling the air and soothing the slumberer into
still deeper repose. It will then insert its needle-pointed teeth into the upturned
foot with such great skill, that no pain is caused by the tiny wound. The
lips of the bat are then brought to the wound and the blood is sucked until
the creature is satisfied. It will then throw out the food it has taken and
begin afresh, continuing to suck the blood and disgorge it until the victim
perishes from loss of blood. Although the Vampire Bat is so fond of human
blood and the blood of animals, it does not depend upon blood as a means of
food. It lives chiefly on insects, which are caught while flying through the


















air. It has always been remarkable that bats can find their way among the
boughs of trees with an ease that is almost beyond the power of sight. Even
utter darkness does not seem to interfere with the flight of these strange ani-
mals; and when they are shut up in a darkened place, with strings stretched
in all directions, the bats continue their flight without any difficulty. A bat
that had been robbed of its eyes, was found to escape all obstacles in its flight
with as much ease as it did when it had its sight. This very remarkable
power has been found to arise from the wonderfully formed wings, which are
so finely constructed that they naturally avoid all obstacles. All bats have a
great dislike of the ground, and, unless compelled, never place themselves on
a level surface. They climb with great ease and rapidity and can ascend a
perpendicular wall without any trouble. In doing this, they crawl backwards.
48






WHITE SHARK.
The dreadful White Shark, the finny pirate of the ocean, is never a wel-
come visitor to the shores of any country. It is one of the large species of
creatures which range the ocean, and in some seas they are so numerous that
they become the terror of sailors and natives. One Shark will sometimes
measure over thirty feet in length, and the strength of this creature can be
readily imagined when it is remembered that it can bite off a man's leg
through flesh and bone as easily as if it were a carrot, and can sever the body
of a boy or woman at a single bite. Many portions of this fish are used in
commerce. The sailors are fond of cleaning and preparing the skull, which
is sure of a ready sale, either for a public museum or to private individuals
who are struck with its strange form and terrible appearance. The spine,
too, is frequently taken from this fish, and when dried, it is placed in the
hands of walking-stick makers, who polish it neatly, fit it with a gold handle,
and sell it at a very high price. One of these sticks will sometimes cost
nearly as much as fifty dollars. There is also a large amount of oil in the
Shark, which is rather valuable, so that in Ceylon and other places a regular
trade in this commodity is carried on. The fins are very rich in gelatine, and








~-2-~ ---











in China are employed largely in the manufacturing of that gelatine soup in
which the soul of a Chinese epicure delights. The flesh is eaten by the
natives of many Pacific islands, and in some places the liver is looked upon
as a royal luxury, being hung on boards in the sun until all the oil has been
drained away, when it is carefully wrapped up in leaves and reserved as a
delicacy. These islanders have a very quaint method of catching the Shark.
They cut a large log into the rude resemblance of a canoe, tie a rope around
the middle, form the end of the rope into a noose, and then set it afloat, leav-
ing the noose to dangle in the water, until a Shark becomes entangled.






SNOW-CAP HUMMING-BIRD AND SPANGLED COQUETTE.
The two little birds which are represented in the accompanying illustra-
tion are remarkable for the manner in which their heads are decorated. One
of them is seen to be a dark little creature, with the exception of a snowy
white crown to its head, and a bold streak of white upon its tail. This is the
Snow-cap Humming-bird, one of the most curious and most rare of all the
Trochilidee. The colors of this little bird are so dark, that it appears to be uni-
formally brown until it is examined more closely, when it is seen to be of
a coppery hue, on which a purple reflection is visible in extreme lights, the
copper hue taking a warmer tint towards the tail. The crown of the head is
dazzling white, and the tips of all the tail-feathers, and the bases of all except
the two central, are also white. On the same drawing may be seen another
remarkable little bird, possessed of a most beautiful and graceful crest. This





S ., .... .. 'I .
,, ^ S. -. .* |.







is the Spangled Coquette, an excellent example of the very remarkable genus
to which it belongs. All the Coquettes possess a well-defined crest upon the
head, and a series of projecting feathers from the neck, some being especially not-
able for the one ornament, and some for the other. The Spangled Coquette
is a native of several parts of Columbia, and was first taken to England in
1847. The singular crest is capable of being raised or depressed at the will
of the bird, and produces a great effect in changing the whole expression
of the creature. When raised to its fullest extent, it spreads itself like the
tail of the peacock, and much resembles the crest of the king tody, a bird
which will be described on another page. When depressed, it lies flat upon
the bird, and is so large that it projects on either side, barely allowing the
little black eyes to gleam from under its shade. The crown of the head and
the crest are light ruddy chestnut, each feather having a ball-like spot of dark
bronze green at the tip. The throat and face are shining metallic green, be-
low which is a small tuft of pointed white feathers that have a very curious
effect as they protrude from beneath the gorget. The upper parts are bronze
green as far as the lower part of the back, where a band crosses from side to
side, and the rest of the plumage is dark ruddy chestnut as far as the tail.
The tail is also chestnut brown, with a slight wash of metallic green. The
female has no crest nor green gorget. It is not as beautiful as the male.
50
_

"-- I -,--



is the Spangled Coquette, an excellent example of the very remarkable genus
to which it belongs. All the Coquettes possess a well-defined crest upon the
head, and a series of projecting feathers from the neck, some being especially not-
able for the one ornament, and some for the other. The Spangled Coquette
is a native of several parts of Columbia, and was first taken to England in
1847. The singular crest is capable of being raised or depressed at the will
of the bird, and produces a great effect in changing the whole expression
of the creature. When raised to its fullest extent, it spreads itself like the
tail of the peacock, and much resembles the crest of the king to dy, a bird
which will be described on another page. When depressed, it lies flat upon
the bird, and is so large that it projects on either side, barely allowing the
little black eyes to gleam from under its shade. The crown of the head and
the crest are light ruddy chestnut, each feather having a ball-like spot of dark
bronze green at the tip. The throat and face are shining metallic green, be-
low which is a small tuft of pointed white feathers that have a very curious
effect as they protrude from beneath the gorget. The upper parts are bronze
green as far as the lower part of the back, where a band crosses from side to
side, and the rest of the plumage is dark ruddy chestnut as far as the tail.
The tail is also chestnut brown, with a slight wash of metallic green. The
female has no crest nor green gorget. It is not as beautiful as the male.
5 0






GROUP OF BABOONS.


I --
Although this group of animals is popularly known by the name of Bab-
oons, they are sometimes spoken of as dog-headed monkeys, on account of
the shape of the head and jaws, which resemble those of the dog tribe. So
odiously disgusting are the habits in which many of these animals continually
indulge, that, as a general rule, their presence is offensive in the extreme,
and, excepting for purposes of scientific investigation, it is better to shun the
cage that holds any specimens of these creatures. The general color of these
animals is a brown tint of varying shades. The Baboons mostly walk on all
fours, and when at liberty in their native haunts, they are almost always seen
either to walk like a dog or sit on their haunches in the usual monkey fashion.






SCARLET DREPANIS.
The Scarlet Drepanis is a very interesting bird for many reasons. Its
position in natural history is one of great value, and other birds which are
nearly related to it are also given a high rank, not only by naturalists, but by
the natives of the countries in which they are found. The plumage of this
beautiful bird is mostly scarlet, but the wings and tail are black, forming a
striking contrast in color The home of the bird is the Sandwich Islands,
where the natives use its plumage for the wonderful feather mantles and
helmets which show so much skill and patience on the part of the people who
make them, and which are also very artistic. Some fine specimens of these
mantles are in the British Museum. They are made with great care, none of
the feathers being wasted, because they are so precious, and they are
arranged in such a manner that they cannot be shaken from their positions so
as to show the groundwork on which they are woven. Their colors are


.-..--\--- .A I ,l .. -'











arranged, also, in the prettiest manner, and the effect is brilliant without
being gaudy. The helmets are made in like manner from the plumage of
these beautiful birds, and they are even more wonderful than the mantles,
being very graceful and striking in form, and Grecian in artistic effect.
These mantles flow in such beautiful folds and are so light and so brilliant in
color that they need only to be introduced into the world of fashion to meet
with great favor at once. The feather head dress, too, would have just as
pleasant a reception, as nothing could be more lovely than its soft and brilliant
colors and graceful form. The birds of this genus are fond of flocking to-
gether in large numbers to search for their food among the flowering plants
where they find sweet juices and little insects just suited to their taste. They
have very long bills and tongues which they thrust deep into the heart of the
blossom, as bees do in sucking the honey from the flowers which they like
best. The natives, knowing their habits3 set snares for them among the
flowers which are their favorites, and so catch them in considerable numbers.
The Scarlet Drepanis is a small bird, and neither the tail nor wing is em-
ployed to make the mantles or helmets which have been described, so it will
be seen that a very great number of the little creatures must be killed.
be seen that a very great number of the little creatures must be killed.






GIGANTIC SALAMANDER.
The Gigantic Salamander is without doubt one of the least attractive
animals in existence. It is dull in its habits, somber in color, with a sort of
half-finished look about it, and not possessing even that savage ugliness which
makes many a hideous creature attractive in spite of its repulsiveness. It is
a native of Japan, and even in that country seems to be rare, a large sum be-
ing asked for it by the seller. It lives in the lakes and pools that exist in the
basaltic mountain ranges of Japan. Its length is about a yard. Many years
ago the first living specimen was taken to Europe and placed in a tank, where
it passed a period of many years' captivity. Two specimens were taken over
at the same time, being of different sexes, but on the passage the male un-
fortunately killed and ate his intended bride, leaving himself to pass the re-
mainder of his life in single blessedness. It fed chiefly on fish, but would eat




















other animal substance. A very fine specimen living in the English Zoolog-
ical Gardens has attracted much notice in spite of its ugliness and almost total
want of attractive habits. It is very sluggish and retiring, hating the light,
and always squeezing itself into the darkest corner of its tank, where it so
closely resembles in color the rock work near where it shelters itself, that
many persons look at the tank without even discovering its presence. The
head of this creature is large, flattened, and very toad-like in general appear-
ance, except that it is not furnished with the beautiful eyes which make up
for the otherwise repulsive expression of the toad. The head is about four
inches wide at the broadest part, and is covered with many warty growths.
The eyes are very small, placed on the fore part of the head, and without any
kind of expression. They look very much more like glass beads than eyes.
5 -.--7: :--



,-=c


















kind of expression. They look very much more like glass beads than eyes.







COACII-WHIP SNAKE.
The well-known Coach-whip Snake of North America is a remarkable
reptile which has not earned its popular name without good reason, for the
resemblance between one of these Serpents and a leather whip-thong is
almost incredibly close. The creature is very long in proportion to its
width, the neck and head are very small, the body gradually swells towards
the middle and then as gradually diminishes to the tail, which ends in a small
point. The large smooth scales are arranged in such a manner that they
just resemble the plaited leather of a whip, and the polished brown black of
the surface is exactly like that of a well-worn thong. The movements of
this Snake are wonderfully quick, and when chasing its prey, it seems to fly
over the ground. The mode of attack is very remarkable. Seizing the
doomed creature in its mouth, it leaps forward, flings itself over the victim,
envelops it with coil upon coil of its little body, so as to entangle the limbs





















and bind them to the body, and, in f.et- makes itself into a living lasso.

.1 *. i.ly have conquered in the seemingly uneven combat had not the foes
been separated. It had grasped the hawk by one wing, and dragged it to
the "'..i i, and had succeeded in disabling the terrible claws from striking,
when the sudden approach of the narrator alarmed the Snake, which released
its I:-' L. darted into the _.. -, and permitted the rescued hawk- to fly away
..--,L... The color of this Serpent is rather variable. Generally it is
All '41 _



I- ---



:- black above and lighter -th with splashes of purple brown.






":l"d bind them to the body, and, in f.ict, makes itself into a living lasso.
One of these Snakes was seen engaged in a battle with a hawk, and would
I, tly have conquered in the seemingly uneven combat had not the foes
been separated. It had grasped the haw by one wing, and drallyged it to
the nZI t and had succeeded in disabling the terrible claws from striking,
when the sudden approach of the narrator alarmed the Snake, which released
its h! 1 darted into the 1,t1.h and permitted the rescued hawk to fly away
in L .,.t.. The color of this Serpent is rather variable. Generally it is
':, mi~black above and lighter .ci :.th. with splashes of purple brown.
S,,:uetim:v.. however, it is cream or clay colored, and occasionally has been
seen almost white. The length of this Snake is about five or six feet.






HARTEBEEST.
This handsome animal is easily known by the peculiar shape of the horns.
Its general color is a grayish brown, ornamented with a white spot on the
haunches and a black streak on the face, another along the back, and a black
brown patch on the outer side of the limbs. It is a large animal, being about
five feet high at the shoulders. It is found in little herds of ten or twelve in
number, each herd being headed by an old male who has driven away all
full-grown members of his own sex. It is not very swift in its speed, and its
movements are more clumsy than is generally the case with antelopes. It
can run, however, for considerable distances, and, if attacked, becomes a very
dangerous foe, dropping on its knees and charging forward with lightning
rapidity. The Hartebeest is found in a very large range of country, extend-





NPI





,.' ~ ,-;^ _. :'* '- "

.- 7.







ing from the hilly to the flat and wooded district between the Cape and the
Tropic of Capricorn. The Sassaby is another animal closely resembling the
Hartebeest. Its color is a reddish brown, the outer side of the limbs being
dark, and a blackish brown stripe passing down the middle of the face.
Sometimes the body is covered with a bluish gray tint. This animal roams
in small herds of six or ten, in the flat districts near the Tropic of Capricorn,
and is a welcome sight to the wearied hunter perishing from thirst. There
are many antelopes which live almost without water, quenching their thirst
by means of the moist roots and bulbs upon which they feed. But the
Sassaby is a thirsty animal, and it needs drink daily, so that whenever a
hunter sees one of these creatures, he knows that water is not a great dis-
tance away. The Sassaby is rather persecuted by hunters, as its flesh is
greatly liked, but as it soon becomes shy and wary, it is not easily killed.
This much-sought animal is sometimes called the Bastard Hartebeest.
N, -- "..,. .
.,,,. -- -.i.

















This much-sought animal is sometimes called the Bastard Hartebeest.






SPARROW HAWK.
The extreme audacity of the Sparrow Hawk when urged by hunger is
very remarkable. One of these birds actually snatched up a little white pea-
chick, selecting it from the rest of the brood, while a lady was engaged in
feeding it. A similar circumstance occurred to a gamekeeper who was
feeding young pheasants, a Sparrow Hawk suddenly sweeping down upon
them and carrying off one of their number. Next day it repeated the
attempt, but as the keeper had taken the precaution to bring his gun, the
Hawk fell a victim to his
own temerity. Again, as
some persons were shooting
S- dunlins from a boat, in Bel-
s fast Bay, a Sparrow Hawk
Suddenly shot through the
Smoke of the discharged
gun, and poising itself for an
r- instant, swept a wounded
Spao Hdunlin from the surface of
S- the water with such marvel-
ous dexterity, that it did not
S wet a feather of its wings.
S- In consequence of the head-
long courage possessed by
this handsome little Hawk,
it is very valuable to the
S-- falconer if properly trained,
for it will dash at any quarry
S ._- which may be pointed out to
--,\ //it. Unfortunately, however,
the Sparrow Hawk is one of
the most difficult and refrac-
tory of pupils, being shy to
a singular degree, slow at
receiving a lesson and quick
at forgetting it. Besides, its
temper is of a very crabbed
and uncertain nature, and it
is so quarrelsome, that if several of these birds should be fastened to the
same perch, or placed in the same cage, they will certainly fight each other,
and, in all probability, the conqueror will eat his vanquished foe. Such an
event has actually occurred, the victrix-for it was a female-killing and
devouring her intended spouse. Few birds are so easily startled as the
Sparrow Hawk, for even when it is comparatively tame, the presence of a
stranger, or even the shadow of a passing bird in the air, will throw it into a
paroxysm of excitement, during which it seems to lose all consciousness of
external objects. The Sparrow Hawk's legs are, during these fits of fright
and passion, in a temporary paralysis. But the temper is of short duration.






RED FIRE-FISH.
The Red Fire-Fish is an extraordinary creature inhabiting the greater
part of the tropical seas from Eastern Africa, through the Indian seas, right
away to far Australia. It is remarkable for the strange growth of the fins
on its back and sides. The side fins are so very large in proportion to the
size of this odd creature that people used to think at one time that they were
wings like those of the flying fish, and that it could raise itself out of the water
and fly in the air. But this was found to be a mistake, as the bones connected
with the fins are far too weak to allow the fish to fly. No one has yet discov-
ered the true natural use of these big fins. The Red Fire-Fish is plentiful off
the coast of Ceylon, and it is said to be rather valuable as an article of food.


The flesh is very white, firm and nutritious. Native fishermen, however,
have a great dread of this creature as they think it can inflict fatal wounds
with the sharp points that project from the fins in every direction. But,
although they may prick the hand deeply and make the wound very painful,
there is no real danger, as the pricks cannot do serious injury, nor are they
poisonous. The color of the Red Fire-Fish's body is mostly a pinky brown,
with darker brown stripes, while the head is always redder than the body.
The huge fins on the back and sides are reddish brown crossed with bold
black stripes; the fins on the lower part or belly of the fish are of a black color
dotted with white spots, and the rest of the fins, including the tail fin, are
light brown spotted with black. There are nine or ten different kinds of this
fish. and none of them is known to be more than seven or eight inches long.






BLACKBIRD.
Among the best known and best loved of British songsters, the Blackbird
is one of the most conspicuous. This well-known bird derives its popular
name from the uniformly black hue of its plumage, which is only relieved by
the bright orange-colored bill of the male bird. The song of this creature is
remarkable for its full mellowness of note, and is ever a welcome sound to
the lover of nature, and her vocal and visual harmonies. Often the poor bird
suffers for its voice; and being kept within the bars of a cage, is forced to
sing its wild native notes "in a strange land." In captivity it is sometimes
subjected to training, and has been taught to whistle tunes with great spirit
and precision. Generally the bird sings in the daytime, but there are times
when it encroaches upon the acknowledged province of the nightingale, and
makes the night echoes ring with its rich ringing tones. It is rather curious
that even in its native state the Blackbird is something of a mimic, and will
imitate the voices of other birds with remarkable skill, even teaching itself to
crow like a cock and cackle like a hen. The Blackbird feeds usually on insects,















but it also possesses a great love of fruit, and in the autumn ravages the gardens
and orchards in a most destructive manner, picking out all the best and ripest
fruit, and wisely leaving the still immatured produce to ripen on the branches.
Perhaps it may be partly carnivorous, as one of these birds was seen to
attack and kill a shrew mouse. As it is so common a bird, and constantly
haunts the hedgerows, it is greatly persecuted by juvenile gunners, whom it
contrives to draw away from its nest by flitting in and out of the hedge,
always taking care to keep out of shot range, and having a curious habit of
slipping through the hedge, and flying quietly back to its nest, almost touch-
ing the surface of the ground in its rapid progress. It is not a sociable bird,
being seldom seen in company with others of its own species, and not often
even together with its mate. The Blackbird is very courageous in defense of
its nest, and will attack almost any animal that threatens the security of its
home. On one occasion a cat was forced to retreat ignominiously from the
united assaults of two Blackbirds near whose domicile she had ventured.
58





SHEEP.
In all times the Sheep has been subject to mankind, and has provided him
with meat and clothing, as well as with many articles of domestic use. The
whole carcass of the Sheep is as useful as that of the ox, and there is not a
single portion of its body that cannot be put to some good use. The Sheep,
as we now know it, is never found in a state of absolute wildness. In many
of its habits, especially in its ability to climb rocks, it bears a strong
resemblance to the goats. Whenever a flock of Sheep is in the neighborhood
of high ground, they may always be seen perched upon the highest spots,
and seem to take a curious pleasure in exposing themselves to the danger of
being dashed to pieces. Some of the Sheep will boldly descend the steepest
cliff in search of herbage until they reach the sea level, and are in no way
afraid of the prospect of re-ascending the terrible cliffs down which they
have come. Although the Sheep is thought to be a timid animal, it is truly


















a bold animal, and oftentimes gives many proofs of its courage. If, for
example, a traveler comes unexpectedly upon a flock of little Sheep that
range the Welsh mountains, they will not flee from his presence, but draw
together into a compact body, and watch him with stern and unyielding
gaze. Should he attempt to advance, he would be instantly attacked by the
rams, which form the first line in such cases, and there is little doubt that he
would fare very badly in the encounter. If a dog should accompany him,
the Sheep would at once charge him and drive him from the spot. Even a
single ram is no mean enemy when he is thoroughly irritated, and his attack
is really dangerous. Sheep differ from goats in their manner of fighting;
the goats rear themselves on their hind legs and then plunge sideways upon
their enemy, while the Sheep hurl themselves forward and strike their
enemies with the whole weight, as well as the full force of the body. So
terrible is the shock of a ram's charge, that it will knock over an ox.





CLYDESDALE CART HORSE.
The Clydesdale Cart Horse is one of the best horses for ordinary heavy
work. It is named after the place, Clydesdale, where it was first bred, and is
a mixture between the Lanark horse and the famous Flemish horse. It has
a very gentle temper and is possessed of great strength and powers of endur-
ance. The pure Clydesdale Horse is large and heavy, and is remarkable for






S-I












its very long strides. Another large and powerful horse is known as the
Dray Horse. This is a very slow animal, whose pace cannot be quickened
for any length of time even if the load is light. This enormous horse is a
mixture between the Flemish Horse and Black Draught Horse. It is well
known by people in London, England, as it is seen every day drawing heavy
drays on which beer is taken from the breweries to the purchaser. Its
breast is very broad and its shoulders thick and upright, body large and
round, the legs short, and feet extremely large. The ordinary pace of the
heavy Draught Horse is under three miles an hour, but when the horse is
half Flemish, the pace is nearly doubled, the endurance is increased, while
the size is very little changed. The great size of the Dray Horse is not
needed so much for the pulling which it has to perform, but because it
requires a large and heavy animal in the shafts of the dray to bear the joltin
that takes place as the dray is dragged over the rough stones of the London
streets. The genuine Dray Horse is a noble beast, and it is very pleasant to
see the kindly feelings that exist between these horses and their drivers. The
long whip which the drayman carries is more for ornament than for the pur-
pose of punishing the horses, and whenever it is used it is laid very gently
upon the horses back, whie kind words are spoken, which the horse under-
stands. These horses are some of the most famous, intelligent and beautiful
animals in the world. The draymen take great pride in their appearance.





SHEMIGALE.
The color of this animal's fur is a grayish brown. There are six or seven
large, bold stripes across the back. On the top of the head there is a narrow
black line, and on each side of the face a black line runs from the ear to the
nose, and around the eyes. The name Hemigale is from the Greek language
and means "Semi-weasel." This animal is one of many similar kinds of
creatures which the naturalists class under the name of the "Viverrine group."
With the exception of one or two species, the animals in the Viverrine group
are so little known that their habits in a wild state cannot be fully described.


/ V
.f *- V --- -k ... .



'i^ ^ *' ,- '.' ,' ,";, -











The habits of these agile and graceful animals when in captivity, are so enter-
taining that it may be readily supposed that when in their natural haunts
their habits must be far more instructive. Many discoverers when they come
across a new animal, are so anxious to secure it that they do not give them-
selves time to observe the habits of the animal but shoot or capture it to
bring home as a rare specimen. The Cryptoprocta is another of the
Viverrine group of animals. It is of a light-brown color, tinged with red.
It appears to be a very gentle and quiet animal, but it is one of the fiercest
little creatures known. The legs are small but very powerful, and its appe-
tite for blood is as strong as the tiger's. It is very active and becomes a
terrible foe to any animals it may attack. The hind quarters of this little
creature suddenly taper down and merge themselves in the tail. Because of
these peculiarities it receives the full name of Cryptoprocta Ferox." The
first word means "hind quarters," while ferox means "fierce." It is believed
that the creatures in the Viverrine group can be domesticated or trained to
human uses as easily as the animals of cat or dog natures. The true study of
animals is of more importance than many people think. It is impossible to
understand the grandeur of human nature until God's animal creation is studied.






GROUP OF VULTURES.


hL --


These Vultures are natives of Southern Europe and Western Asia, and often
reach a very great size, their length being sometimes nearly four feet, and the
expanse of the wings as much as ten feet. Vultures are distinguished from
other birds of prey by the shape of the beak, which is of moderate size, nearly
straight above, curved suddenly, and rounded at the tip. The middle toe is
larger than the others, and the outer toes are connected with them at their
base by a small membrane. As a general rule, the Vultures feed on dead
carrion, and are therefore most beneficial to the countries which they inhabit.
When pressed by hunger, however, they will make inroads among the flocks
and herds, and will not hesitate to satisfy their wants with rats, mice, small
birds, or insects. Varieties of this bird are found in many parts of Africa.
62






STURGEON.
In this remarkable fish, the mouth is placed well under the head, and in
fact, seems to be seated almost in the throat, the long snout appearing to be
nn almost unnecessary ornament. The mouth projects downwards like a
short and wide tube much wider than long, and on looking into this tube, no






















teeth are to be seen. Between the mouth and the end of the snout, is a row
of fleshy finger-like appendages, four in number. These are organs of touch.
One or two species of Sturgeon are important in commerce as two valuable
articles, isinglass and cavaire, are made from them. The Common Sturgeon
is sometimes, but not very often, found in rivers. It is frequently taken
near the shores. The flesh of the Sturgeon is thought a great deal of, and
in the olden English days, it was always saved for the table of the King.
The body of the Sturgeon is very long, and slightly five-sided from the head
to the tail. Along the body run five rows of flattened bony plates, each
plate being marked with slight grooves, and having a pointed and partly con-
ical line on each plate, the points being directed towards the tail. The plates
along the summit of the back are the largest. To make isinglass, the air
blubber is removed from the fish, washed carefully in fresh water, and then
hung up in the air for a day or two, so as to stiffen. The outer coat or
membrane is then peeled off, and the remainder is cut up into strips of great-
er or lesser length called straps, the long straps being the most valuable.
This substance affords so large a quantity of gelatinous matter, that one part
of isinglass dissolved in a hundred parts of boiling water, will form a stiff
jelly when cold. Cavaire is made from the roe of this fish, and nearly
three million of eggs have been taken from a single fish, a fine specimen, truly.






NATAL ROCK SNAKE.
The handsome Natal Rock Snake, or Port Natal Python, as it is some-
times called, now comes under our notice. It is a fine, handsome species,
sometimes attaining a great length, and being most beautifully colored.
During life and when in full health and in the enjoyment of liberty, this, in
common with many other Snakes, has a beautiful rich bloom upon its scales,
not unlike the purple bloom of a plum or grape. Should, however, the Snake
be in ill-health, this bloom fades away, and in consequence, we seldom if ever
see it on the scales of the Serpents which have been taken to Europe, and
are kept in glass-fronted cases in lieu of the wide desert, and only a blanket
to creep into instead of the rocky crevices of their native country. The
dimensions of this reptile are often very great. They have been seen to
measure twenty-five feet in length. Flat skins of this creature are, however,
very deceptive, and cannot be relied upon, as they stretch almost as readily
as India-rubber, and during the process of drying are often extended several







-













feet beyond the length which they occupied while surrounding the body of
their quondam owner. The teeth of this serpent are tolerably large, but not
venomous, and although of no insignificant size, are really of small dimensions
when compared with the size and weight of their owner. Few persons have
any idea of the exceeding heaviness of a large Snake, and unless the reptile
has been fairly lifted and carried about, its easy gliding movements have the
effect of making it appear as if it were as light as it is graceful. Both jaws
are thickly studded with these teeth, and their use is to seize the prey and
hold it while the huge folds of the body are flung round the victim, and its
life crushed out of its frame by the contracting coils of the great reptile.
64





BELTED KINGFISHER.
The sight of the Belted Kingfisher is very keen, and even when passing
swiftly over the country, it will suddenly check itself in mid career, hovering
over the spot for a short time, watching the finny inhabitants of the brook as
they swim to and fro, and then with a curious spiral kind of plunge, will dart
into the water, driving up the spray in every direction, and after a brief
struggle, will emerge with a small fish in its mouth, which it carries to some
resting place, and after beating it with a few hearty thumps against a stump
or a stone, swallows it, and returns for another victim. Waterfalls and
rapids are the favorite haunts of the Belted Kingfisher, whose piercing eye is


able to see the fish even through the turmoil of the dirty water. In spite of
their active fins and slippery scale-covered bodies, it is very seldom that a
fish escapes this bird. Rapid streams with high banks are favorite places of
resort for the Belted Kingfisher, not only because in such places the small
fish are easily seen, but because the steep and dry banks are the chosen places
for this bird's nest. On these banks the Belted Kingfisher digs a tunnel,
which is sometimes four or five feet in length. The nest is a very simple
structure, being made of a few small twigs and feathers, on which are laid
the four or five pearly white eggs. The birds seem to be very fond of their
homes, and one pair ot Kingfishers will frequent the same hole for
many successive years and rear many broods of young ones in them.


=--i~-


--.-
-
_~F~;-;'


L.

~?it:
~"
-i- l]a~-~~ -- ---;- ---~-~-~-~;I





RINGED SNAKE.
The Ringed Snake is fond of water, and is a good swimmer, sometimes
diving with great ease and remaining below the surface for a considerable
length of time, and sometimes swimming boldly for a distance that seems very
great for a terrestrial creature to undertake. This reptile will even take to
the sea, and has been noticed swimming between Wales and Anglesea, The
motions of the Snake while in the water are peculiarly graceful, and the rapid
-rogress is achieved by a beautifully serpentine movement of the body and
tail. This Snake is susceptible of kindness, and if properly treated, soon
learns to know its owner, and to suffer him to handle it without displaying any
mark of irritation. Though harmless and incapable of doing any hurt by its
bite, the Snake is not without other means of defence, its surest weapon being
a most abominable and penetrating odor, which it is capable of discharging
when irritated, and which, like that of the skunk, adheres so closely to the
skin or the clothes, that it can hardly be removed even by repeated washings.
Moreover, it is of so penetrating a nature, that it cannot be hidden under
artificial essences, being obtrusively perceptible through the most powerful
perfumes, and rather increasing than diminishing in offensiveness by the
mixture. The reptile will, however, soon learn to distinguish those who




v,

-, ,_.^ i '2 'I
-' .',^ ^ *". ..* '-- -.- -T'



behave kindly to it, and will suffer itself to be handled without ejecting this
horrible odor. The young of the Ringed Snake are hatched from eggs,
which are laid in strings in some warm spot and left to be hatched by the
heat of the weather or other natural means. Dunghills are favorite localities
for these eggs, as the heat evolved from the decaying vegetable matter is
most useful in aiding their development, and it often happens that a female
Snake obtains access into a hothouse and there deposits her eggs. Some
persons say that the mother is sometimes known to remain near the eggs, and
to coil herself round them like that remarkable animal the boa. The eggs
are soft, as if made of parchment, and whitish. They are found in chains
containing fifteen or twenty, and are cemented together by a kind of glutinous
substance. During the winter the Snake retires to some sheltered spot,
where it remains until the warm days of spring call it again to action. The
localities which it chooses for its winter quarters are always in some well
sheltered spot, and generally under the gnarled roots of ancient trees.





GREEN TODY.


The queer little birds called Todies are somewhat like the kingfishers,
but they have flattened bills, and so there is no danger of mistaking the one
for the other. They have a very wide mouth, and wings and tail are short
and rounded, and the outer toes are connected as far as the last joint. The
Todies live in tropical America, and have a very important place among the
beautiful birds of that part of the world. The Green Tody is but little larger
than the wren, but it is very brilliant. The whole upper surface of its body
is a bright green, while the flanks are rose colored, shading to scarlet on the
throat and fading to pale yellow on the under portions of the body. The
under surface of the wings is bare. The Green Tody is a lazy creature, and
may be approached quite closely so that its colors can be studied without
trouble. It sits with its head sunk beneath its shoulders and its bill sticking
out stiffly as though it had no life at all. It always flies near the ground and
never tries a long journey through the air, indeed its wings are not strong
enough for that. It is known as the
Ground Parrot also, from its habit of stay-
::ing near the earth. The Green Tody
lives mostly upon insects, which it catches
as they crawl about in the muddy banks
...": of ponds or rivers. It also searches in the
grass and plants for them and catches
them with much skill. The nest of this
bird is placed on the ground, usually in
some hole on the river bank, and is built
of dried grasses, moss, cotton, feathers and
similar substances. The eggs are four or
five in number, of a bluish gray, with
bright yellow spots. The length of the
bird is hardly four inches. The Green
'- Tody has quite a good many relatives
-- which are more or less like him in form
and habits, although they are all different
from him in some ways. The Javan Tody is one of these and is an in-
teresting bird with a very queer form. Its beak is shorter than its
head and has a base wider than the part of the head to which it is fastened.
The center toes are joined together as far as the second joint. The bird is a
native of Java and Sumatra. It feeds mostly on water insects, worms, and
such creatures, which it finds on the banks of the rivers near which it lives.
It builds a hanging nest from the slender bough of some tree that grows near
the water. The Javan Tody is not a very uncommon bird, but it is seldom
seen because it stays mostly in the deep woodlands of its native country near
the swampy grounds that are often found within great forests. It is a strik-
ing bird in its looks, its back being a deep, velvet purple mixed with bright
golden yellow. It does not keep so closely to the earth as the Green Tody,
but it never makes long flights. Birds which are natives of tropical countries,
as the Todies are, almost always have very brilliant and striking plumage.






DIPPER.
The Ant Thrushes find an English representative in the well-known Dipper
or Water-Ousel. Devoid of brilliant plumage or graceful shape, it is yet one
of the most interesting of British birds when watched in its favorite haunts.
It always frequents rapid streams and channels, and being a very shy and re-
tiring bird, invariably prefers those spots where the banks overhang the water,
and are clothed with thick brushwood. Should the bed of the stream be
broken up with rocks or large stones, and the fall be sufficiently sharp to
wear away an occasional pool, the Dipper is all the better pleased with its
home, and in such a locality may generally be found by a patient observer.
All the movements of this little bird are quick, jerking and wren-like, a simil-
itude which is enhanced by its habit of continually flirting its apology for a
tail. Caring nothing for the frost of winter, so long as the water remains free
from ice, the Dipper may be seen throughout the winter months, flitting from
stone to stone with the most animated gestures, occasionally stopping to pick
up some morsel of food, and ever and anon taking to the water, where it




Mmz'-
FI ,










sometimes dives entirely out of sight, and at others merely walks into the shal-
lows, and there flaps about with great rapidity. While employed at the bottom
of the stream, the bird keeps itself below the surface by beating rapidly upwards
with its wings, just as a human diver beats the water with his hands and feet,
while seeking foursome object under the water. To an observer at the surface,
the bird appears to tumble and scramble about at random in a very comical
manner, but in truth the little creature is perfectly capable of directing its
course, and picking up any article of food that may meet its eye. It walks
and runs about on the ground at the bottom of the water, scratching with its
feet among the small stones, and pecking at all the insects and animalcul.
which it can dislodge. Sometimes the bird has been observed moving about
in the water with its head only above the surface. The food of the Dipper
seems to be exclusively of an animal character, and, in the various specimens
which have been examined, consists of insects in their different stages, small
crustacem, and the spawn and fry of various fishes. Its fish-eating propensities
have been questioned by some writers, but the matter has been entirely set at
rest by the discovery of fish-bones and half-digested fish in the stomach.






IMPERIAL EAGLE.
The Imperial Eagle is an inhabitant of Asia and Southern Europe, and
bears a rather close resemblance to the golden Eagle, from which bird, how-
ever, it may be readily distinguished by several notable peculiarities. The
head and neck of this species are covered with lancet-shaped feathers of a
deep fawn color, each feather being edged with brown. The back and the
whole of the upper parts are black brown, deeper on the back, and warming
towards a chestnut tint on the shoulders. Several of the scapularies are pure
white, and the tail is ash-colored, bordered and tipped with black. The cere
and legs are yellow. The surest mark by which the Imperial may be distin-





















l7



guished from the golden Eagle, is the white patch on the scapularies. This
is most distinct in the adult bird, for in the plumage of the young, the scapu-
lary feathers are only tipped with white, instead of being wholly of that hue.
The Imperial Eagle is seldom seen sweeping over the plains, as it is a forest-
loving bird, preferring the densest woods to the open country. As far as is
known, it never builds its nest on the rocks, but always chooses a spreading
and lofty tree for that purpose. In habits it resembles the preceding species,
and in disposition is fierce and destructive. No specimen of this bird has yet
been taken in England, although it is not at all uncommon in the warmer
parts of Europe. So splendid a bird as the Eagle could not escape the notice
of any human inhabitant of the same land, and we find that in all nations of the
present day, an almost superstitious regard has attached itself to this bird.
69






GROUND SQUIRREL.
The Ground Squirrel, or Hackee, as it is sometimes termed, is one of the
most familiar of North American quadrupeds, and is found in great numbers
in almost every locality. It is a truly beautiful little creature, and deserving
of notice both on account of the dainty elegance of its form, and the pleasing
tints with which its coat is decked. The general color of the Hackee is a
brownish gray on the back, warming into orange brown on the forehead and
the hinder quarters. Upon the back and sides are drawn five longitudinal
black stripes and two streaks of yellowish white, so that it is a most conspic-
uous little creature, and by those peculiar stripes may easily be distinguished
from any other animal. The abdomen and throat are white. It is slightly
variable in color according to the locality in which it exists, and has been
known to be so capricious of hue as to furnish specimens of pure white and jet
black. As a fur it is extremely elegant, and if it were not quite so common
would long since have taken nearly as high a rank as the sable or ermine.
The length of the Hackee is about eleven inches, the tail being about four
inches and a half in length. It is, however, slightly variable in dimensions as














well as in color. The Hackee is one of the livliest and briskest of quadru-
peds, and by reason of its quick and rapid movements, has been compared to
the wren. It is chiefly seen among brushwood and small timber; and as it
whisks about the branches, or shoots through their interstices with its pecu-
liar, quick, jerking movements, and its odd, quaint, little clucking cry, like
the chip-chipping of newly hatched chickens, the analogy between itself and
the bird is very apparent. As it is found in such plenty, and is a bold little
creature, it is much persecuted by small boys, who, although they are not big
or wise enough to be entrusted with guns, wherewith to work the destruction
of larger game, arm themselves with long sticks, and by dexterous manage-
ment knock down many a Hackee as it tries to escape from its pursuers by
running along the rail fences. Among boys the popular name of the Hackee
is the Chipmunk." It is a burrowing animal, making its little tunnels in
various retired spots, but generally preferring an old tree, or the earth which
is sheltered by a wall, a fence, or a bank. The burrows are complicated,
and as they run to some length, the task of digging out the animal is not easy.
70





SALT-WATER TERRAPIN.
The Salt-water Terrapin is also called the Soft Terrapin because its head
is covered with a soft, spongy skin. The head is large for the body of the
animal and is flattened above. This Terrapin lives in the salt water marshes
where it is found in large numbers, and it never travels away to any great
distance. During the warm months of the year it is lively and is busy at
hunting for its prey, but when the cold weather comes, it burrows in a hole in
the muddy banks of the marsh and crawls into it, lying buried until spring
comes and the warm sun wakes it from its long sleep, when it finally crawls
forth again and begins its work. It is more active than most of its relatives,
the Tortoises, and can swim very fast, and walk at a good rate of speed. It
is very shy and knows pretty quickly when danger is near. In this respect it
is different from nearly all of the shelled reptiles, for they are usually dull
and sluggish. The color of this Salt-water Terrapin is generally dark













greenish brown on the upper surface and yellow on the plates which surround
the edge of the shell. Below it is yellow, and in many it is marked with
spots of dark gray. These spots, however, are not always of the same shape.
The lower jaw has a hook, and the sides of the head are dusty white
sprinkled with small black spots. This animal is much sought after for its
flesh, and is most easily taken in the spring and early summer. It is then
brought to market in large numbers, but it increases so rapidly that the
ranks do not become thin. The flesh is good at all times, but in the northern
cities it is thought to be the best when the animal has been dug out of the
mud during its winter's sleep. The males are smaller than the females, and
have the circular lines on the shell more deeply sunken in. Large numbers
of these animals are found in the salt marshes around Charleston. They are
very awkward looking creatures, as every one knows, for they are a good deal
like the common mud-turtle. In some countries hunting the Tortoise is a
great industry, and this is not strange, for their flesh is really good. The
idea of turtle soup, whatever the kind of turtle, is unpleasant to many people,
even though they can get used to it; but like frogs' legs and eels, the turtle
forms a delicious article of diet. After all there is nothing bad about it ex-
cept that the looks of the creature set one against the thought of the dainty.






TITMOUSE.
The Yellow-cheeked Titmouse inhabits several parts of Asia, and is
mostly found among the north-western Himalayas, where it is rather abund-
ant. In its habits it resembles the ordinary Titmouse of Europe. The nest
of this species is constructed of moss, hair, and fibers, and is lined softly with
feathers. The position in which it is placed is usually a cavity at the bottom
of some hollow stump, generally a decaying oak, and it contains four or five
eggs of a delicate white blotched with brownish spots. The coloring
of this bird is rather peculiar and decidedly
bold. The top of the head, the crest, a
streak below the eye, and a broad band reach- -
ing from the chin to the extremity of the
abdomen, are deep jetty black. The cheeks
are light yellow, as is the whole of the under
surface of the body, with the exception of
the flanks, which take a greener hue. The
wings are gray, mottled with black and 1
white, and the tail is black with a slight
edging of olive green. The Rufous-bellied
Titmouse inhabits Southern India and Nepal, 0 4'
and cannot be considered as a rare bird. In -
this pretty creature the head, the crest, and .-
the throat are jet black, contrasting boldly -:
with the pure white of the ear coverts and "
the back of the neck. The back, wings, and .--
tail are ashen gray, washed with a perceptible
tinge of blue, and the abdomen is reddish
gray, as are the edges of the primary and -
secondary quill-feathers of the wing. The
Long-tailed Titmouse is familiarly known
throughout England, and is designated under
different titles, according to the locality in -
which it resides, some of its popular names
being derived from its shape, and others from
its crest. In some parts of the country it is called "Long Tom," while in others it
goes by the name of "Bottlecrested Tit," or "Poke-Pudding," the latter word
being a provincial rendering of the useful culinary apparatus termed a pudding-
bag. During the day the Long-tailed Titmice are always on the move,
flitting restlessly from spot to spot, and bidding total defiance to fatigue. At
night the whole troop perches on the same spot, and the birds gather them-
selves into a compact mass, like that which is formed by the wrens under
similar circumstances. They seem to be careful of their comfort, for each
bird strives to get nearest to the middle, and on a cold evening they fight
vigorously until their positions are settled. When sleeping, they form a
shapeless mass of soft puffy feathers, in which hardly a tail or a wing can be
distinguished. The wings of this species are rather short, but powerful.
72






HORNED FROG.
The Horned Frog is one of the queerest creatures among the frog tribe
There are several species of these Frogs, all inhabiting Southern America, and
all very remarkable for the singular growth on the upper eyelids which are
lengthened into hard horn-like points. The back of the Horned Frog is fur-
nished with a bony shield, and the growth over the eyes is remarkably bold
and distinct. The body is short, stout, and squat, the skin covered with
tubercles and folds, and the opening of the mouth enormous. It is a large
and very greedy creature, one specimen, when opened, being found to have
swallowed a full-grown land frog. The toes are long, powerful, and with
hardly any web, except just at the base. The little Ornate Land Frog is a
very striking contrast to the Horned Frog on account of its small size, the
activity of its movements, and the beauty of its coloring. It is found in


















.-~--- ^ --^---^-S-^-^ ^ --^.

Georgia and South Carolina, and is always seen on land and dry spots, its
thirsty frame being amply supplied by the dews and casual rains without
needing to go in the water. Indeed, this little Frog is so unused to the water,
that if thrown into a pond, it makes no attempt to swim, but lies helplessly
sprawling on the surface. On land, however, it displays wonderful activity,
being of a very lively nature, and making long and bold leaps in rapid succes-
sion, so that it is not to be captured without considerable difficulty. The
color of this species is rather variable, but is generally of a soft dove tint, on
which are placed several oblong marks of deep, rich brown, edged with golden
yellow. Below it is silvery white, ornamented with gray. It is a very little
creature, measuring only one inch and a quarter when full-grown. Another
species of this Frog is the Senegal Land Frog, which inhabits Southern Amer-
ica. It lives in burrows in the ground, and is rather quiet, except before rain.
73






CHINCHILLA.
The Chinchilla is covered with very soft and delicate fur and is remark-
able for the length of its hind legs and its long hairy tail. The animal is
very small, measuring only fourteen or fifteen inches in total length, includ-
ing the tail, which is about five inches long. There is a very great demand
for the skins of the Chinchilla, which are used in the manufacture of articles
of dress. The little creature has not very much intelligence and oftentimes
fails even to recognize the hand that feeds it. It lives in Southern America
among the higher mountainous districts where its thick, silky fur is of great
value in keeping out the cold. The Chinchilla makes its home beneath the
surface of the ground, digging subterranean tunnels in the valleys of the
hilly country in which it lives. In many localities these creatures band them-
selves together in great numbers. Their food consists of vegetables, and they
are very fond of roots and bulbs which they easily dig up with their powerful
paws. While feeding they sit upon their hind feet and pass the food to their
mouths with the fore feet. The Chinchilla is a very clean animal. It is very
remarkable that whenever an animal has beautiful fur or is marked by rich
and dainty colors, it is always very careful in keeping its coat perfectly clean.















The fur of a Chinchilla is of a dark color, gray on the back, softening into
a grayish white on the under part. Besides being dressed and employed as a
fur, the hair of this animal is so long and soft that it is used for the loom and
is manufactured into many fabrics where warmth and lightness are required.
A queer animal inhabiting the crevices of rocky parts of Peru, is the
Lagotis, which would be readily mistaken for a hare or a rabbit if it were
not for its having a long tail. The limbs are like a rabbit's, the coat is like
a hare's, and the ears are long. It is very active, but never attempts to
escape by speed should it chance to be alarmed. When startled or wounded,
it always seeks the shelter of the nearest cranny, and unless this creature is
killed outright by the hunter he can never hope to recover the body. The
flesh is very delicate and tender and it is hunted for its value as an article of
food. This animal has four toes on the fore-feet, while the Chinchilla has five.
... '. ':,, -~~-~, ,Ii.r.-















food. This animal has four toes on the fore-feet, while the Chlinchilla has five.






COYOTE.
The Coyote is a well-known American Wolf. Its habits are very similar
to those of other wolves. Like many other wild animals, this creature will
feign death when its has fallen into the hands of its pursuers and finds that
escape is impossible. It oftentimes does this so cleverly that experienced
hunters have been deceived, and as soon as their eyes have been turned the
animal has made its escape. Many people believe that it is impossible to
tame a wolf, but there are few creatures that like kindness and affection
more than the wolf if it is captured when young and treated rightly. It will
follow its master like a dog, obey his orders, remember him after being
separated a long time, and generally conduct himself in a better manner than
many dogs. The nest in which the little ones are reared is softly and warmly
lined with dry moss and with fur which the mother wolf pulls from her own
body. The young wolves begin to eat meat when they are four or five weeks
old and they are soon taught by their parents to join in the chase. Some
time ago a gentleman captured two young wolves and kept them until they
were full-grown. One of them became so tame that she would play with her
master, lick his hands, and often go with him riding in the sledge in
winter. One day when he was absent the wolf got loose from the chain she













was bound with and was away for three days. When the master returned
home and missed the animal he went out on a hill and called, "Where is my
Tussa?" as the animal was named. No sooner had he called out than the
wolf hearing the voice, came running towards him and fondled with him,
licking his hands just as a dog would when pleased to see its master. This
animal could not bear other people, but its companion wolf was fond of every-
body that came in contact with him excepting his master. The reason for this
was that he had once stolen a hen and received a whipping, which he never
forgot. European people would shudder at the thought of eating the flesh of
wolves, but those who have been driven to eat the flesh when hungry say
that the wolf when properly dressed makes a really excellent dinner. In all
parts of the world wherever the wolf is found it is very badly abused for
being a cruel and cowardly creature. A wolves' nest sometimes contains as
man as nine oung ones, and Mr. Wolf is always very loyal to his wife.






GIRAFFE.
The Giraffe erects its stately head far above any other animal that walks
the face of the earth. It inhabits various parts of Africa. The height of a full-
grown male Giraffe is from eighteen to twenty feet, the female being some-
what smaller. The great height of this animal is necessary, as it feeds
upon the leaves of trees, being able to pick out the very choicest ones by
means of its wonderful tongue, which it can stretch to a considerable length.

.-. _.-.. .. '.^.j f,


..- -. -




i^- --- _..*.,. --, ., .- -. ,' a>' -
an ordinary pocket key. The Giraffe never attempts to graze upon level
















ground, unless it is driven by hunger. The animal is very dainty in its
Ss-




a gentle and playful animal, full of curiosity, and observing everything new
with the utmost interest. It has a very mild and kind expression, and many.
.I I~ .1V. ,


+--- --







It can make the point of its tongue so small that it will pass into the pipe of
an ordinary pocket key. The Giraffe is a silent creature and has never attempts to graze upon level
ground unless it is driven by hunger. The animal is very dainty in its
appetite, plucking only the freshest and greenest leaves. Hay, carrots,
oniotles, and other vegetables form its diet while it is kept in captivity. It is
a gentle and playful animal, full of curiosity, and observing everything new
with the utmosf the enemy, but intdeliverey mild and kind expression, and many
a hunter is overcome when he sees the tender look on the face of a poor
wounded animal as it lies silently on the ground, watching its enemy, the
hunter. The Giraffe is a silent creature and has never been heard to utter a
sound even when struggling in the agonies of death. Although it is so
gentle, it can defend itself against ordinary foes. It does not bring its head
within reach of the enemy, but delivers a shower of kicks with such lightness
and swiftness, that even lions have been known to give up the fight. But
when a lion can steal upon a Giraffe without being seen, it is easily able to
bring down the poor animal, by dint of bodily strength and sharpness of teeth.
76






MISSISSIPPI KITE.
America furnishes us with the genus Ictinia, a member of which is very
familiar to ornithologists under the name of Mississippi Kite. This fine bird
is a native of various parts of America, where it may be seen at a vast
elevation in the air, sailing about in strange companionship with the turkey
buzzard, and equalling those birds in the power, grace, and readiness of its
flight. Why two such dissimilar birds should thus inhabit the same region
of air, and delight in each other's society, is a very perplexing question, and
requires a much clearer knowledge of the species and its habits before it can
be satisfactorily settled. The Mississippi Kite cares not for carrion, and is
not absolutely known to make prey of anything bigger than a locust. Yet
it is observed that the powerful hooked beak and sharp claws seem as
if they were intended by nature for the capture of prey much more formidable
than grasshoppers, locusts, and butterflies. In its flight, the Mississippi Kite








i-'



-- --- -1 ll



needs not to flap its wings, but sails on its airy course with the same easy grace
and apparent absence of exertion that is so characteristic of the flight of the
vultures. The very great proportionate length of its wings may account for
this habit; the entire length of the body and tail being only fourteen inches,
while the expanse of wing equals three feet. Being possessed of such power
of flight, it emulates the swallow-tailed Falcon in many of its evolutions, and
in a similar manner is fond of sweeping rapidly'past a branch, and snatching
from the leaves a choice locust or beetle without checking its progress. Like
that bird it also feeds while on the wing, holding its prey in its claws and
transferring it to its mouth without needing to settle. In character it seems
to be a most fierce and courageous bird. The colors with which this bird is
decorated are, though simple in themselves, exceedingly pleasing in their
general effect. The head, neck, and part of the secondaries are a grayish-
white, and the whole of the lower parts are whitish-ash. The back and
upper portions of the body are ashy-black, and the pinions are deep black.






AMERICAN FOX.
The American Fox is sometimes found with pale yellow fur, some with
fur of a blackish color, others of a reddish fawn, while many are remarkable
for the manner in which the black, the white, the yellow, and the fawn colors
are scattered over the body and limbs. In almost every case there is a dark-
ish cross stripe over the shoulders which causes the animal to be sometimes
known as the Cross Fox. The American Fox has a very large share of
cunning. One of them, on whose track the hounds had often followed, was
always able to baffle them at one particular point on the crest of a rather
steep hill. Up to this spot the scent was very good, but there it vanished
and so the fox was lost. One of the hunters was so disappointed that one
day he hid himself near the spot and carefully watched the hunted animal.












As soon as the fox was driven from his cover, he led the hounds a long chase
through woods, ponds and thickets and at last came at full speed toward the
crest of the hill. As soon as he reached the spot, he laid himself down and
pressed his body as closely as possible to the ground. Presently the hounds
came along in full cry, following a strong scent. They darted by in hot pur-
su never stopping until they reached the bottom of the hill. As soon as the
last hound had passed, the fox crept quietly away over the brow of the hill,
and returned to his covert at leisure. Another of these animals always led
his pursuers to a large cliff that rose perpendicularly for several hundred
feet. The desperate hunters had often examined the spot, but without suc-
cess, for it seemed to them that no animal without wings could venture to take
such a fearful leap. The secret was, however, at last discovered by some one
watching from a concealed position. Some feet below the edge there was a
break in the cliff, forming a kind of step about a foot wide. By means of his
claws the fox let himself down upon the step and then disappeared in the hol-
low, which could not be seen from above. A man was lowered by ropes to the
spot, and found that there was a wide opening in the rock, to which the
step formed an entrance. Searching the cavern it was found to have another
outlet opening upon the level ground above. The fox, however, never used
this entrance when the hounds were on his trail, but cut off the scent by
scrambling over the cliff and coming out at the other side without any fear
of discovery. There is no finer sport than hunting these cunning creatures.
78






HEDGE SPARROW.
The song of the Hedge Sparrow is sweet, but not varied nor powerful,
and has a peculiar plaintive air about it. The bird is a persevering songster,
continuing to sing throughout a large portion of the year, and only ceasing
during the time of the ordinary moult. Like many other warbling birds, it
possesses considerable powers of imitation, and can mock with some success
the greater number of British song-birds. This bird is nearly as bold as the
sparrow, and will sometimes take up its residence in cities, where it soon
gains the precociously impertinent airs that characterize all town birds, speedily
loses the bright rich brown and gray of its plumage, and assumes as dingy a
garb as that of the regular city sparrow. The color of the Hedge Sparrow is
bluish gray, covered with small brown streaks upon the head, and the back
and sides of the neck. The back and wings are brown streaked with a
deeper tint of the same hue, and the quill feathers of the wings and tail are of
a rather darker brown, and not quite so glossy. The chin, the throat, and
upper part of the breast are gray, and the lower part of the breast and the
















abdomen are white with a wash of pale buff. The legs and toes are brown
with a decided orange tinge, and the beak is dark brown. The total length
of the bird is nearly six inches. The Alpine Accentor is another interesting
bird. Several specimens of this bird have been killed in England, but it is an
extremely rare visitant to that country, and is hardly entitled to take rank as
a true British bird. The countries where it is usually found are Italy,
France, Germany, and several other parts of Europe. It is a mountain-loving
bird, seldom descending to the level of the plains except during the stormy
months of winter. It can readily be distinguished from the ordinary
Accentor by the throat, which is white spotted with black, and by the
chestnut black and white streaks upon the wing-coverts. The Alpine
Accentor is larger than its British relative, being six inches and a half in
total length, and its blue green eggs are larger than those of that bird. The
nest is generally placed at a very low elevation, seldom more than two or three
feet from the ground, and it is rather large in proportion to the size of the bird.






SALAMANDER.
The celebrated Salamander, the subject of so many strange fables, is a
species found in many parts of the continent of Europe. This creature was
formerly thought to be able to withstand the action of fire, and to quench
even the most glowing furnace with its icy body. It is singular how such
ideas should have been so long promulgated, for although Aristotle repeated
the tale on hearsay, Pliny tried the experiment, by putting a Salamander into
the fire, and remarks with evident surprise, that it was burned to a powder.
A piece of cloth dipped in the blood of a Salamander was said to be unhurt
by fire, and certain persons had in their possession a fire-proof fabric made, as
they stated, of Salamander's wool, but which proved to be asbestos. The


N-













notion of the poisonous character of the Salamander is of very old date, as
the reader may see by referring to any ancient work on Natural History.
One of the old writers advises any one who is bitten by a Salamander to be-
take himself to the coffin and winding-sheet, and remarks that a sufferer from
the bite of this animal needs as many physicians as the Salamander has spots.
If the Salamander crawled upon the stem of an apple-tree, all the cropof fruit
was supposed to be withered by its deadly presence, and if the heel of a man
should come in contact with the liquid that exudes from the skin, all the hair
of his head and face would fall off. There is certainly an infinitesimally
minute atom of truth in all this mass of absurdities, for the Salamander does
secrete a liquid from certain pores in its surface, which, for the moment, would
enable it to pass through a moderate fire, and this secretion is sufficiently
acrid to affect the eyes painfully, and to injure small animals if taken into
the mouth. The Salamander is a terrestrial species, only frequenting the
water for the purpose of depositing its young, which leave the egg before they
enter into independent existence. It is a slow and timid animal, generally
hiding itself in some convenient crevice during the day, and seldom venturing
out except at night or in rainy weather. It feeds on slugs, insects, and sim.
ilar creatures. During the cold months it retires into winter quarters, gen-
erally the hollow of some decaying tree, or beneath some mossy stones.





PRAIRIE DOG.
The Prairie Dog is a burrowing animal, and as it is very gregarious in its
habits, the spot on which it congregates is literally honeycombed with its
tunnels. There is, however, a kind of order observed in the "Dog-towns," as
these warrens are popularly called, for the animals always leave certain roads
or streets in which no burrows are made. The affairs of the community seem
to be regulated by a single leader, called the Big Dog, who sits before the en-
trance of his burrow and issues his orders from thence to the community. In
front of every burrow a small heap of earth is raised, which is made from the









,2N.:;Z 4
I, __ __ --- -- ---- ''^ |. .. .





excavated soil, and which is generally employed as a seat for the occupant of
the burrow. As long as no danger is apprehended, the little animals are all
in lively motion, sitting upon their mounds, or hurrying from one tunnel to
another as eagerly as if they were transacting the most important business.
Suddenly a sharp yelp is heard, and the peaceful scene is in a moment trans-
formed into a whirl of indistinguishable confusion. Quick barks resound on
every side, the air is filled with a dust-cloud, in the midst of which is indis-
tinctly seen an intermingled mass of flourishing legs and whisking tails, and
in a moment the populous "town" is deserted. Not a "dog" is visible, and
the whole spot is apparently untenanted. But in a few minutes a pair of dark
eyes are seen gleaming at the entrance of some burrow, a set of glistening
teeth next shine through the dusky recess, and in a few minutes first one and
another Prairie Dog issues from his retreat, until the whole community is
again in lively action. The title of Prairie Dog has been given to this animal
on account of the sharp yelping sound which it is in the habit of uttering, and
which has some resemblance to the barking of a very small and very peevish
lapdog. Every time that it yelps it gives its tail a smart jerk. This peculiar
sound is evidently employed as a cry of alarm; for as soon as it is uttered,
all the Prairie Dogs dive into their burrows, and do not emerge again until
they hear the shrill whistle which tells them that the danger is past. Pretty
as it is, and graceful as are its movements, it is not a desirable pet.
8L






PUFF ADDER.
The terrible Puff Adder is a native of Southern Africa, and is one of the
commonest, as well as one of the most deadly, of poisonous Snakes. It is slow
and apparently torpid in all its movements, except when it is going to strike,
and the colonists say that it is able to leap backwards so as to bite a person
who is standing by its tail. This formidable looking reptile is more dreaded
than any other of the numerous poisonous Snakes in Africa, a fact which
mainly results from an indolent nature. Whilst other and more active Snakes
will move rapidly away upon the approach of man, the Puff Adder will fre-
quently lie still, either too lazy to move, or dozing beneath the warm sun of
the south. This reptile attains a length of four feet, or four feet six inches,
and some specimens may be found even longer; its circumference is as much
as that of a man's arm. Its whole appearance is decidedly indicative of venom.
Its broad ace-of-clubs-shaped head, its thick body, and suddenly tapered tail,
and its chequered back, are all evidences of its poisonous nature. It derives
its popular name from its practice of puffing out or swelling the body when
irritated. There is certainly in nature no more fearful an object than a full-
grown Puff Adder. The creature grovels on the sand, winding its body so
as to bury itself almost wholly in the tawny soil, and just leaving its flat, cruel-
looking head lying on the ground and free from sand. The steady, malignant,
















stony glare of those eyes is absolutely freezing as the creature lies motionless,
confident in its deadly powers, and when roused by the approach of a passen-
ger, merely exhibiting its annoyance by raising its head an inch or two, and
uttering a sharp angry hiss. Evenhorses have been bitten by this reptile, and
died within a few hours after the injury was inflicted. The peculiar attitude
which is exhibited in the illustration is taken from life, one of the Puff Adders
in the collection of the Zoological Society having been purposely irritated. It
is rather curious that the juice of tobacco is an instant poison to these creatures,
even more suddenly deadly to them than their poison to the human beings
who can absorb the tobacco juice with impunity. The Hottentots will often
kill the Puff Adder by spitting in its face the juice of chewed tobacco.
82






LION.
The color of the Lion is a tawny yellow, light on the under parts of the
body, and darker above. The ears are blackish, and at the tip of the tail
there is a tuft of black hair. The male Lion, when full-grown, has a thick
and shaggy mane of very long hair, which falls from the neck, shoulders, and
part of the throat and chin. The Lioness has no mane, and the male Lion's
mane is not perfect until the animal is three years of age. When full-grown,
the male Lion measures four feet in height at the shoulder, and about eleven
feet in length. But when these noble animals are kept in captivity they do
not grow so large. The Lioness is smaller than her mate, but she is quite as
terrible in combat; and, indeed, the Lioness is ofttimes a foe much more to
be dreaded than the Lion. When she has a little family to look after,
Leaena is a truly fearful enemy to those who cross her path. Hunger is the
great cause of a Lion's boldness, and when this animal has plenty to eat it
does not trouble itself to attack man or beast. The Lion does not come
























boldly out on the plain and give chase to his prey, for he is not swift of foot,
and will not run into danger without good cause. He can make tremendous
leaps, and with a single blow from his terrible paw can crush any of the
smaller anima,,ls. If the Lion has been prowling about during the evening, and
.. .. ,.


















has found no prey, he places his mouth close to the earth, and utters a terrific
roar, which rolls along the ground on all sides, and frightens every animal
which may chance to be crouching near. He very soon has one for supper.
.


and will not run into danger without good cause. He can make tremendous


has found no prey, he places his mouth close to the earth, and utters a terrific

roar, which rolls along the ground on all sides, and frightens every animal
which may chance to be crouching near. He very soon has one for supper.





LYRE-TAILED GOAT-SUCKER.
The common Goat Sucker was called
Aigoth6les or Goat-sucker by Aristotle
in the days of old and has been re-
ligiously supposed to have sucked
goats ever afterwards. The Latin word
caprimulgus bears the same signification.
It was even supposed that after the bird
had succeeded in sucking some unfort-
--- unate goat, the fount of nature was im-
mediately dried up, and the poor beast
------ also lost its sight. Starting from this
-- report all kinds of strange rumors flew
about the world, and the poor Goat-
S- sucker, or Nightjar, as it ought more
Slightly to be called, has been invariably
hated as a bird of ill omen to man and
beast. A very remarkable form of
plumage is seen in the Lyre-tailed
Goat-sucker. This beautiful bird is a
Native of Columbia, and is notable for
Sthe extraordinary development of the
outer tail feathers. Although the bird
itself is by no means large, very little
exceeding the common English Nightjar
in dimensions, the total length of an adult
male Lyre-tailed Goat-sucker is nearly
three feet. Indeed, the general contour
of the body and plumage remind the
observer strongly of the resplendent
Trogon, which is remarkable for its
beauty. The general color of this
species is the mottled dark and light
brown which is universal among the Goat-
suckers, but is diversified by a band
round the neck of rich chestnut. The
primaries are nearly black, with an
exception of a few chestnut spots scat-
tered irregularly upon their necks.
SThe extremely elongated tail-feathers
are deep brown black, edged with a
Swarm band of pale brown upon the
inner web. The outer web is hardly
a quarter of an inch wide, while the
inner is almost an inch and a half
in width. Several feathers of the tail
project for some distance, and lie upon
the base of the elongated feathers.






QUADRUMANA.


The Quadrumanous, or four-handed animals, are better known by the titles
of Apes, Baboons, and Monkeys. We are all familiar with the small mon-
keys that are led about the streets in company with a barrel organ, or seated
in equestrian fashion upon a bear or dog. These poor little creatures have
been trained to stand upon their hind feet and to shuffle along at a slow and
awkward pace, but if they are startled, and so forget for a moment their ac-
quired art, or if they wish to hurry their pace, they drop down on all fours
and scamper off with an air of easy comfort that is very unlike their former
effort to walk on two legs. The difficulty seems to increase with the size of
the animal, and the largest apes, such as the orang-outang, are forced to bal-
ance themselves with outstretched arms no matter how carefully educated.
85






SEA LEOPARD.
The Sea Leopard is distinguished from other seals by means of its slender
neck and the wider gape of its mouth, which opens further backward than
is generally the case among these animals. The body is rather curiously
formed, being slender at the neck, and largest towards the middle, whence it
tapers rapidly to the short tail. The fore-paws are not connected by any
membrane, and are largest at the thumb joint, getting gradually smaller to
the last joint. The claws are sharp and curved and rather deeply grooved,
their color is black. There are no claws on the hind feet, which bear some
resemblance to the tail fin of a fish. The color of this seal is generally a pale
gray on the bare portions of the body, with a number of pale grayish white
spots, which have caused this animal to be known as the Sea Leopard. It is
not a very large animal, the largest ones being scarcely ten feet in length.
Around the thickest part of the body, the measurement is nearly six and a
half feet, around the root of the tail about three feet two inches, and around
the neck barely two feet. These animals are mostly found in the Southern
Hemisphere. Another curious animal is the Crested Seal. The head of this













creature is broad, and the muzzle is very short in comparison with that of
the Leopard. The teeth are also very remarkable. The reason it is known
as the Crested Seal, is because the fullgrown male have a crest, which rises
sharply over the head to the height of six or seven inches, and is keel-shaped
in the middle. The onset of an enraged Crested Seal is much to be dreaded,
for the creature is terribly fierce when its anger is roused, and its strength is
very great. The teeth are extremely powerful, and can inflict very danger-
ous wounds. When fighting, these animals use their claws as well as their
teeth. The male Crested Seals are very vicious, and during the season when
they choose their wives, are in the habit of fighting desperately with each
other for the possession of some attractive lady seal; and in these combats,
they inflict terrible punishment upon each other. During the fight, they
emit a torrent of loud passionate screams, which can be heard at a very great
distance. These males have to fight each other very often, as they are not
satisfied with one mate, each one ruling over a small herd of wives. The fur of
this animal is of some value, and great numbers of the skins are imported into
Europe and put to various uses. The Seal is much valued by the Greenlander.






CROWNED CRANES AND DEMOISELLE CRANE.
The Crowned Crane is very striking, its coronet of golden plumes and
the scarlet cheeks making it a very conspicuous bird. This species is a native
of Northern and Western Africa, where it is usually found in swampy and
marshy localities, which it frequents for the purpose of feeding on the insects,
molluscs, reptiles, and fishes, which are to be caught abundantly in such places.
The Crowned Crane occasionally indulges in fantastic gambols, and on account
of the conspicuous crest and general aspect of the bird, they have an effect
even more ludicrous. In captivity the Crowned Crane thrives well; and its





I I -e -




-' .4













their proceeding. Sometimes they rest still and stately, one leg tucked under
them quite out of sight, and the body balanced on the other. Sometimes they
,like to sit on their bent legs, their feet projecting far in front of them, and
their knees, or rather their ankles, sustaining the weight of the body. At
another time they will walk majestically about their inclosure, or begin their
absurd dances, while a very favorite amusement is to run races at opposite
sides of the wire fence, and then come to a halt, each bird trying which can
yell the loudest. The voice is very loud, and has something of a trumpet in
its hollow ringing resonance. The forehead is black, the feathers being short
and velvety. From the top of the head rises a tuft of long straight plumes, of
a golden hue, fringed with very delicate black barbules. The skin of the
cheek is bare, and part of it is bright scarlet, the upper part being white, and run-
ning into a small wattle on the throat. The height of this bird is about four feet.
87
another tethywlwakmesillaouthei inlsro eihi
absud dnces whle ver faorie amsemnt s torunracs atoppsit
sides of the wire fece, and then come to A hlec idtyn hc
);el te ludet.Thevoie i vey oud an ha soetingof trmpe i
its hollow~ r rn in rsonnc. Te rehead is-~ brlacefahr en hr
an vlvty Fomth tp f hehedrise a tutoln taih lueo
a~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ godnhe rne ihvr eiat lc abls h kno h
chee isbare an par ofit i brght caret, he ppe patbigwitadrn
nigit salwtleo h hoa.Tehigto hsbidi butfu et






WATER VIPER.
The name of Water Viper is appropriately given to the creature now
before us, in consequence of its water-loving habits. It is a native of many
parts of America, and is never seen at any great distance from water, being
found plentifully in the neighborhood of rivers, marshes, and in swampy
lands. It is a good climber of trees, and may be seen entwined in great
numbers on the branches that overhang the water. On the least alarm, the
reptile glides from the branch, drops into the water and wriggles its way
into a place of safety. The object of climbing the trees seems to be that the
creature delights to bask in the sun, and takes that method of gratifying
its inclination where the whole of the soil is wet and marshy. But in those
localities where it can find dry banks and rising grounds, the Water Viper
contents itself with ascending them and lying upon the dry surface enjoying





















the genial warmth. It is a most poisonous reptile, and is even more dreaded
by the negroes than the rattlesnake, as like the fer-de-lance, it will make the
first attack, erecting itself boldly, opening its mouth for a second or two, and
then darting forward with a rapid spring. At all times it seems to be of an
aggressive character, and has been known to chase and bite other Snakes
put into the same cage, the poor creatures fleeing before it and endeavoring
to escape by clinging to the sides of the cage. But when several other
individuals of the same species were admitted, the very Snake that had
before been so ferocious became quite calm, and a box containing four or
five specimens has been sent on a journey of many miles without any quarrels
ensuing among the inmates. The food of the Water Viper consists of fishes,
which it can procure by its great rapidity of movement and excellent swimming.
88






ST. BERNARD'S DOG.
These splendid Dogs are among the largest of the canine race. The good
work which is done by these Dogs is so well known that it is only necessary
to give a passing reference. Bred among the coldest regions of the Alps, and
accustomed from its birth to the deep snows which everlastingly cover the
mountain-top, the St. Bernard's Dog is a most useful animal in discovering
any unfortunate traveler who has been overtaken by a sudden storm and
lost the path, or who has fallen upon the cold ground, worn out by fatigue
and hardship, and fallen into the death-sleep which is the result of severe cold.





1 -















Whenever a snow storm occurs, the monks belonging to the monastery of St.
Bernard send forth their Dogs on their errand of mercy. Taught by the
wonderful instinct with which they are endowed, they traverse the dangerous
paths, and seldom fail to discover the frozen sufferer, even though he be
buried under a deep snowdrift. When the Dog has made such a discovery,
it gives notice by its deep and powerful bay of the perilous state of the
sufferer, and endeavors to clear away the snow that covers the lifeless form.
The monks, hearing the voice of the Dog, immediately set off to the aid of
the perishing traveler, and in many cases have thus preserved lives that must
have perished without their timely assistance. In order to afford every
possible help to the sufferer, a small flask of spirits is generally tied to the
Dog's neck. But of all domesticated Dogs, the Poodle seems to be, take him
all in all, the most obedient and the most intellectual. Accomplishments the
most difficult are mastered by this clever animal, which displays an ease and
intelligence in its performances that appear to be far beyond the ordinary
canine capabilities. It is a cleanly little creature and very affectionate.
T m hai the voice of -to

teprsi t:_.ravle, and in man s v lives ta.t ms




Whenever a snow storm occurs, the monks belonging to the monastery of St.

wonderful instinct with which they are endowed, they traverse the dangerous


it gives notice by its deep and powerful bay of the perilous state of the
sufferer, and endeavors to clear away the snow that covers the lifeless form.






RINGED BOA.
The splendid Ringed Boa of America, sometimes called the Aboma, has
been celebrated for its destructive powers, and in ancient times was wor-
shiped by the Mexicans and propitiated with human sacrifices. Naturally
the people of the country would feel disposed to awe in the presence of the
mighty Snake whose prowess was so well known by many fatal experiences,
and this disposition was fostered by the priests of the Serpent deity, who had
succeeded in taming several of these giant Snakes, and teaching them to
glide over and around them, as if extending their protection to men endowed
with such supernatural powers. This Serpent destroys its prey after the
fashion of its family, merely by squeezing it to death between its folds. While
thus engaged, the reptile does not coil itself spirally round the victim, but
wraps fold over fold, to increase its power, just as we aid the grasping strength
of one hand by placing the other over it. It is said that the Snake can be re-









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si N \








moved from its prey by seizing it by the tail, and thus unwinding it. More-
over, a heavy blow on the tail, or cutting off a few feet of the extremity, is
the best way of disabling the monster for the time. This creature is rather
variable in its coloring, the locality having probably some influence in this re-
spect. Generally it is rich chocolate brown, with five dark streaks on the top
and sides of the head, a series of large and rather narrow dark rings along the
back, and two rows of dark spots on the sides. Sometimes a number of large
spots are seen on the back, and white streaks on the sides. In all the members
fo this genus, the hinder limbs or "spurs" of the male are larger and
stronger than in the female. Another American species, the Dog-headed Boa,
or Bojobi, is notable for the formidable armament of teeth which line the mouth.





BARN OWL.
This species is generally considered to be the typical example of the Owl
tribe, as it exhibits in great perfection the different characteristics of the
Owls, namely, the thick coat of downy plumage, the peculiar disk round the
eye, the large eyeballs, and the heavily feathered legs and toes. The
feathers are so thickly set upon this bird, that it appears to be of much
greater dimensions than is really the case. When standing on its feet, or
while flying over the fields like a huge bunch of thistle-down blown violently
by the night breeze, the Barn Owl appears to be rather a large bird; but
when the creature is lying on the bird-stuffer's table, after its skin and
feathers have been removed, the transformation is really astonishing. The
great round head shrinks into the shape and size of that of a small hawk, the
body is hardly larger than that of a pigeon, and but for the evident power of
the firm muscles and their glistening tendinous sheaths, the bird would
appear absolutely insignificant. Although so small it is a terrible bird to
fight, and when it flings itself defiantly on its back, ire glancing from its eyes,














and its sharp claws drawn up to its breast ready to strike as soon as its
antagonist shall come within their range, it is really a formidable foe, and
will test the nerves of a man to some extent before he can secure the fierce
little bird. So fiercely does this bird strike, that there is record of an
instance where a dog was blinded by the stroke of a Barn Owl's claws. The
Owl was a tame one, and the dog-a stranger-went up to inspect the bird.
As the dog approached the Owl, the bird rolled quietly over on its back, and
when the dog put its head to the prostrate bird, it struck so sharply with its
claws that it destroyed both the eyes of the poor animal, which had to be
killed on account of the injury. While its young are helpless, the White Owl
watches over their safety with great vigilance, and if any living thing, such
as a man or a dog, should approach too closely to the domicile, the Owl will
dash fiercely at them, regardless of the consequences to itself. The nest of
this species is placed either in a hollow tree, or in a crevice of some old
building, where it deposits its white, rough-surfaced eggs upon a soft layer of
dried "castings." These nests have a most ill-conditioned and penetrating
odor, which taints the hand when it is introduced, and cannot be removed.






SAND LIZARD.
This reptile is extremely variable in size and coloring, so variable, indeed,
that it has often been separated into several species. Two varieties seem to
be tolerably permanent, the brown and the green; the former, as it is believed,
being found upon sandy heaths where the brown hues of the ground assim-
ilate with those of the reptile, and the green variety on grass and more ver-
dant situations, where the colors of the vegetation agree with those of the
body. Though quick and lively in its movements, it is not so dashingly active
as the scaly Lizard, having a touch of deliberation as it runs from one spot to
another, while the scaly Lizard seems almost to be acted upon by hidden
springs. It does not bear confinement
) well, and in spite of its diminutive
size and feeble powers, will attempt
to bite the hand which disturbs it in
a place whence it cannot escape.
When it finds itself hopelessly im-
prisoned, it loses all appetite for its
'fu food, hides itself in the darkest cor-
ner of its strange domicile, and before
many days have passed, is generally
found lying dead on the ground.
Unlike the scaly Lizard, this species
lays its eggs in a convenient spot
and then leaves them to be hatched
by the warm sunbeams. Sandy
banks with a southern aspect are the favored resorts of this reptile, which
scoops out certain shallow pits in the sand, deposits her eggs, covers them up,
and then leaves them to their fate. The eggs are probably laid for a consid-
erable period before the young are hatched from them. As has been already
remarked, the coloring of the creature is exceedingly variable in different in-
dividuals. Generally it is sandy brown above, with some faint bands of a
darker brown with rows of black spots, which sometimes have a whitish dot
in their center The sides have a tinge of green more or less distinct, and
the under surface is white. In some individuals the green is very distinct.
The average length of the Sand Lizard is about seven inches or a little more.
A very curious animal is the Cape Spine-foot. All the Spine-foot Lizards are
inhabitants of Africa, and most of them are found towards the northern por-
tion of that continent. This Lizard is found on the sandy districts of Great
Namaqua-land. The color of this Lizard is a very peculiar brown above,
changing from yellow brown to a.much warmer hue, partaking of the orange.
The top of the head is mottled with dark brown, and the back is freckled
with the same hue. From the eyes run two whitish bands on each side, the
lower terminating at the hind leg and the upper reaching some distance along
the tail. Between and about these bands are bold brown mottlings in the
male, and an orange wash in the female. The upper part of the legs is also
mottled with dark brown. The toes are very long, especially those of the
hind foot and are edged with a fringe composed of sharply pointed scales.





ZEBRA.
The Boers, who call themselves, by the title of "baptized men," think
they would be derogating from their dignity to partake of the flesh of the
Zebra, and generously leave the animal to be consumed by their Hottentot
servants. When wounded, the Zebra gives a kind of groan, which is said to
resemble that of a dying man. In disposition the Zebra is fierce, obstinate,
and nearly untameable. The efforts used in reducing to obedience the Zebra
of the Zoological Gardens are now matter of history. The little brindled
animal gave more trouble than the huge animals, and it overset calculations
by the fact that it was able to kick as fiercely from three legs as a horse from




















four. In its habits the Zebra resembles the dziggetai more than the dauw,
as it is always found in hilly districts, and inhabits the high craggy mountain
ranges in preference to the plains. It is a mild and very timid animal, fleeing
instinctively to its mountain home as soon as it is alarmed by the sight of a
strange object. Between the zebras and the domestic ass several curious
Mules have been produced, and may be seen in the collection of the British
Museum. It is worthy of notice, that wherever a cross breed has taken place,
the influence of the male parent seems to be permanently impressed on the
mother, who in her subsequent offspring imprints upon them some character-
istic of the interloper. The genuine, or Mountain Zebra, will be be found to
"li-i













four.be nearly whites habits the the dziggetai more the body and legs dauw,
as it is always found in hilly districts, and inhabits the high craggy mountain




ranges in preference to the plains. It is a mild and very tail of this animal fleeing
there is a peculiar tuft of black home as soon as it is alarmed by the sight of a
strange object. Between the zebras and the domestic ass several curious
Mules have been produced, and may be seen in the collection of the British
Museum. It is worthy of notice, that wherever a cross breed has taken place,



of Africa, its choice male parent seems to be permanently impressed on theimals
are mother, who in hee noted for subsequent offspring imprints upon them some character-
istic of the interloper. The genuine, or Mountain Zebra, will be be found to
be nearly white, while the bands which cover the whole of the body and legs
are seldom anything but a glossy black. At the tip of the tail of this animal,
there is a peculiar tuft of black hair. Its home is mostly in the mountains
of Africa, its choice being the central or southern parts. Few animals
are more noted for their wildness, wariness, and wonderful swiftness.





STONECHAT AND WHINCHAT.
The Stonechat is one of the birds that remain in England throughout
the year, being seen during the winter months among the furze-covered com-
mons, which are now rapidly becoming extinct. The name of Chat is earned
by the bird in consequence of its extreme volubility, for it is one of the nois-
iest birds in existence. Its song is low and sweet, and may be heard to great
advantage, as the bird is not at all shy, and, trusting to its powers of conceal-
ment, sings merrily until the spectator has approached within a short distance,
and then, dropping among the furze, glides quickly through the prickly maze,
and rises at some distance, ready to renew its little song. It is a lively bird,
ever on the move, flitting from place to place with restless activity, and ever
and anon uttering its sweet strains. Even in the winter months the Stone-
chat will make itself audible as it flutters about the furze-grown spots in
which it loves to live. It is in these localities that it finds its supply of winter
food, for the thick furze-bushes afford shelter to various worms and insects,
and the little Chat is able to procure a plentiful meal by digging in the damp
ground. The nest of the Stonechat is made of mosses, grass of different
kinds, and is lined with fine fibres, hairs and feathers. The number of eggs
is from four to six, and their color is very pale blue, diversified with numerous







I ,







minute spots of reddish brown upon the large end of the shell. The colors
of the Stonechat are rather pretty. The head, the neck, the chin, throat,
back and tail, are deep sooty-black, contrasting boldly with the pure white
of the tertial wing-coverts, the upper tail-coverts, and the sides of the neck.

wings are also brown. The breast is chestnut, and the abdomen yellowish
white. The total length of the bird is rather more than five inches. The
bird which occupies the left-hand of the illustration is called the Whinchat,
on account of its fondness for the furze or whin. The Stonechat has, how-
ever, quite as much right to the title, as it frequents the furze as constantly
as the Whinchat. This species may be easily distinguished from the preced-
ing, by the long and bold white streak which passes across the sides of the head.
ing, by the long and bold white streak which passes across the sides of the head.





BRINDLED GNU.
The faculty of curiosity is largely developed in the Gnu, which can never
resist the temptation of inspecting any strange object, although at the risk of
its life. When a Gnu first catches sight of any unknown being, he sets off
at full speed, as if desirous of getting to the farthest possible distance from
the terrifying object. Soon, however, the feeling of curiosity vanquishes the
passion of fear, and the animal halts to reconnoiter. He then gallops in a
circle round the cause of his dread, halting occasionally, and ever drawing
nearer. By taking advantage of this disposition, a hunter has been enabled
to attract towards himself a herd of Gnus which were feeding out of gun-
shot, merely by tying a red handkerchief to the muzzle of his gun. The
inquisitive animals were so fascinated with the fluttering lure, that they




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actually approached so near as to charge at the handkerchief, and forced the
hunter to consult his own safety by lowering his flag. The same ruse is fre-
quently employed on the prairies of America, when the hunters desire to get
a shot at a herd of prong-buck Antelopes. Several experiments have been
made in order to ascertain whether the Gnu is capable of domestication. As
far as the practicability of such a scheme was concerned, the experiments
were perfectly successful, but there is a great drawback in the shape of a
dangerous and infectious disease to which the Gnu is very liable, and which
would render it a very undesirable member of the cattle-yard. Ordinary
cattle have no love for the Gnu, and on one occasion, when a young Gnu of
only four months old was placed in the yard, the cattle surrounded it and
nearly killed it with their horns and hoofs. The color of the ordinary Gnu
is brownish black, sometimes with a blue gray wash. The mane is black,





ANOLIS.
All lizards of this kind are very active, inhabiting trees and jumping about
from branch to branch with wonderful skill, and clinging even to the hanging
leaves by means of their curiously formed feet. The Anolis is a native of
America, and is a bold and daring animal, haunting out-houses and garden
fences, and in new settlements, it even enters the houses, walking over tables
and other articles of furniture in search of fles. It feeds on insects, and
destroys great numbers; seizing them suddenly and devouring them rapidly.
Towards the spring these creatures become so quarrelsome that the adult















males will hardly ever meet without a fight, the vanquished usually coming
out of the fray with the loss of his tail. This misfortune, however, often
happens to both combatants. The color of the Green Carolina Anolis is very
variable, altering in the same individual, according to the season, the temper,
the health, or even the present state of the creature's temper. Generally the
whole upper surface is beautiful golden green, and the abdomen white with
a tinge of green. The throat pouch is white with a few little spots, and five
bars of red, which color, when the pouch is inflated, spreads over its whole
surface. The total length of the Green Carolina Anolis is nearly seven
inches. The Red-throated Anolis is perhaps a little too fond of fighting, and
terribly apt to quarrel with others of its own kind. Those who have wit-
nessed a fight between two of these lizards say that it is remarkable for
ferocity, courage and endurance. They face each other with swollen throats
and glaring eyes, their skin changing its lustrous coloring, and their whole
being instinct with fury. As during each combat, one or two females are
spectators of the fight, it is probable they may be the cause of the war, and
that the victim may receive his reward from one of the female witnesses of
his prowess. So fierce do they become, that the conqueror sometimes devours
the vanquished, who escapes if he can, even with the loss of his tail, which is
left writhing in the victor's mouth, and soon swallowed. Those who have
thus lost their tails seem to be greatly affected at the mutilation, and are
timid and languishing ever afterwards. The color of the Anolis is greenish blue.






BRAZILIAN PORCUPINE.
In Southern America is to be found this very interesting Porcupine, which
is sometimes known as the Coendoo, and which is not only very remarkable
for its array of quills, but also for the very grasping power of its long tail.
The extraordinary power which it has of seizing hold of a branch by its tail,
and also the peculiar way in which its claws are armed, enable it to live in
trees, which are its native haunts, and where it finds its food among the lofty
branches. On level ground, this animal is slow and awkward, but among
the boughs of trees it climbs with great ease, drawing itself from branch to
branch by means of its hooked claws, but seldom using its tail except as an
aid in descent. The food of this animal consists of leaves, flowers, fruit,
bark, and the soft woolly substance of young and tender branches, which it


slices easily with its chisel-edged teeth. During the summer months, the
Brazilian Porcupine becomes extremely fat, and its flesh is then in great
request, being both delicate in flavor and tender in quality. The young of
this animal are born in the month of September and October. The total
length of the Brazilian Porcupine is about three feet six inches, of which the
tail occupies one foot six inches. Its nose is thick and blunt like that of the
common Porcupine, and the face is furnished with very long whisker hairs of
a deep black. The numerous prickly hairs which cover the body are black
in the center and white at the end. The length of these spines is rather
more than two inches on the back, and an inch and a half on the forelegs.




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